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Chapter 1

Fundamentals of Wireless
Learning objectives
To introduce the concept of wireless media
To know the frequency spectrum for wireless communications
To review the principles of coding and modulation schemes
To understand the limitations of wireless communication
To study the wireless transmission and switching technologies
To study the diversity techniques for wireless systems
To discuss the performance improvement techniques for
wireless communication systems.
To know the generations of cellular systems
Digital communications
Digital communication refers to the transmission of a
sequence of digital messages (a bit stream) or a digitized
analog signal.
Digital messages are either represented by a sequence of
pulses by means of a line code, or by a limited set of analog
wave forms.
Digital communications (Contd..)
Transmitting data in digital form allows
greater signal processing capability,
errors caused by random processes can be detected and
digital signals can also be sampled instead of continuously
multiplexing of multiple digital signals is much simpler to the
multiplexing of analog signals,
enhancing quality of the signal,
modification of the signal as per the network and application
Wireless communication system
Wireless communication limitations
Mobile phones and PDAs have smaller memory, and it is hard
to read large documents on them and may require information
of lesser bandwidth.
Larger computing devices connected in wireless environments
may require more bandwidth information since there is no
constraint on the screen and the memory.
Available LAN device bandwidth is maximum 55Mbps, whereas users
demand is 10Gbps. This imbalance forces to have a clever wireless
networking environments.
Wireless communication limitations
Frequency spectrum
Dynamic channel allocation schemes can be used to optimize
the frequency usage of the given wireless communication area.
A mobile node transmitter power in a wireless local environment ranges
from 230 mW to 2 W in 1850-1880 MHz range (uplink) that covers a
distance of 8 km.
Wireless and Radio
Radio may be defined as
A method of communicating over a distance by
modulating electromagnetic waves by means of an
intelligence bearing-signal and radiating these
modulated waves by means of transmitter and a
A device or pertaining to a device, that transmits or
receives electromagnetic waves in the frequency
bands that are between 10kHz and 3000 GHz.
Voice over radio
Early 20th century, there were several experiments
transmitting the voice data over the radio.
1914 : First voice over radio transmission.
1920 : Mobile receivers installed in police cars in Detroit, USA.
1930 : Mobile transmitters developed; radio equipment occupied
most of police car trunk.
1935 : Frequency modulation (FM) demonstrated by Armstrong.
1940s : Majority of police systems converted to FM.
Birth of mobile telephony
Mobile telephone started gaining importance in 1940s.
Developments of mobile telephony in chronological
order are as follows.
1946 - First interconnection of mobile users to public
switched telephone network (PSTN).
1960s - Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS)
introduced; supports full-duplex, autodial, and auto-
Wireless and Infrared
IR waves are longer than visible light waves and shorter
than radio waves. It cannot pass through walls or
ceilings, but it can bounce off flat surfaces and pass
through open door ways.
Uses of infrared wireless
IR used in PANs, specific wireless LAN, impractical in
mobile; used only to implement fixed wireless networks.
IR connected devices
Technologies in Digital Wireless
Source coding: Source coding deals with the time and
amplitude discretization of the analog source signal.
Waveform coding
Linear Predictive Coding (LPC)
Waveform coding
Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)
Dierential PCM (DPCM)
Adaptive DPCM (ADPCM)
Delta Modulation (DM)
Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)
PCM encoding process
Differential PCM (DPCM)
DPCM predicts the next sample based on the last few
decoded samples. This minimizes mean squared error of
Good prediction results in a reduction in the dynamic
range needed to code the prediction residual and hence a
reduction in the bit rate.
It can use non-uniform quantization or variable length
Adaptive DPCM (ADPCM)

ADPCM is the same as the DPCM except that, unlike in

the DPCM where the predictor coecients are constants.
In ADPCM, the predictor coecients are updated at each
sampling instant and therefore are a function of time.
Delta Modulation (DM)

