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INFRASTUCTURE DEVELOPMENT

(A presentation on DOJ training at TA - Civil, NTPC Singrauli)

Under the guidance of


Mr. G.G. Bardhan
B Tech. Civil (spl. Structures), NIT Jamshedpur
Senior Manager (TA- Civil)

Presented By:
Neetesh Sharma 102228
Munish Garg 102229
The Following Works were assigned to us during
DOJ training in TA-Civil at NTPC Singrauli

1. Infrastructure work in township


Structural design for physiotherapy department and conference hall in
Sanjeevani hospital, township NTPC singrauli.
Pilot project: structural design of multi-storey residential apartments.

2. CSR work
3. Construction/ execution work in township, including
FQA.
Infrastructure work in township
Structural design and development of construction drawings
for physiotherapy department and conference hall in
Sanjeevani hospital, township NTPC singrauli.

Type of structure: RCC frame


Type of foundation: shallow (footings)
Column sizes
0.3 x 0.45
0.45 x 0.45
Beam sizes
0.3 x 0.5(main first floor)
0.3 x 0.45(main roof)
0.3 x 0.4(secondary first floor)
0.3 x 0.3(secondary roof)
A

Plan (typical)
A
Elevation
Side view Section A-A
Load Definition :
Seismic Load
Parameter Value
Zone III (0.16)
Importance factor 1.5
Response Reduction factor 3
Rock and soil site factor 1
Damping ratio 0.05
Time Period in x direction 0.29
Time Period in z direction 0.46

Basic load case details


Dead Load
Live load
Earthquake load in x direction
Earthquake load in z direction
Load Combinations
1.2(DL+LL+EQZ+0.
3EQX) 1.2(DL+LL+EQZ-
1.5(DL+LL) -1.5EQZ+0.9DL 0.3EQX)
1.2(DL+LL+EQX+0. 1.5(DL-EQZ- 1.2(DL+LL+EQX-
1.5(DL+EQX) 3EQZ) 0.3EQX) 0.3EQZ)
0.9DL+1.5(EQX+0. 1.5(DL-EQX- 0.9DL+1.5(EQX-
1.5(DL+EQZ) 3EQZ) 0.3EQZ) 0.3EQZ)
0.9DL+1.5(EQZ+0. 1.2(DL+LL-EQZ- 0.9DL+1.5(EQZ-
1.2(DL+LL+EQX) 3EQX) 0.3EQX) 0.3EQX)
1.2(DL+LL-EQX- 1.5(DL-
1.2(DL+LL+EQZ) 1.5(DL-EQX) 0.3EQZ) EQZ+0.3EQX)
0.9DL- 1.5(DL-EQX-
0.9DL+1.5EQX 1.5(DL-EQZ) 1.5(EQX+0.3EQZ) 0.3EQZ)
0.9DL- 1.2(DL+LL-
1.5EQZ+0.9DL 1.2(DL+LL-EQX) 1.5(EQZ+0.3EQX) EQZ+0.3EQX)
1.5(DL+EQZ+0.3E 1.5(DL+EQZ- 1.2(DL+LL-
QX) 1.2(DL+LL-EQZ) 0.3EQX) EQX+0.3EQZ)
1.5(DL+EQX+0.3E 1.5(DL+EQX- 0.9DL+1.5(-
QZ) 0.9DL-1.5EQX 0.3EQZ) EQX+0.3EQZ)
Analysis
Staad Pro was used to analyze the structure for the previously listed load
combinations. The steps involved in the analysis of the structure using the
computer package are as follows:
1. Modelling the structure
2. Defining Loadings
3. Performing analysis and interpreting results.

