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Timer Description in LTE

Radio & NAS Signaling Failure Info Radio Problem Cause

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Problem cause contribution in good rf

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Timers description
TS 36.331

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Timer is 1s unable to successfully RACH when trying to send

RRC Connection Re-Establishment
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T301 expiry

T301 started when UE sends RRC Connection Re-Establishment

Request As shown above, UE RACH to attempt access
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T301 expiry

1sec after initiation, T301 expiry is pegged, as no response to RACH

Low RSRP in this area
10 sec later new RRC Connection Request issued
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Timers description
TS 36.331

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Timer is 1s unable to successfully RACH when trying to send

RRC Connection Request
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T300 expiry

Continuing previous example of t301 expiry, next access is

RRC Connection Request, which also requires response
within 1sec, other wise T300 expiry
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T300 expiry

Here we see T300 expiry, after no response In general these issues are found in poor RF but
occurrence in Good DL RF is likely to indicate issues such as site problem, or UL interference
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Timers description
TS 36.331

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Indicates Handover Failure

Timer is 1s unable to RACH to Target Cell at Handover

Example on following slides please also see:
Ref: Pre-L Optim. Technical Session Intra-LTE Handover
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T304 expiry

This example shows that UE issues MR as PCI 348 has met

Event A3 criteria RRC Connection Reconfiguration message is
received after the MR indicated that HO to PCI 348 should
take place
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T304 expiry

When UE attempts to send RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete to target cell, we see
repeated RACH at Max Power The UE does not receive response, then moves to Idle, and
initiates the RRC Connection Re-establishment procedure
Cause code in RRC Connection Re-establishment Request is handoverFailure
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Timers description
TS 36.331

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RL Synchronization
T310 / T311 are related to Radio Link (RL) Synchronization
Below is and extract from LTE RAN CPI, which describes the circumstances where these RL
Synchronization mechanisms are utilized
3.2.2 Radio Link Synchronization
As described previously, the UE achieves the downlink synchronization during the cell search procedure. The UE, in
RRC-CONNECTED mode, evaluates in the downlink the quality of the radio link of the serving cell. The UE bases its
evaluation on the cell-specific reference signal relative to thresholds Qout and Qin.
Qout is defined as the level at which the downlink radio link cannot be reliably received. Qin is defined as the level at
which the downlink radio link can be received with significant reliability.
Qout and Qin are defined relative to the block error rate of a hypothetical PDCCH transmission, and the thresholds are
defined in 3GPP TS 36.133. The quality of the radio link is evaluated in every radio frame if the UE is not in
Discontinuous Reception (DRX) mode.
If the radio link quality is below the threshold Qout over the period of 200ms, timer T310 is started, assuming N310=1.
See 3GPP TS 36.133.
At the expiry of the timer T310, the UE switches off uplink transmission. If the radio link quality is above the threshold
Qin over the period of 100ms, timer T310 is stopped, assuming N311=1. See 3GPP TS 36.133.
If the UE is in DRX mode, then DRX cycle length dependent evaluation period is used instead, see 3GPP TS 36.133.
Uplink synchronization is achieved using the random access procedure, see the document Random Access for further
Radio link quality evaluation is performed by the RBS for the uplink physical layer radio link synchronization evaluation.

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T-310 expiry

In this example, it can be seen that after call is

setup at 03:56:05, RSRP is already quite low
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T-310 expiry

By 03:56:13, when T310 expiry occurs, signal quality as well

as coverage, has deteriorated, and RL is lost

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Timers description
TS 36.331

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Timer is 3s unable to find suitable cell in order to send

RRC Connection Re-Establishment Request

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T-311 expiry

RRC Re-establishment

No suitable cell for 3s

Inactive (search again after

Continuing the example in the T310 section, we see that after T310
expiry, UE attempts to initiate RRC Connection Re-establishment
procedure, but is not able to find a suitable cell

These issues usually indicate areas of poor coverage

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Timing Alignment (TA)
TA_Expire and MAC_RA_Problem are 2 cause-codes seen regularly
Generally also in poor RF, also occasionally in rapidly changing RF

TA_Expire Timing advance expire reported by UE (RACH to achieve

synchronization is necessary)

MAC_RA_Problem Random Access attempt to re-sync, for no response after

10 retransmission
UE Analysis often reveals these 2 causes at the same issue

Some additional information on TA on next slide, also with example of both

cause-codes occurring

New setting of TATimer in R5DJ is targeted to improve Timer Alignment

performance on LG Device

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Example of
TA_Expire and
BLEM, in area
where there
are numerous
servers, of low

UE is able to
re-sync via
RACH, but
ultimately loses

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UE Analysis
Inactivity release

Parameter tInactivityTimer (10s)

RRC connection is release after no user data exchanged
for a duration of the expiry of this timer
Note that PDN connectivity is maintained, allowing faster
setup from Idle mode, at next access
As currently there are only 2 cause codes for normal
release (other, loadbalancingTAUrequired) therefore
release due to inactivity, and also normal user-initiated
releases, will be noted as RRC Connection Release (other)
This should be borne in mind when performing call analysis

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Release caused by other while in good rf
condition - no throughput

10 seconds of inactivity
tInactivityTimer = 10s No User Plane Traffic Normal Release
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NAS Signalling Failures
The following slide is an example distribution of the NAS release causes encountered on
an LTE Cluster Drive Test
These are generally consequences of underlying issue (see previous slides), but the pegging of
the NAS release cause is often different depending on the procedure that was underway when
the underlying issue occurred
The subsequent slides highlights the NAS timers mentioned (REF: 3GPP TS 24.301)

In general, majority of release causes relate to RRC Connection Release Other:

Due to RRC Connection Release cause codes (TS 36.331), normal releases (e.g., Detach, TAU
accept, Inactivity release, etc.) are also included as other categorization

RRC Connection release, RRC failure These causes are incremented due to RRC
Connection failure, leading to initiation of RRC Connection Re-Establishment procedure
See previous slides for more details on the causes of the RRC Connection failures
And its important to note that the events tagged as T3411, T3430 etc., are not failures
explicitly due to the settings of those timers, rather if a RRC Connection failure occurred
(due to a reason in previous slides for example), during a procedure being monitored by
one of these timers, then on NAS level the categorization is related to that procedure that
was ongoing

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Radio & nas signaling failure
excluding Detach accept & tracking area update

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TS 24.301

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