The DM is an extreme case of the DPCM and may be

regarded as the one-bit DPCM
A single bit is used to code the signal at each sampling
Linear Predictive Coding (LPC)
In the Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) technique, the
human vocal tract is modeled and the parameters of the
model are estimated based on the individual speech
These parameters are coded and transmitted to the sink.
The sink employs a replica of the vocal tract model used
at the source and synthesizes the speech signal using the
model parameters sent from the source.
Image coding
Some of the image coding techniques are
Sub-band coding, transform coding using FFT (Fast Fourier
Transform )
DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform)
Wavelet transform coding, predictive coding (DPCM,
ADPCM), JPEG (Joint Picture Expert Group) and MPEG
(Moving Picture Expert Group)
Cyclic redundancy check
Cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is probably the most
reliable scheme for error detection.
Let k = Block of binary data, an n = length of CRC
sequence, which is appended to the k-bit data block.
The n-bit CRC determined in such a way that the
resulting k + n bit sequence is exactly divisible by some
perdetermined bit string (generator polynomial) which is
n + 1 bit long.
Consider the data to be transmitted D is 101110 using
CRC-error checking method. Suppose the generator
polynomial G is chosen as 1001. Find the nal value that
the transmitter sends and show the error detection
process at the receiver.
CRC: at transmitter
CRC: at receiver
Block coding
Block coding is an error correction technique in which
the data is grouped into k-bit blocks.
To each of the k bits for a block, (n k) redundant bits
called parity bits are appended.
The resulting n-bit sequence for transmission is called (n,
k) block code, for every n bits transmitted, only k bits are
information-bearing. The code rate is dened as k/n.
Wireless modulation schemes
Binary phase shift keying (BPSK)
Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK)
Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying
Infrared Modulation Techniques
Spread spectrum
Direct-sequence spread spectrum
Frequency hopping spread spectrum
Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK)
Changing the bit changes the sign of the transmitted
signal is known as binary phase shift keying.
Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK)
In QPSK modulation scheme, four dierent phase angles
are used to indicate the phase shifts based on binary
stream, thereby creating four symbols: /4, 3/4, 5/4,
and 7/4.
The amplitude is constant.
The QPSK corresponds to the Phase modulation with 4
QPSK transmitter
QPSK constellation diagram
Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying
Minimum shift keying (MSK) is a special type of
continuous phase-frequency shift keying (CPFSK) with
modulation index = 0.5
A modulation index of 0.5 corresponds to minimum
frequency spacing that allows two FSK signals to be
orthogonal, thus minimum frequency separation (i.e.,
bandwidth) that allows orthogonal detection.
A GMSK uses Gaussian lters to preserve the properties
of MSK: spectral eciency and bandwidth eciency.
Infrared modulation techniques
It is dicult to maintain a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)
sucient to support high bit rates under all conditions
using reasonable transmitter power levels.
Rate-adaptive transmission scheme is available based on
variable rate repetition coding of four-slot pulse-position
modulation (PPM) for the next-generation Infrared Data
Association (IrDA) Standards.
Spread spectrum
Spreading the data across the frequency spectrum makes
signal resistant to noise, interference and eavesdropping.
There are two types of spread spectrum techniques
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)
Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS)
Direct-sequence spread spectrum
The data signal is multiplied by a Pseudo Random
Noise Code (PN-code).
A PN-code is a sequence of chips valued -1 and 1
(polar) or 0 and 1 (non-polar). The number of
chips (N) within one code is called the period of
this code. A
Frequency hopping spread spectrum
The large bandwidth is eectively split into frequency
The hop set (channel hopping sequence) is not arbitrary,
but determined by the use of a pseudo random sequence.
The receiver can reproduce the identical hop set and so
decode the signal.
Frequency hopping spread spectrum
Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing (OFDM)
OFDM is a multi carrier modulation (MCM) scheme, in which
many parallel data streams are transmitted at the same time over
a channel, with each transmitting only a small part of the total
data rate.
DMT (discrete multitone) is a similar system used in copper-
based DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) systems to overcome
transmission problems.
With OFDM, a high-speed digital message is divided into a
large number of separate carrier waves.
Diversity techniques
Diversity technique is a method for improving the
reliability of a message signal by utilizing two or more
communication channels with dierent characteristics.
Diversity plays an important role in combating fading,
co-channel interference, avoiding error bursts and it
may exploit the multipath propagation resulting in a
diversity gain.
Types of diversity
There are several dierent kinds of diversity
which are commonly employed in wireless
communication systems are as follows.
Time diversity
Frequency diversity
Space diversity
Time diversity
Frequency diversity
Space diversity
Multiple-input and Multiple-Output
Multiple-input and multiple-output, or MIMO, is the use of
multiple antennas at both the transmitter and receiver to
improve communication performance.
It oers significant increases in data throughput and link range
without additional bandwidth or transmit power.
Wireless communication channel
Wireless communication channel specication involves
allocating the nite resource in two steps:
Finite resource is allocated for the two directions of
Portion allocated for each direction is used to create
multiple channels for that direction.
These two steps of subdividing the nite resource are
referred to as:
Duplexing methods
Multiple access methods
Duplexing methods
Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD)
FDD is employed in radio systems to provide an uplink and
downlink radio channel between the sender and the receiver.
In FDD, the total available bandwidth is allocated separately for the
forward and reverse directions of transmission.
Time Division Duplexing (TDD)
Two directions of the transmission are created by
alternating the transmission in time.
The maximum bit rate supportable for a given bandwidth
W is allocated between the two directions.
The multiple access methods

