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Author: Xu haihong Email: xuhaihong@huawei.com
Abstract:
This slide compares the coverage capability of GSM, UMTS and LTE, including
basic link budget procedure, parameters, voice and data coverage radius.
Duration: ~1.0 Hours

Revision Record
Revision
Version Author Revision Description
Date
1.0 2012.04 Xu haihong Initial Version
1.1 2012.08 Chengtangbai Revision

Please remove this page before the presentation!

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 1


6/29/17

GSM/UMTS/LTE
Coverage Comparison

www.huawei.com

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential


Content
LTE Overview

GUL Coverage Comparison

Summary
LTE Key Technologies

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 4


LTE Brings Better User Experience

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 5


LTE Enables Multiple Applications

Multimedia & Gaming


Social communication
E-business
Searching, email, location
Mobile Advertising

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 6


LTE is Blooming Worldwide

LTE is the fastest developing system in the


history of mobile telecommunications --- from
GSA

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 7


Content
LTE Overview

GUL Coverage Comparison

Summary
Contents for Coverage Comparison
GUL Link Budget comparison

Voice & Data coverage comparison

Signal and threshold used for coverage

prediction comparison

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 9


Technique Differences between GUL
Items GSM UMTS LTE

Channel Spacing 200KHz 5MHz 1.420MHz


Radio Transmission TDMA CDMA OFDMA
Frequency Plan? Yes No SFR
Handover Hard HO Soft HO Hard HO
Power Control Yes (Slow PC) Yes (Fast PC) Yes (Slow PC)
Support MIMO? No No (HSPA+, Yes) Yes
Pilot Channel BCCH CPICH RS(RSRP/RS SINR )
Capacity Resource # of TRX # of Carriers # of RBs
Support AMC? No (EDGE, Yes) No (HSPA, Yes) Yes
UE max Power 33dBm 24dBm 23dBm

More differences, such as flat network structure, reduced time delay, higher
user data rates, improved spectral efficiency, ANR ...

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 10


GUL Link Budget Procedure Comparison
Slow fading margin
UE Antenna Gain

Interference margin
UE TX Power

Body Loss

Penetration Loss
Antenna Gain

Cell Radius

Pa
th
Lo
ss Path Loss

Cable Loss Cable Loss

eNodeB eNodeB Antenna Gain


Sensitivity
Penetration
Loss
eNodeB RX sensitivity

Similar link budget procedure, just some parameters different


HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 11
Parameter Comparison (1/2) ----Rx
Sensitivity
GSM Receiver Sensitivity
116dBm for uplink and -102dBm for downlink
Fixed for voice

UMTS Receiver Sensitivity


174dBm/Hz + 10*log10(3.84MHz) + NF + Eb/N0 Processing
Gain
Related with service type and channel model

LTE Receiver Sensitivity


Per subcarrier: 174dBm/Hz + 10*log10(15KHz) + NF +SINR
Related with data rate per RB and channel model

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 12


Parameter Comparison (1/2) ----Rx
Sensitivity
LTE Rx Sensitivity Per Sub-
carrier
= -174 (dBm/Hz)+ 10*log(15000Hz)+ NF + SINR
= -132.24 dBm/15KHz + NF +SINR

LTE Rx Sensitivity Per Occupied


Bandwidth
= - 174(dBm/Hz)+ 10*log(180000Hz*N_PRB)+ NF + SINR
= -121.45 dBm/180KHz + 10*log(N_PRB)+NF +SINR

LTE eNodeB Sensitivity Specified


by channel
3GPP eNodeB
receiver
bandwidth(M
sensitivity
Hz)
(dBm)
1.4 -106.8 (6RB)
3 -103.0 (15RB)
5 -101.5 (25RB)
10 -101.5 (25RB)
15 -101.5
---- 3GPP(25RB)
TS
36.104
20 -101.5 (25RB)

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 13


Parameter Comparison (1/2) ---- FFM
GSM fast fading margin
~ 3dB to consider the actual existence of worse radio
environment
UMTS fast fading margin
Variable with service type and channel model
LTE fast fading margin
No fast fading is considered

Rx signal level

Long term fading


Fast Fading
Distance

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 14


Parameter Comparison (2/2) ---- FFM
WCDMA LTE
Tx Power Level

Fast Scheduling

Rx Power Level
AMC

Fast PC

HARQ

UMTS uses fast power control to resist fast


fading and hence FFM is needed to LTE uses fast scheduling, AMC and
HARQ to resist fast fading
guarantee adequate power under fast
CLPC