Design and Detailing


RCC design and detailing of reinforcement bars was done manually according to
the indian standards using the analysis results from the computer package.
Sampled design results for the structure are follows.
DETAIL OF REINFORCEMENT FOR FIRST FLOOR BEAMS

3
A B C D E F

Beam Name 1 2 3 4 5

n#dia Bar len n#dia Bar len n#dia Bar len n#dia Bar len n#dia Bar len Shear (2 legged stirrups)

B1AE 5m x 3 2.3m
spans(5,5,5,2.3)
2#16 17.54 2#16 23.15 2#20 2.83 2#20 7.73 2#16 18
0.3x0.5
8 @300 10 @130

B2AF 17.3m 2.7m


spans(17.3,2.7) 2#12 20.24 2#20 24.95 2#20 2.93 2#20 2.23 3#20 20.7
0.3x0.4 8 @250 8 @250

B3AF 5m x 5
spans(5,5,5,5) 2#16 20.24 2#16 26.65 2#20 3.5 2#20 8.4 2#16 20.7 8 @300
0.3x0.5

Continued
1

3
A B C D E F

Beam Name 1 2 3 4 5

Shear (2 legged
n#dia Bar len n#dia Bar len n#dia Bar len n#dia Bar len n#dia Bar len
stirrups)

BA13 4.35m 3.65m


2#20
spans(4.35,3.65) 2#12 8.3 2#12 10.12 2#20 3 3#12 8.7 2.45
2#12
0.3x0.5 8 @300 8 @300

BF1*3 4.35m 3.65m


2#20
spans(4.35,3.65) 2#12 9.8 2#12 10.12 2#20 3 3#12 9.7 2.45
2#12
0.3x0.5 8 @300 8 @300

Beam Name 1 2 3

Shear (2 legged
n#dia Bar len n#dia Bar len n#dia Bar len
stirrups)

BE21* 4.35m 1.5m


2#12 6.15
spans(4.35,1.5) 3#12 6.35 2#20 3.18
2#20 4.65
0.3x0.5 8 @170 8 @300
1

3
A B C D E F

Beam Name 1 2 3 4

Shear (2 legged
n#dia Bar len n#dia Bar len n#dia Bar len n#dia Bar len
stirrups)

BB13/BD13 4.35m 3.65m


spans(8) 2#25 8.6 2#25 10.12 2#20 3 3#12 8.7
0.3x0.5 8 @300 8 @300

BC13 4.35m 3.65m


2#25
spans(8) 8.6 2#25 10.12 2#16 3 2#25 8.7
1#20
0.3x0.5 8 @300 8 @300
SLAB REINFORCEMENT
0.5m
1.305m 1.1m
10 @ 300 c/c

2#10 10 @ 300 c/c

10 @ 300 c/c

3.65m
4.35m

0.5m 1.5m 1.5m


10 @ 300 c/c

2#10 10 @ 300 c/c

10 @ 300 c/c

5m
5m
1

COLUMN REINFORCEMENT 2
3
A B C D E F

location Size Reinforcement Location Size Reinforcement

A1, A3 0.3 m x 0.45m 8 # 20 D1 0.3 m x 0.45m 16 # 20

A2 0.45 x 0.45m 8 # 20 E1,E2 0.3 m x 0.45m 8 # 20


8 # 16
B1,C1 0.3 m x 0.45m 16 # 20 F1,F3 0.3 m x 0.45m 8 # 20
16 # 16 8 # 16

B3,C3,D3 0.3 m x 0.45m 8 # 25 F2 0.45m x0.45m 8 # 20


8 # 16

Column reinforcement distributed equally on four edges.


Transverse reinforcement 8 @ 250mm lateral ties
1

2
3
A B C D E F

location Size Depth Reinforcement Location Size Depth Reinforcement

A1, A3, F3 2m x 2m 0.45m 12 @180mm D1,D3 2.4m x 2.4m 0.6 12 @140mm


both ways both ways
A2, F2 2.4m x 2.4m 0.6m 12 @150mm E1,E2 2.2m x 2.2m 0.6 12 @140mm
both ways both ways

B1, B3, C1, 2.2m x 2.2m 0.6m 12 @140mm F1 2.1m x 2.1m 0.6 12 @150mm
C3 both ways both ways
Pilot Project : Structural analysis and design of
multi-storey residential apartments.