The multiple access methods refer to the method of

creating multiple channels for each transmission
direction. There are three main types multiple access
Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
Frequency Division Multiple Access
Frequency Division Multiple Access or FDMA is a
channel access method used in multiple access protocols
as a channelization protocol.
FDMA gives users an individual allocation of one or
several frequency bands, or channels, so that receivers
can discriminate among them by tuning to the desired
Multiple Access systems coordinate access between
multiple users.
Time Division Multiple Access
Time division multiple access (TDMA) is a channel
access method for shared medium networks.
It allows several users to share the same frequency channel by
dividing the signal into different time slots.
The users transmit in rapid succession, one after the other, each
using his own time slot.
This allows multiple stations to share the same transmission
medium (e.g. radio frequency channel) while using only a part
of its channel capacity.
Code Division Multiple Access
CDMA (or spread spectrum) is a form of multiplexing
where the transmitter encodes the signal using a pseudo-
random sequence which the receiver also knows and can
use to decode the received signal.
Each different random sequence corresponds to a
different communication channel.
Types of wireless communication
Traditional Communications Systems
FM Mobile
AM Aircraft Communications
Paging Systems
Amateur Radio (Ham Radio)
Personal Communications Systems (PCS)
Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)
Cellular communication system
First Generation (1G)
Second Generation (2G)
2.5G Communication Systems
3G Communication Systems
Fourth generation systems
Long-Term Evolution (LTE)
FM Mobile
Typical mobile FM transmitters emit 5 to 150 Watts
while their permanent base stations often transmit at 150
Watts with an omni-directional footprint. The spectrum
prole of narrowband FM spans about 5 kHz.
Before the emergence of the personal mobile wireless
(cellular) phones in the 1990s, public safety
applications, such as police, re and forest services, used
narrowband FM technology.
These applications still exist in the 50, 150 and 450 MHz
FM bands.
AM aircraft communications
Using the VHF (Very High Frequency) frequencies in the 118-
136 MHz region, authorities allocated 25 kHz-wide channels
for a higher voice quality AM for aircraft communications.
Being exceedingly mobile, aircraft interferers are also
difficult to pin down since any one aircraft is only in the area
for tens of seconds.
But again, their ground transmitters can be a constant source
of relatively high signal powers. The spectrum prole again
reects the voice nature of this application.
Paging Systems
Paging is one way communication where a person
informs the base center the message to be sent to the
Paging systems typically use FSK modulation format
which exhibits a spectrum prole with two separated
peaks, each representing one of the two frequencies
which shift according to the digital one or zero being
Amateur radio (Ham radio)
Scattered throughout the frequency spectrum are a
number of allocated frequency bands dedicated to Ham
radio operators.
While their transmitters largely use AM modulation, they are
also authorized to run experimental transmissions in other
formats. Their emitted powers can be quite high since they
intend to transmit to others around the earth.
Hams often use large, steerable directional arrays of HF (high
frequency) antennas to increase their directional power, so their
interfering power can be quite high.
Personal Communications Systems
The PCS in the 1800-1900 MHz frequency band. PCS
was supposed to be a more comprehensive specication
than the earlier cellular specication at 800 MHz.
Customers often prefer PCS systems because of their
inexpensive nature and the ability to install them without a
tedious licensing process.
They are popular for point-to-point and point-to-multipoint
data link applications such as intra company data bridges.
Global System for Mobile
communications (GSM)
GSM is assigned two frequency bands at 900 and 1800
MHz. Each band supports 124 channels at 200 kHz
spacing and each is broken into 8 time slots operating in
a TDMA mode.
Short Message Service which allows you to send and receive
126 character text mes-sages.
Allows data transmission and reception across GSM networks
at speeds up to 9,600 bps currently.
More capacity, ensuring rapid call set-up. Handsets also
smaller and more robust.
Cellular communication systems
Cellular communiacation system went throgh many
generations of development.
First Generation (1G)
AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service) was the rst
standard. Based on FDMA, it provided wireless voice
transmission and minimal data services.
Due to frequency reuse issues, one transmission tower
(commonly called a cell) can only support 118 calls at any one
Second generation (2G)
Second generation digital systems are classied by their
multiple access techniques as either FDMA, TDMA or
2G standard is the GSM system, developed to bring the
inherent advantages of digital cellular network
technology to the consumer market and provide a
common standard.
2.5G communication systems
The cdma2000 (1X) is part to Qualcomms strategy to
smooth the transition for CDMA WSPs to its new 3G
technology, cdma2000 (3X). GPRS provides a packet
switched data delivery mechanism to GSM systems, with
higher bandwidths than GSM itself.
EDGE oers 384 kbps suitable for mobile multimedia
communications whereas earlier GPRS was oering 144
3G communication systems
Third Generation (3G) cellular systems were developed
with the aim of oering high-speed data connectivity to
mobile customers.
3G systems are dened by the International
Telecommunications Union initiative IMT-2000, as being
capable of supporting high-speed data rates in the range
of 144 Kbps to >2 Mbps, depending on the conditions
and mobile speed.
Fourth generation systems
With UMTS paving the way for an explosion of
multimedia services on the mobile Internet, researching
on 4G has started, which will demand increasingly
sophisticated systems and ever-faster radio links to
support them.
A primary area of 4G research includes bandwidth
ecient multiple access technology. This will result in
improved quality of service, increased data throughput
and spectral eciency, adaptive modulation coding and
the design of novel algorithms.