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 15


Why Fast Power Control is Necessary for
UMTS
Uplink Downlink
NodeB Tx
Power

Avoid Near-Far Effect and resist


Improve downlink capacity and
fast fading for uplink
resist fast fading

Fast fading margin (Power


control headroom ) is needed
to guarantee adequate under
power control

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 16


Parameter Comparison ---- IM
GSM interference Margin
Frequency reuse results in interference
~ 1dB for 4*3 frequency reuse pattern

UMTS interference Margin


Frequency reuse factor 1 and multipath results in interference
Variable with system load and scenarios

LTE interference margin


Frequency reuse factor 1 results in interference
Variable with system load and scenarios

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 17


Parameter Comparison ---- SFM
GSM/LTE hard handover UMTS soft handover

Only one radio link between UE At least two radio links between
and eNodeB UE and NodeB

UMTS SFM is smaller


than GSM and LTE due

UMTS to soft handover gain


SFM No hard handover gain
LTE SFM is considered for GSM
due to PBGT handover
Hard handover gain is
GSM SFM
considered for LTE SFM

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 18


Parameter Comparison ---- Cell Edge
Service

GSM UMTS LTE

AMR12.2 AMR12.2 VoIP 12.2


CS64
PS64/128/384 PS service
HSPA

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 19


Contents for Coverage Comparison
GUL Link Budget comparison

Voice & Data coverage comparison

Signal and threshold used for coverage

prediction comparison

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 20


Uplink Limited Coverage for LTE
LTE Link Budget Uplink Downlink
Morphology Dense Urban
Duplex Mode FDD
User Environment Indoor
Channel Bandwidth (MHz) 20
Path Loss & Cell Radius
Channel Model ETU 3
Penetration Loss (dB) 20 20
MIMO Scheme 12 22 SFBC
Std.of Shadow Fading (dB) 11.7 11.7
Cell Edge Rate (kbps) 256 1024
Area Coverage Probability 95.00% 95.00%
MCS QPSK 0.25 QPSK 0.19
Tx Shadow Fading Margin (dB) 9.48 9.48
Max Total Tx Power (dBm) 23 46 Path loss 125.6 128.18
Allocated RB 4 24 Propagation Model Cost231-Hata
Subcarrier Power (dBm) 6.19 15.21
Tx Antenna Gain (dBi) 0 18 eNodeB/UE Antenna Height (m) 30 1.5
Tx Cable Loss (dB) 0 0.5 Frequency (MHz) 2600 2600
Tx Body loss (dB) 0 0 Cell Radius (km) 0.29 0.34
EIRP per Subcarrier (dBm) 6.19 32.71
Rx
SINR (dB) -2.52 -3.39
Rx Noise Figure (dB) 2.5 7
Receiver Sensitivity (dBm) -132.26 -128.63
Rx Antenna Gain (dBi) 18 0
Rx Cable Loss (dB) 0.5 0
Rx Body loss (dB) 0 0
Target Load 50.00% 70.00%
Interference Margin (dB) 0.87 3.67
Min Signal Reception Strength (dBm) -148.89 -124.96

LTE coverage is typically uplink limited due to UE power limitation


HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 21
GSM, HSPA, & LTE- Downlink
Comparison

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 22


GSM, HSPA, & LTE- Uplink
Comparison

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 23


UMTS&LTE Data MAPL Comparison
(1/2) R99 HSUPA
Data Coverage LTE
Data Rate (Kbps) 64 384 64 384 64 384
System Bandwidth (MHz) 5 5 5 5 5 5
MCS at Cell Edge - - - - QPSK0.31 QPSK0.25
Antenna Configuration 1*2 1*2 1*2 1*2 1*2 1*2
Uplink Load 75% 75% 75% 75% 75% 75%
Channel Model TU3 TU3 ETU3
# RB Allocated for the user - - 1 6 ~2dB
Tx
Max Tx Power (dBm) 24.00 24.00 24.00 24.00 23.00 23.00
Cable Loss (dB) 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.0
Body Loss (dB) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 ~2.5d
Antenna Gain (dBi) 0 0 0 0 0 0 B
Power Back Off (dB) 0 0 1.5 1.5 0 0
EIRP (dBm) 24.0 24.0 22.5 22.5 23.0 23.0
Rx
Antenna Gain (dBi) 18 18 18 18 18 18
Cable Loss (dB) 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Body Loss (dB) 0 0 0 0 0 0
Noise Figure (dB) 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 2.50 2.50
Interference Margin (dB) 6 6 6 6 1 1
SINR (dB)
FFM(dB)
-15.3
0.8
-7.9
1.9
-15.6
0.2
-8.8
0.2
-1.5
0.0
-2.6
0.0
LTE data
RX Sensitivity per subcarrier
(dBm)
-121.8 -114.5 -122.2 -115.4 -120.4 -113.8 coverage( MAPL) is
Minimum Signal Level (dBm) -132.5 -124.1 -133.5 -126.7 -136.9 -130.3 better than UMTS for
MAPL
Shadow Fading Margin 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 10.0 10.0
same data rate
MAPL (dB) 148.0 139.6 147.5 140.7 149.9 143.3

