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Oracle_ch3 HW (#7 & 8)

required
SQL> --7.
SQL> CREATE TABLE book_pricing (id, cost, retail, category)
2 AS (SELECT isbn, cost, retail, category
3 FROM books);

Table created.
SQL> --7b.(version 2)
SQL>
SQL> DROP TABLE book_pricing CASCADE CONSTRAINTS;

Table dropped.

SQL> required
SQL> CREATE TABLE book_pricing
2 AS (SELECT isbn as id, cost, retail, category
3 FROM books);

Table created.

Dr. Chen, Oracle Database System (Oracle) 1


SQL> --8.
SQL> ALTER TABLE book_pricing
2 SET UNUSED (category);
Table altered.

SQL> -- use one of the following commands to verify the result


SQL> Required (verify)
SQL> --8a
SQL> DESCRIBE book_pricing;
Name Null? Type
----------------------------------------- -------- ----------------------------
ID VARCHAR2(10)
COST NUMBER(5,2)
RETAIL Required (verify) NUMBER(5,2)
SQL> --8b
SQL> SELECT * FROM book_pricing;
ID COST RETAIL
ID COST RETAIL
---------- ---------- ----------
---------- ---------- ----------
0132149871 17.85 29.95
1059831198 18.75 30.95
9247381001 15.4 31.95
0401140733 14.2 22
2147428890 21.85 39.95
4981341710 37.8 59.95
8843172113 31.4 55.95
14 rows selected.
3437212490 12.5 19.95
3957136468 47.25 75.95
1915762492 21.8 25
9959789321 37.9 54.5
2491748320 48 89.95
0299282519 19 28.75
8117949391 5.32 8.95
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What will we study today?

Data Integrity How to


achieve it?

Referential
Integrity
(Constraints)

Dr. Chen, Oracle Database System (Oracle) 3


Chapter 4
Constraints

Jason C. H. Chen, Ph.D.


Professor of MIS
School of Business
Gonzaga University
Spokane, WA 99258 USA
chen@jepson.gonzaga.edu
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Objectives

Explain the purpose of constraints in a table


Distinguish among PRIMARY KEY, FOREIGN
KEY, UNIQUE, CHECK, and NOT NULL
constraints and the appropriate use for each
constraint
Understand how constraints can be created when
creating a table or modifying an existing table
Distinguish between creating constraints at the
column level and table level

Dr. Chen, Oracle Database System (Oracle) 5


Objectives (continued)
Create PRIMARY KEY constraints for a single
column and a composite primary key (cpk)
Create a FOREIGN KEY constraint
Create a UNIQUE constraint
Create a CHECK constraint
Create a NOT NULL constraint using the ALTER
TABLEMODIFY command
Include constraints during table creation
Use DISABLE and ENABLE commands
Use the DROP command
Dr. Chen, Oracle Database System (Oracle) 6
Referential Integrity
Q2: Can we delete customers#5 if orders#1 is still in the
database? Why?
customers
pk customer# LastName Referred Region
1001 MORALES NULL SE

Customers#5 1005 GIRARD NULL NW
1020 FALAH NULL NE

orders fk
pk
Order# customer# ShipZip ShipCost
orders#1 1000 1005 98114 2.00

1003 1001 32328 4.00
1012 1007 49002 6.00

Q1: Can we insert/create orders#1 if customers#5


is not created? Why?
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Referential Integrity
Move to JLDB_Referential_Integrity.pptx
file

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Refresh the Database

1. Create a new folder on c:\ as follows:


c:\oradata\chapter4
2. Go to Blackboard and download data
files from Oracle chapter4 and save under
c:\oradata\chapter4\
3. Run the following script file
Start c:\oradata\chapter4\JLDB_Build_4.sql

Dr. Chen, Oracle Database System (Oracle) 9


Type the following SQL commands
-- chapter 4, Figure 4-5; p. 108
INSERT INTO customers (customer#, lastname,
firstname, region)
VALUES (1020, 'PADDY', 'JACK', 'NE');
--extra INSERT command
INSERT INTO orders (order#, customer#, orderdate)
VALUES (1021, 1021, '06-APR-09');
-- DELETE command
DELETE FROM customers
WHERE customer# = 1005;
Dr. Chen, Oracle Database System (Oracle) 10
Constraint Checked with Data Input

