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In substation, Transformer is the most

efficient and costly equipment. So in order

to protect from faults, Transformer oil
testing is required.
The transformers fluid not only serves as a
heat transfer medium, it also a part of
transformers insulation system.
It is therefore prudent to periodically
perform tests on the oil to determine
whether it is capable of fulfilling its role as
an insulant.
Dissolved Gas In Oil Analysis (Most famous
and Required Test)
Screen tests
Water Content
Metals - In Oil
Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Content
Small samples of oil are taken for
this test, using a clean, moisture -
free, gas- tight container usually a
ground glass 50 ml syringe. It is
very important that a DGA sample is
kept air tight; otherwise the gases
that are dissolved in the liquid can
escape into the atmosphere, or
external gases can be admitted,
which would invalidate the test
results. The syringe is sent to
laboratory for gas extraction and
analysis. Gases are extracted from
the oil with a vacuum pump and the
gases are identified using gas
Non Combustible Gases Combustible Gases
Oxygen Hydrogen
Nitrogen Methane
Carbon Dioxide Carbon Monoxide
Assesses the Internal condition of
Helps to calculate the probability of failure
and end of life.
Identifies degradation of insulation before
failure of the life.
Low cost test process
As the name implies, this test analyzes the
type and the quantity of gases that are
dissolved in the transformer oil.
i. Insulation overheating/overloading
ii. Insulation liquid overheating
iii. Partial discharge (Corona)
iv. Arcing in the transformer
The paper insulation which is normally used to insulate
the windings of a transformer is a cellulose product.
If a transformer becomes overloaded for any reason, the
windings will generate more heat and deteriorate the
cellulose insulation.
The DGA test can identify an overloaded transformer by
a test result showing high carbon monoxide, high
carbon dioxide, and in extreme cases, even elevated
methane and ethylene is found.
If a transformer is overloaded for a long period of time,
the deteriorating condition of the cellulose will shorten
the life of the transformer.
Overheating of the liquid insulation is slightly different
problem in transformers.
DGA test will indicate high thermal gases (methane,
ethane and ethylene) as a result of overheating of the
These gases are formed from a breakdown of the liquid
caused by the heat.
Heating may be caused due to the following effects:-

1. Poor contacts on a tap changer.

2. Loose connections on a busing or a grounding strap.
3. Circulating currents in the core due to an
unintended core ground.
Corona is considered to be a
partial discharge and occurs at
areas of high electrical stress,
such as at sharp points along
an electrical path.
Partial discharge is commonly
explained as being intermittent
unsustained arcs which are
sort off of the conducting
material like a stream of
These arcs contact solid
insulating material will cause
severe damage to the
When corona occurs the
Transmission Lines becomes
Violet Bluish in color due to
the ionization of elections.
Corona is indicated in a DGA by indications
of Elevated Hydrogen.
If corona is detected by a DGA test, other
methods of pin-pointing the exact location
of the problem can be used a partial
discharge detector can be used to detect
the exact place where corona is making the
hissing noise.
Arcing is the most severe condition in a
transformer because it indicates a breakdown of
the insulation.
The presence of Acetylene is an indicator of
arcing; and even low levels of this gas should
cause concern.
Normally, arcing occurs only after other
problems which are detected by the DGA testing.
However, the high energy required to produce an
arc will cause all combustibles to be elevated.
If the arc occurs in the area of cellulose
insulation, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide
also will be elevated.
Arcing can be generated in many areas of a
Insulation breakdown in the windings from coil
to coil or coil to ground, will result in arcing. A
portion of the insulation may deteriorate until it
can no longer contain the stress of the electrical
If a winding shorts from turn to turn, or phase to
phase, or phase to ground, arcing will occur and
the transformer will fail.
When arcing occur in the area of the windings,
the usual result is de-tanking of the transformer,
and a rewind conducted.
A loose connection also may cause arcing, but of
greater significance would be arcing due to
insulation breakdown.

Condition 1 100 120 35 50 65 350 2500 720

Condition 2 101- 121- 36-50 51-100 66-100 351-570 2501-4000 721-1920

700 400

Condition 3 701- 401- 51-80 101-200 101-150 571- 4001- 1921-4630

1800 1000 1400 10000

Condition 4 >1800 >1000 >80 >200 >150 >1400 >10000 >4630

Dissolved Gas Concentrations Limits (ppm)

Hydrogen (H) , Methane(CH) , Acetylene (CH) Ethylene(CH),

Ethane (CH), Carbon Monoxide(CO), Carbon Dioxide(CO), Total
Dissolved Combustible Gas(TDCG)
Condition 1 - TDCG below this level indicates
the transformer is operating satisfactorily
Condition 2 - TDCG within this range indicates
greater than normal combustible levels &
should prompt additional investigation. (any
gas exceeding specified levels)
Condition 3 - TDCG within this range indicates
high level of decomposition (additional
investigation required)
Condition 4 - TDCG within this range indicates
excessive decomposition. Continued operation
could result in failure of the transformer.
The Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) is a
chemical test rather than an electrical test.
It does not suffer from electrical
interference and can be done without de -
energization of the transformer. The cost of
each DGA is relatively inexpensive.
All these factors make DGA a powerful tool
in the preventive maintenance of