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Past Perfect Tense

Past Perfect Tense


The past perfect tense is used to express action
completed in the past:
"She had eaten is an example of the tense.
The past perfect tense represents action that
occurs BEFORE another past action:
"My boss had gone before I had the chance to see
him."
Past Perfect Tense
The past perfect tense is usually used with two past actions. The
verb in the past perfect shows the first past action.
She had visited several doctors before she
found out the problem.
First action (verb): had visited
Second action (verb): found out

The word order can be changed but it doesn't change the meaning:
In these examples, Event A is the event that happened first and
Event B is the second or more recent event:
Event A Event B
The Principal had gone out, when I arrived in the office.
Event A Event B
I had saved my document, before the light went off.
Event B Event A
When they arrived, we had already started cooking.
Event B Event A
He was very tired, because he hadn't slept well.
Forming the past perfect
Positive: Subject + had + past participle + object / phrase
E.g. She had finished the assignment.
Negative: Subject + had +not+ past participle + object / phrase
E.g. She had not finished the assignment.
Interrogative: Had + Subject + Past Participle + Object/ Phrase?
E.g. Has she finished the assignment?
Yes, she had / No, she hadnt
Positive Sentences
She had undergone heart surgery in her childhood.
I had lost my camera when I reached the picnic point.
She had cooked some food before the break of fast.
He had spent all of end by the end of month.
They had shifted to a new home.
He had earned a lot of money.
She had appeared in the exam.
He had lent me his book.
They had bought a new car.
You had gone before I reached.
The patient had died before the doctor came.
NEGATIVE SENTENCES:
He had not informed me about his illness.
He had not finished his work.
She had not applied for some job.
They had not cleaned their room.
I had not visited him.
She had not bought new dresses for the wedding party.
You had not helped him when he needed your help.
He had not met me when I was in the college.
We had not finished our work when he came here.
I had not told him the truth when he asked me.
Yes/ No Questions
Had you completed your task?
Had he prepared himself for the exam?
Had she prepared some food for the kids?
Had I thought about my future?
Had he appeared in the exam?
Had he waited for you?
Had you bought a calculator before you attempted exam of
mathematics?
Had you taken medicine when you were ill?
Had she watered the plant before it dried?
Had they quit eating sweets when doctor advised them?
After
After+ Sub + had +Past Participle.. , Sub + Past Simple+.
After he had left the class, I found his notes.
After Safia had finished her work, she went to lunch.
After I had taken the test , I appeared in the interview.
Sub + Past Simple+. After+ Sub + had +Past Participle..
I went there after I had finished my classes.
The police arrived at the scene after thieves had stolen the car.
He got an answer, after he had sent an email.
Before
Sub + had +Past Participle.. , Before+ Sub + Past Simple+.
He had already won the match before he bowled the last over.
They had finished the discussion before he changed his mind.
We had bought the book before we read it.
He had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic's license.
Before+ Sub + Past Simple+. Sub + had +Past Participle..
Before I went to university, I had worked as a carpenter for 5 years.
Before we left, we had eaten the dinner.
Before we finished the course, we had received certificates.
When
Sub + had +Past Participle.. , when + Sub + Past Simple+.
She had waited for hours in the bus when she arrived in London.
He had travelled many times when he went to Karachi last time.
They had come back from the picnic when their father came to fetch
them.
When+ Sub + Past Simple+. Sub + had +Past Participle..
When I went to university for M.A, I had worked as a Junior teacher
for 3 years.
When he left, my mother had eaten her meal.
When you came yesterday, I had watched the match.
After, When, Before Quiz
1. She _____ (take) the public transport when she _____ (go) to Khairpur
every week.
2. I _____ (prepare) dinner before my friend _____ (arrive) yesterday
evening.
3. We _____ (go) out for eating ice-cream after we _____ (get) home.
4. Before I _____ (answer) his question, he _____ (tell) me his secret.
5. Basit ______ (keep) a bilingual dictionary when he _____ (read) a book
in Persian.
6. When he _____ (arrive) last week, we _____ (receive) his salary.
7. She _____ (order) a burger when she ______ (go) to a restaurant with
me last week.
8. After I _____ (finish) the report, I _____ (hand) in my homework to the
teacher.
Past perfect + just
'Just' is used with the past perfect to refer to an event that
was only a short time earlier than before now, e.g.

The train had just left when I arrived at the station.


She had just left the room when the police arrived.
I had just put the washing out when it started to rain.
He had just turned on the tv when the door bell rang.
She had just started eating when her friend called on the
phone
Put in the verbs in brackets into the gaps and form sentences in Past Perfect

1. She __________in Hyderabad before she went to Karachi. (to live)


2. After we __________ the ice-cream, uncle Jabbar came in. (to eat)
3. Before Kamran ran to Zohaib's house, he __________him. (to phone)
4. After they __________their school-bags, they rode away on their bikes. (to
pack)
5. Ali helped his grandmother in the house because his father __________him
so. (to tell)
6. The cat hid under the chair because the children __________ so loud. (to be)
7. Before the students started to write, the teacher __________ their mobile
phones. (to collect)
8. After Majid __________his breakfast, he left the flat. (to finish)
9. Zeba repaired her glasses because her brother __________ them. (to break)
10. By the time the show began, all friends __________. (to arrive)