Figure 4-5 Insert a row to test the constraint


What cause the problem?
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Using the FOREIGN KEY Constraint
Referential Integrity
customers
pk customer# LastName Referred Region
1001 MORALES NULL SE

1005 GIRARD NULL NW
1020 FALAH NULL NE

orders fk
pk
Order# customer# ShipZip ShipCost
1000 1005 98114 2.00

1003 1001 32328 4.00
1012 1007 49002 6.00

RULES:
1. You cant add/insert a record to TABLE- (or the table with fk, e.g., orders)
unless there is a corresponding record in TABLE-1 (or the table with pk).
2. You cant delete a record in TABLE-1 (or the table with pk, e.g.,
customers) if there is a record in TABLE- (or the table with fk).
Order of entering data into the database: customers orders
Order of deleting data from the database: orders customers
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Review from Last Class

What are the three rules of naming table and field?

What are the three (total of four) required information


that should be described for each field?
1. Name (saved in UPPER case in the D.B.)
2. Type
3. Size
4. Constraint

L
Dr. Chen, Oracle Database System (Oracle) 13
What is a Constraint?
A rule used to enforce business rules, practices,
and policies
A rule used to ensure accuracy and integrity of
data
A mechanism used to protect
the relationship between data within an Oracle
table, or
the correspondence between data in two different
tables.
For example, the state entered must be one of the 50
states in the U.S.
Dr. Chen, Oracle Database System (Oracle) 14
Types of Constraints

Integrity constraints: define primary and foreign


keys
Value constraints: define specific data values or
data ranges that must be inserted into columns and
whether values must be unique or not NULL
Table constraint: restricts the data value with
respect to all other values in the table
Field (column) constraint: limits the value that
can be placed in a specific field, irrespective of
values that exist in other table records

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I. Naming conventions for constraints

<tablename>_<fieldname>_<constraint id>
Where <constraint id> is:
pk PRIMARY KEY
fk REFERENCES <tablename> (pk)
ck CHECK <condition to be checked>
(note that cc stands for CHECK CONDITION)
nn NOT NULL
uk UNIQUE
e.g.,
s_id NUMBER (6) CONSTRAINT student_s_id_pk PRIMARY KEY;
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Integrity Constraints

Define primary key fields

Specify foreign keys and their


corresponding table and column
references

Specify composite keys

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Creating a Table

CREATE TABLE tablename


(fieldname1 data_type (size)
[CONSTRAINT constraint_name constraint_type],

fieldname2 data_type (size),



[CONSTRAINT constraint_name constraint_type,]
);
Dr. Chen, Oracle Database System (Oracle) 18
Creating Constraints

When
During table creation
After table creation, by modifying the existing
table
How
Column level approach
Table level approach

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Creating Constraints at the Column Level
If a constraint is being created at the column level, the
constraint applies to the column specified

Figure 4-1 Syntax for creating a column-level constraint

Creating Constraints at the Table Level


Approach can be used to create any constraint type after all
table field definitions are completed except NOT NULL
Required if constraint is based on multiple columns

Figure 4-2 Syntax for creating a table-level constraint


Dr. Chen, Oracle Database System (Oracle) 20
pk CUSTOMERS
Customer# LastName FirstName Address City State Zip Referred Region Email
NUMBER(4) VARCHAR2(10) VARCHAR2 VARCHAR2 VARCHAR2(12) VARCHAR VARCHAR2 NUMBER( CHAR(2) VARCHAR2(
(10) (20) 2(2) (5) 4) 30)

pk fk ORDERS
Order# Customer# OrderDate ShipDate ShipStreet ShipCity ShipState ShipZip ShipCost
NUMBER(4) NUMBER(4) DATE DATE VARCHAR2(18) VARCHAR2(15) VARCHAR2(2) NUMBER(4) NUMBER(4,2)