Details of structure are as follows:


Total no. of floors 18.
above ground level: 16
below ground level: 2 (parking)
Building dimensions and other details
Plan: 47.5m x 42.5m
Height above GL: 57m
Below GL: 8m
Storey height above GL: 3.5m (c/c)
Storey height below GL: 4.0m (c/c)
Area of one flat: 1054 sq ft
No. of flats in one floor: 10
Total no. of flats in the building: 150
Type of structure: RCC frame (M35)
Type of foundation: Pile foundation
Typical stuctural plan of building

ELEVATOR

STAIRS

CORRIDOOR
Load Definition :
1. Seismic Load
Parameter Value
Zone IV (0.24)
Importance factor 1
Response Reduction factor 5
Rock and soil site factor 1
Damping ratio 0.05
Time Period in x direction 1.08
Time Period in z direction 1.09

2. Wind Load

Parameter Value
Basic wind speed 47 m/s
(Risk coefficient) K1 1.0
(Terrain , height and structure size factor) Category-4, class- C, value height
K2 dependent.
(Topography) K3 1.0
Basic load case details
Dead Load
Live load
Wind Load x direction
Wind Load -x direction
Wind Load z direction
Wind Load -z direction
Earthquake load in x direction
Earthquake load in z direction
Load combinations
1.5(DL+LL) -1.5EQZ+0.9DL 0.9DL+1.5(-EQZ+0.3EQX) -1.5WLZ+0.9DL
1.5(DL+EQX) 1.5(DL-EQZ-0.3EQX) 1.5(DL+WLX) 1.5(DL-WLZ-0.3WLX)
1.5(DL+EQZ) 1.5(DL-EQX-0.3EQZ) 1.5(DL+WLZ) 1.5(DL-WLX-0.3WLZ)
1.2(DL+LL+EQX) 1.2(DL+LL-EQZ-0.3EQX) 1.2(DL+LL+WLX) 1.2(DL+LL-WLZ-0.3WLX)
1.2(DL+LL+EQZ) 1.2(DL+LL-EQX-0.3EQZ) 1.2(DL+LL+WLZ) 1.2(DL+LL-WLX-0.3WLZ)
0.9DL+1.5EQX 0.9DL-1.5(EQX+0.3EQZ) 0.9DL+1.5WLX 0.9DL-1.5(WLX+0.3WLZ)
1.5EQZ+0.9DL 0.9DL-1.5(EQZ+0.3EQX) 1.5WLZ+0.9DL 0.9DL-1.5(WLZ+0.3WLX)
1.5(DL+EQZ+0.3EQX) 1.5(DL+EQZ-0.3EQX) 1.5(DL+WLZ+0.3WLX) 1.5(DL+WLZ-0.3WLX)
1.5(DL+EQX+0.3EQZ) 1.5(DL+EQX-0.3EQZ) 1.5(DL+WLX+0.3WLZ) 1.5(DL+WLX-0.3WLZ)
1.2(DL+LL+EQZ+0.3EQX) 1.2(DL+LL+EQZ-0.3EQX) 1.2(DL+LL+WLZ+0.3WLX) 1.2(DL+LL+WLZ-0.3WLX)
1.2(DL+LL+EQX+0.3EQZ) 1.2(DL+LL+EQX-0.3EQZ) 1.2(DL+LL+WLX+0.3WLZ) 1.2(DL+LL+WLX-0.3WLZ)
0.9DL+1.5(EQX+0.3EQZ) 0.9DL+1.5(EQX-0.3EQZ) 0.9DL+1.5(WLX+0.3WLZ) 0.9DL+1.5(WLX-0.3WLZ)
0.9DL+1.5(EQZ+0.3EQX) 0.9DL+1.5(EQZ-0.3EQX) 0.9DL+1.5(WLZ+0.3WLX) 0.9DL+1.5(WLZ-0.3WLX)
1.5(DL-EQX) 1.5(DL-EQZ+0.3EQX) 1.5(DL-WLX) 1.5(DL-WLZ+0.3WLX)
1.5(DL-EQZ) 1.5(DL-EQX-0.3EQZ) 1.5(DL-WLZ) 1.5(DL-WLX-0.3WLZ)
1.2(DL+LL-EQX) 1.2(DL+LL-EQZ+0.3EQX) 1.2(DL+LL-WLX) 1.2(DL+LL-WLZ+0.3WLX)
1.2(DL+LL-EQZ) 1.2(DL+LL-EQX+0.3EQZ) 1.2(DL+LL-WLZ) 1.2(DL+LL-WLX+0.3WLZ)
0.9DL-1.5EQX 0.9DL+1.5(-EQX+0.3EQZ) 0.9DL-1.5WLX 0.9DL+1.5(-WLX+0.3WLZ)

