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HISTORY OF WATER

TREATMENT
2000 BC - In ancient Greek and Sanskrit (India), water treatment methods were recommended. People back than knew that
heating water might purify it, and they were also educated in sand and gravel filtration, boiling, and straining. The major
motive for water purification was better tasting drinking water, because people could not yet distinguish between foul and
clean water.

1500 BC - the Egyptians first discovered the principle of coagulation. They applied the chemical alum for suspended particle
settlement. Pictures of this purification technique were found on the wall of the tomb of Amenophis II and Ramses II.

500 BC - Hippocrates discovered the healing powers of water. He invented the practice of sieving water, and obtained the
first bag filter, which was called the Hippocratic sleeve. The main purpose of the bag was to trap sediments that caused bad
tastes or odors.

300-200 BC - Rome built its first aqueducts. Archimedes invented his water screw.

500-1500 AD - water supply was no longer as sophisticated as before. These centuries where also known as the Dark Ages,
because of a lack of scientific innovations and experiments. The future for water treatment was uncertain.

1627 - Sir Francis Bacon started experimenting with seawater desalination. He attempted to remove salt particles by means of
an unsophisticated form of sand filtration. It did not exactly work, but it did paved the way for further experimentation by
other scientists.
1676 - Van Leeuwenhoek first observed water micro organisms.
1700s - the first water filters for domestic application were applied. These were made of wool, sponge and charcoal.
1804 - the first actual municipal water treatment plant designed by Robert Thom, was built in Scotland.
1854 - it was discovered that a cholera epidemic spread through water. British scientist John Snow found that the direct
cause of the outbreak was water pump contamination by sewage water. He applied chlorine to purify the water, and this
paved the way for water disinfection.
1890s - America started building large sand filters to protect public health. These turned out to be a success.
1902 - calcium hypo chlorite and ferric chloride were mixed in a drinking water supply in Belgium, resulting in both
coagulation and disinfection.
1906 - ozone was first applied as a disinfectant in France. Additionally, people started installing home water filters and
shower filters to prevent negative effects of chlorine in water.
1914 - drinking water standards were implemented for drinking water supplies in public traffic, based on coliform growth.
1970 - public health concerns shifted from waterborne illnesses caused by disease-causing micro organisms, to
anthropogenic water pollution such as pesticide residues and industrial sludge and organic chemicals.
TODAY - mainly focuses on disinfection by-products. An example is trihalomethane (THM) formation from chlorine
disinfection. These organics were linked to cancer. Lead also became a concern after it was discovered to corrode from
water pipes. The high pH level of disinfected water enabled corrosion. Today, other materials have replaced many lead
water pipes.

Referrence: Read more: http://www.lenntech.com/history-water-treatment.htm#ixzz4gw96cMdT


STATISTICS
MAJOR SOURCES OF POLLUTION

48%

37%

15%

Domestic Wastewater or Agricultaral Wastewater Industrial Wastewater


Sewage
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT BUREAU (EMB)

13%

47%

Good Water Quality


40%

Fair

Poor Water Quality


WHICH AREAS OF THE COUNTRY ARE
MOST AFFECTED?
Regions with unsatisfactory ratings for their water quality criteria include
the National Capital Region (NCR) or Metro Manila, Southern Tagalog
Region (Region IV), Central Luzon (Region III), and Central Visayas (Region
VII).

Ilocos Region (Region I) was found to be one of the highest contributors to


nitrate contamination.
WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT IN PH
In the Philippines, only 10% of wastewater is treated while 58% of the groundwater is
contaminated;
Only 5% of the total population is connected to a sewer network. The vast majority uses
flush toilets connected to septic tanks;
Since sludge treatment and disposal facilities are rare, domestic wastewater is discharged
without treatment;
It is estimated that in 2025, water availability will be marginal in most major cities and in
8 of the 19 major river basins in the country.
Waterborne diseases remain a severe public health concern in the country.
About 4,200 people die each year due to contaminated drinking water.
PHILIPPINE ENVIRONMENT MONITOR

Some estimates point to household


wastewater as contributing as much as 60%
of water pollution.
About 80% of water provided to households
becomes wastewater.
(REF: MANILA THIRD SEWERAGE PROJECT FEASIBILITY STUDY)

In Metro Manila, only 11% of the total population is


directly/indirectly connected to a sewerage system,
85% are served by over 2 million ill-maintained septic
tanks and 4% of the population has no toilet.

In Metro Manila, it was estimated that septic tanks


provide only 10% treatment (without desludging) .
REFERRENCE:

History of water treatment Created by S.M. Enzler MSc


http://www.lenntech.com/history-water-treatment.htm#ixzz4gwMVt3mv

Wastewater Management in the Philippines


http://www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/mdocs/en/wipo_ip_mnl_15/wipo_ip_mnl_15_t4.pdf