CREATE TABLE Customers


(Customer# NUMBER(4),
LastName VARCHAR2(10) NOT NULL,
FirstName VARCHAR2(10) NOT NULL,
Address VARCHAR2(20),
City VARCHAR2(12),
State VARCHAR2(2),
Zip VARCHAR2(5),
Referred NUMBER(4), Optional
Region CHAR(2), (variable name)
Email VARCHAR2(30),
CONSTRAINT customers_customer#_pk PRIMARY KEY(customer#),
CONSTRAINT customers_region_ck
CHECK (region IN ('N', 'NW', 'NE', 'S', 'SE', 'SW', 'W', 'E')) );
Dr. Chen, Oracle Database System (Oracle) 21
Qs
Q: How to display (describe) the table
structure that you just created of
customers table?
A: _______________________
DESCRIBE customers;
Q: Any constraint(s) displayed?
A: ____
NO! case is sensitive
Q: How to display them? (UPPER case) Why?
A:_SELECT constraint_name FROM
user_constraints WHERE
table_name=CUSTOMERS;
Dr. Chen, Oracle Database System (Oracle) 22
pk CUSTOMERS
Customer# LastName FirstName Address City State Zip Referred Region Email
NUMBER(4) VARCHAR2(10) VARCHAR2 VARCHAR2 VARCHAR2(12) VARCHAR VARCHAR2 NUMBER( CHAR(2) VARCHAR2(
(10) (20) 2(2) (5) 4) 30)

pk fk ORDERS
Order# Customer# OrderDate ShipDate ShipStreet ShipCity ShipState ShipZip ShipCost
NUMBER(4) NUMBER(4) DATE DATE VARCHAR2(18) VARCHAR2(15) VARCHAR2(2) NUMBER(4) NUMBER(4,2)

CREATE TABLE Orders


(Order# NUMBER(4),
Customer# NUMBER(4),
OrderDate DATE NOT NULL,
ShipDate DATE,
ShipStreet VARCHAR2(18),
ShipCity VARCHAR2(15),
ShipState VARCHAR2(2), Optional
ShipZip VARCHAR2(5), (variable name)
ShipCost NUMBER(4,2),
CONSTRAINT orders_order#_pk PRIMARY KEY(order#),
CONSTRAINT orders_customer#_fk FOREIGN KEY (customer#)
REFERENCES customers(customer#));
Dr. Chen, Oracle Database System (Oracle) 23
pk ORDERS How to define composite key?
Order# Customer# OrderDate ShipDate ShipStreet ShipCity ShipState ShipZip ShipCost
NUMBER(4) NUMBER(4) DATE DATE VARCHAR2(18) VARCHAR2(15) VARCHAR2(2) NUMBER(4) NUMBER(4,2)

pk BOOKS
ISBN Title PubDate PubID Cost Retail Discount Category
VARCHAR2(10) VARCHAR2(30) DATE NUMBER(2) NUMBER(5,2) NUMBER(5,2) NUMBER(4,2) VARCHAR2(12)

cpk ORDERITEMS
fk fk
Order# Item# ISBN Quantity PaidEach
NUMBER(4) NUMBER(2) VARCHAR2(10) NUMBER(3) NUMBER(5,2)

CREATE TABLE ORDERITEMS


( Order# NUMBER(4),
Item# NUMBER(2),
ISBN VARCHAR2(10), Optional
Quantity NUMBER(3) NOT NULL, (variable name)
PaidEach NUMBER(5,2) NOT NULL,
CONSTRAINT orderitems_order#item#_pk PRIMARY KEY (order#,
item#),
CONSTRAINT orderitems_order#_fk FOREIGN KEY (order#)
REFERENCES orders (order#) ,
CONSTRAINT orderitems_isbn_fk FOREIGN KEY (isbn)
REFERENCES books (isbn) ,
CONSTRAINT oderitems_quantity_ck CHECK (quantity > 0) );
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Your Job

You need to study and understand all


CREATE TABLE SQL commands in
JLDB_Build_4.sql

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Enforcement of Constraints

All constraints are enforced at the table


level
If a data value violates a constraint, the
entire row is rejected

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Constraint Types

Table 4-1 Constraint types


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Your Turn

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Primary Key Constraints
Syntax:
CONSTRAINT constraint_name PRIMARY KEY

Create a table with the following information:


1. Name of the table: students
2. Fields: s_id number with 6 digits and is a primary key, s_name
character with 30 chars, s_class with 2 chars, s_dob with DATE