0.9DL+1.5(-WLZ+0.3WLX)
Models
SP 22(explainatory handbook to - IS1983)
Design
Foundation Design: Type of foundation for this structure is
pile foundation. Also the design and detailing for the
foundation is done manually. this included deciding the depth
of pile and calculating the load bearing capacity. Grouping of
piles as per support reactions derived from Staad analysis.
Thus deciding the different types of pile caps required.
Structural design and detailing of pile and pile caps.
LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY OF BORED CAST-IN-SITU PILE STATIC FORMULA -IS 2911 Part1- sec2

PILES IN GRANULAR SOILS


The ultimate bearing capacity ( Qu ) of piles in granular soils is
given by the following formula:

where
Ap = cross-sectional area of pile toe in cm2;
D = stem diameter in cm;
= effective unit weight of soil at pile toe in kgf/cm3;
PD = effective overburden pressure at pile toe in kgf/cm2;
Nr and Nq = bearing capacity factors depending upon the angle of internal friction at toe;
K = coefficient of earth pressure;
PDi = effective overburden pressure in kg/cm2 for the ith layer where i varies from 1 to n;
= angle of wall friction between pile and soil, in degrees (may be taken equal to ); and
Asi = surface area of pile stem in cm2 in the ith layer where I varies from 1 to n.

NOTE 1 Nr factor can be taken for general shear failure as per IS : 6403-1981*.
NOTE 2 Nq factor will depend, apart from nature of soil on the type of pile and its
method of construction, for bored piles, the value of Nq corresponding to angle of
shearing resistance are given in Fig. 1. This is based on Berezantseus curve for
D/B of 20 up to = 35 and Vesics curves beyond = 35.
NOTE 3 The earth pressure coefficient K depends on the nature of soil strata, type
of pile and its method of construction. For bored piles in loose medium sands, K
values between 1 and 2 should be used.
Pile properties:
Dia of pile: 0.5m
Length of pile: 25m
Vertical load carrying capacity: 2500KN
Pullout load capacity:1750KN
Lateral load carrying capacity: 108.7KN
Depth of fixity: 3.87m below cutoff.
Maximum moment in pile shaft:170.2KNm
Distance btw two piles: 3 times dia=1.5m
RCC design of Pile:
P=2500KN
M=170.2KNm
fck=30KN/m2
Ast required=4712mm2
Provide 10# 20 dia
Provide 8mm @ 300c/c lateral ties.
Sample calculation for design of a pile cap
From load data maximum reaction in the pile I & II are:
RI+RII=4681 kN 1.5
Bending Moment = 4681(0.85-0.6)
=1700KNm
Ast required=3632mm2
Provide 20dia @190c/c both ways
Check for one way shear:
Vu=0.0425x4081/0.5=347kN
v=Vu/bd=347000/915x2200=0.17 <c=0.29 .(safe)
Check for two way shear(punching)
Vu=347+0=347kN
v=347000/(2115x4x915)=0.0448 <c=0.29 .(safe)
CSR work (Annual budget 2011-2012, Rs. 30.7 lakh)
Under the CSR work area various cost estimates were prepared as under:

Title of work (Preparation of cost estimate for) Alloted Amount

Additional room(5m x 4m) in Kotabasti. 3 lakh


Garbage pits in Chilkadand, Nimiatand. 3 lakh
Renovation of community hall in Chilkadand/Kota/Parswar. 5 lakh

Construction of culvert with RCC road in Ranibari. 15 lakh


Renovation of drains in Chilkadand 4 lakh
Repair of school in parwar raja 0.7 lakh
TOTAL 30.7 lakh

Remarks:- Proposal forwarded for financial vetting and approval of


competent authority.
Steps in preparation of a cost estimate:

1. Site visit and inspection of proposed locations.


2. Preparation of construction drawings.
3. Listing the various items to be used (scheduled and non-
scheduled items).
4. Calculating the quantity of the items involved as per the
detailed drawings.
5. Calculating the rate as per DSR (scheduled items).
6. Rate analysis for non-scheduled items.
7. Estimating the total amount (including UPL profit, PAP,
contractors profit and service tax etc.).
Execution work
Execution of CISF morcha and telephone exchange building.
Construction (Repair and maintenance) of township road.
Various test conducted in FQA Lab
AGGREGATE TEST:
1. Sieve analysis test : This test is conducted for gradation of fine and coarse aggregates .
2. Aggregate Crushing Value- The aggregate crushing value, when determined in accordance with IS: 2386
(Part IV)-1963 shall not exceed 45 percent for aggregate used for concrete other than for wearing surfaces,
and 30 percent for concrete for wearing surfaces, such as runways, roads and pavements.
3. Aggregates Impact Value- impact value may be determined in accordance with the method specified in IS
: 2386 (Part IV )-1963. The aggregate impact value shall not exceed45 percent by weight for aggregates used
for concrete other than for wearing surfaces and 30 percent by weight for concrete for wearing surfaces,
such as runways, roads and pavements.

4.ELONGATION INDEX: This method is used for determining the elongation index of coarse aggregate.
5. FLAKINESS INDEXi: This method is used for determining the flakiness index of coarse aggregate
6.Stripping value test: Principle of this test is by immersing aggregate fully coated with binder in water
maintained at specified temp. and result is reported as the percentage of stone surface that is stripped off
after the specified time period
Test on Bitumen
1. Penetration test : This test is done to determine the penetration of bitumen as per IS: 1203 1978. The
principle is that the penetration of a bituminous material is the distance in tenths of a mm, that a standard
needle would penetrate vertically, into a sample of the material under standard conditions of temperature(25
degree calcius), load(100 g) and time(5 seconds).
2. Water content test: water content in Bitumen is determined by mixing known weight of the specimen in
a pure petroleum distillate free from water , heating and distillating off the water.
The weight of water condensed and collected is expressed as percentage by weight of the original specimen.
The maximum water content in bitumen should not exceed 0.2 percent by weight.
3. Softening point test : Softening point is the temperature at which the substance attains a particular degree
of softening under specified condition of test .Softening point of various bitumen grades varies between 35
degree to 70 degree.
References:
Various Indian Standard used are :
456-2000 - For Rcc design
875_1 -Dead Load
875_2 - Imposed (Live ) load
875_3 - Wind load
875_5 - Load combination
1893 (Part 1) : 2002 - Earthquake Loads
2911 1979 (Part 1 Sec 2)-Design and construction of pile foundation ( Bored cast in situ piles
Concrete Piles
383 - Specification for coarse and fine aggregates from natural sources for concrete
SP 16 - Design aids for reinforced concrete to is : 456-2000
SP 22 - Explanatory handbook oncodes for earthquake engineering
SP 36 - Handbook on reinforcement and detailing
Books:
- limit state design of RCC by A.K. Jain
- RCC Design by Cyal and goyal
- RCC Design of structeures by B.C. Punmia
- Highway Engineering By Khanna and Justo