SQL> CREATE TABLE students


2 (s_id NUMBER(6) CONSTRAINT students_s_id_pk PRIMARY
KEY,
3 s_name VARCHAR2(30),
4 s_class CHAR(2),
5 s_dob DATE);
Dr. Chen, Oracle Database System (Oracle) 29
Primary Key Constraints (cont.)
at the Column-Level
SQL> CREATE TABLE students
2 (s_id NUMBER(6) CONSTRAINT students_s_id_pk PRIMARY
KEY,
3 s_name VARCHAR2(30),
4 s_class CHAR(2),
5 s_dob DATE);
Practice:
at the Table-Level
Type in one of the command.
SQL> CREATE TABLE students
2 (s_id NUMBER(6),
3 s_name VARCHAR2(30),
4 s_class CHAR(2),
5 s_dob DATE,
6 CONSTRAINT students_s_id_pk PRIMARY KEY (s_id));
Dr. Chen, Oracle Database System (Oracle) 30
Your Job

Read the rest of powerpoint slides and


practice all examples
Skip to another practice example with
THREE new tables

Dr. Chen, Oracle Database System (Oracle) 31


Adding Constraints to Existing Tables

Constraints are added to an existing table


with the ALTER TABLE command
Add a NOT NULL constraint using
MODIFY clause
All other constraints are added using ADD
clause

Dr. Chen, Oracle Database System (Oracle) 32


Using the PRIMARY KEY Constraint

Ensures that columns do not contain duplicate


or NULL values
Only one per table is allowed

Figure 4-3 Syntax of the ALTER TABLE command to add a PRIMARY KEY constraint

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Drop Contraint

ALTER TABLE orderitems


DROP CONSTRAINT
orderitems_order#item#_pk PRIMARY
KEY (order#, item#);

Dr. Chen, Oracle Database System (Oracle) 34


Deletion of Foreign Key Values

You cannot delete a value in a parent table


referenced by a row in a child table
Use ON DELETE CASCADE keywords
when creating FOREIGN KEY constraint
it automatically deletes a parent row when
the row in a child table is deleted

Dr. Chen, Oracle Database System (Oracle) 35


Practice

Lets try to create additional tables


JustLee Books would like to create some new
tables to store office equipment inventory data.

EQUIP
DEPT ETYPES
EquipID
DeptID Edesc EtypeID
Dname Purchdate Etypename
Fax Rating
DeptID
EtypeID

Figure 4-26 E-R model for equipment tables

Dr. Chen, Oracle Database System (Oracle) 36


Including Constraints during Table Creation
EQUIP
pk DEPT pk EquipID
pk ETYPES
DeptID Edesc EtypeID
Dname Purchdate Etypename
Fax Rating
fk DeptID
EtypeID fk

Each department name must be unique. unique


Each department must be assigned a name . NOT NULL

Each equipment type name must be unique unique


Each equipment type must be assigned a name. NOT NULL
Each equipment item must be assigned a valid department.
If an equipment item is assigned a type, it must be a valid type.
Valid rating values for equipment are A, B, and C. ck
Dr. Chen, Oracle Database System (Oracle) 37
DEPT table creation

-- chapter 4, Figure 4-27; p. 122


CREATE TABLE dept
(deptid NUMBER(2),
dname VARCHAR2(20) NOT NULL,
fax VARCHAR2(12),
CONSTRAINT dept_deptid_pk PRIMARY KEY (deptid),
CONSTRAINT dept_dname_uk UNIQUE (dname) );

Each department name must be unique. unique


Each department must be assigned a name . NOT NULL

Dr. Chen, Oracle Database System (Oracle) 38


What is the main difference on the following
CREATE TABLE statements?
Constraints are defined at the table-level
-- chapter 4, Figure 4-27; p. 122
CREATE TABLE dept
(deptid NUMBER(2),
dname VARCHAR2(20) NOT NULL,
fax VARCHAR2(12),
CONSTRAINT dept_deptid_pk PRIMARY KEY (deptid),
CONSTRAINT dept_dname_uk UNIQUE (dname) );

Constraints are defined at the column-level


-- chapter 4, Figure 4-30; p. 124
CREATE TABLE dept
(deptid NUMBER(2) CONSTRAINT dept_deptid_pk PRIMARY KEY,
dname VARCHAR2(20) NOT NULL CONSTRAINT dept_dname_uk
UNIQUE,
fax VARCHAR2(12));
Dr. Chen, Oracle Database System (Oracle) 39
-- chapter 4, Figure 4-28; p. 123 Each equipment type name must be unique
CREATE TABLE etypes Each equipment type must be assigned a name.
(etypeid NUMBER(2),
etypename VARCHAR2(20) NOT NULL,
CONSTRAINT etypes_etypeid_pk PRIMARY KEY (etypeid),
CONSTRAINT etypes_etypename_uk UNIQUE (etypename) );

-- chapter 4, Figure 4-29; p. 123


CREATE TABLE equip Each equipment item must be assigned a valid department.
(equipid NUMBER(3), If an equipment item is assigned a type, it must be a valid
edesc VARCHAR2(30), type.
purchdate DATE, Valid rating values for equipment are A, B, and C.
rating CHAR(1),
deptid NUMBER(2) NOT NULL,
etypeid NUMBER(2),
CONSTRAINT equip_equipid_pk PRIMARY KEY (equipid),
CONSTRAINT equip_deptid_fk FOREIGN KEY (deptid)
REFERENCES dept (dept_id),
CONSTRAINT equip_etypeid_fk FOREIGN KEY (etypeid)
REFERENCES etypes (etypeid),
CONSTRAINT equip_rating_ck CHECK (rating IN ('A', 'B', 'C', 'D')) );
Dr. Chen, Oracle Database System (Oracle) 40
HW!!
Practice all the examples in the text.
A Script file is available on the Bb (file name:
Ch4Queries.sql)
After completing all examples, do the HW (hint: see
the tables below for the final schema and the sample
output on the Bb under Assignments
pk store_reps
rep_id last first comm base_salary
NUMBER(5) VARCHAR2(15) VARCHAR2(10) CHAR(1) NUMBER(7,2)

pk book_stores fk

store_id name contact rep_id


NUMBER(8) VARCHAR2(30) VARCHAR2(30) NUMBER(5)

cpk, fk rep_contracts cpk, fk


cpk

store_id name quarter rep_id


NUMBER(8) VARCHAR2(5) CHAR(3) NUMBER(5)
Dr. Chen, Oracle Database System (Oracle) 41
Homework - Hands-On Assignments
Upload the SQL and spooled files (*.sql and *.txt) to the Bb
(under Assignments & Projects) by the deadline
Read and Practice all examples on Chapters 4
1. Run the script files (in the folder
\oradata\chapter4\): JLDB_Build_4.sql
2. Read Oracle assignment and create a script file
Oracle_ch4_Lname_Fname.sql for questions (#1
to #8; p.133) on Hands-on Assignments. .
3. Execute and test one problem at a time and make
sure they are all running successfully.
4. When you done, spool the script files (see next
slide for spooling instructions) and UPLOAD both
*.sql and spooled file
Oracle_ch4_Spool_Lname_Fname.txt to
Bb by the midnight before the next class.
Turn in a hardcopy of spooled file (*.txt
ONLY) to me in the class.
[correction on p.138: Name Datatype should be VARCHAR2(5)]
Dr. Chen, Oracle Database System (Oracle) 42
How to Spool your Script and Output Files
After you tested the script file of Oracle_ch4_Lname_Fname.sql successfully,
follow the instructions below to spool both script and output files:
Step 0. Run the following script file from SQL*Plus (since you have created
JLDB tables)
Start c:\oradata\chapter4\JLDB_Build_4.sql
1. type the following on SQL>
Spool c:\oradata\Oracle_ch4_Spool_Lname_Fname.txt (make sure your name is entered)
2. open Oracle_ch4_Lname_Fname.sql that you already tested
3. copy and paste all the SQL commands (including all comments) to the
SQL*PLUS
4. type Spool Off on the SQL>
The output should contain your personal information, all SQL commands and
their solution on the .txt file and saved in C: drive (oradata\ folder)

Upload the SQL and spooled files (*.sql and *.txt) to the Bb
(under Assignments & Projects) by the deadline

Dr. Chen, Oracle Database System (Oracle) 43


End of chapter 4

Dr. Chen, Oracle Database System (Oracle) 44