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 24


UMTS&LTE Data MAPL Comparison
(2/2)

At same cell radius, LTE


@2.6GHz data rate is
higher than
HSDPA@2.1GHz for
5MHz bandwidth

Key Assumptions:
Dense urban scenario
HSDPA 5MHz@ 2.1GHz , 20W Tx power
LTE 5MHz@2.6GHz ,2*20W power for
2*2MIMO

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 25


Contents for Coverage Comparison
GUL Link Budget comparison

Voice & Data coverage comparison

Signal and threshold used for coverage

prediction comparison

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 26


GUL Signals Used for Coverage
Evaluation

GSM UMTS LTE

BCCH for pilot CPICH for pilot RS for pilot


Rx lev RSCP RSRP
C/I Ec/Io RS SINR

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential


RxLev, RSRP and RSCP Comparison
UMT
Items GSM S LTE
(e)NodeB power per
Tx (dBm) 43 43 43
Bandwidth (MHz) 0.2 5 20
N/A
Number of RB N/A 100 RSRP is the received signal
BCCH Power/ CPICH strength over 15KHz
power /RS power per bandwidth while
RE (dBm) 43 33 15.2 bandwidth of RSCP is 5MHz
CL (dB) 120 120 120
Rx Lev/RSCP/RSRP
(dBm) -77 -87 -104.8 Only 1/6 REs is used for RS
Received RS signal transmission within one RB and
hence the total received RS
strength over whole
power is 10*log10(100*12*1/6)
bandwidth -81.8 = 23dB higher than RSRP

RSRP of LTE is much smaller than RSCP of UMTS under same


radio environment
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 28
RSRP Drive Test Results
34.50%
35%
29.90%
30% 25.80%
25%

20%

15%
8.60%
10%

5% 1.20%
0%

Conditions
2.6GHz, 20MHz
bandwidth
2*20W power
configuration
About 27% RSRP is
smaller than -90dBm

Drive test results also proves RSRP smaller than RSCP


HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 29
HSPA & LTE Coverage Comparison
Field Test Results(1/3)
Uplink LTE & HSPA Throughput Comparison

Test Conditions:
HSPA 5MHz@ PCS, 30W Tx power for SISO
LTE 15MHz@AWS,2*30W power for
2*2MIMO

LTE has better uplink coverage than HSUPA


HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 30
HSPA & LTE Coverage Comparison
Field Test Results(2/3)
Downlink LTE & HSPA Throughput
Comparison

Test Conditions:
HSPA 5MHz@ PCS, 30W Tx power for SISO
LTE 15MHz@AWS,2*30W power for
2*2MIMO
LTE has higher downlink throughput at cell edge than HSDPA
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 31
HSPA & LTE Coverage Comparison
Field Test Results(3/3)
LTE RSRP & UMTS RSCP Comparison

~ 20dB

Test Conditions:
HSPA 5MHz@ PCS, 30W Tx power for SISO
LTE 15MHz@AWS,2*30W power for
2*2MIMO
RSRP of LTE@AWS is ~20dB less than RSCP of UMTS@PCS
band for co-site scenario
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 32
Factors Influencing LTE Coverage
Frequency
Band
LTE ICIC Data Rate
Specific

TX Power LTE
RB Number Specific
Factors Affecting LTE
Link Budget

Cell Load
LTE
MCS Specific

MIMO Radio Condition Receiver


Interference
Margin Sensitivity
LTE Standard
ICIC Inter Cell Interference
Coordination
Some other factors such as site height, BPL, TMA, coverage probability,

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential


Content
UMTS & LTE RNP Comparison Overview

GUL Coverage Comparison

Summary
Coverage Comparison Summary (1/2)

LTE have a better data coverage and a poor voice


coverage than UMTS at the same frequency band
LTE uses RSRP and RS SINR for coverage evaluation
while UMTS uses RSCP and Ec/Io
RSRP is the signal strength over 15kHz bandwidth and
is about 20dB lower than RSCP under same
environment
LTE uplink coverage is power limited and hence larger
bandwidth could not increase uplink coverage

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 35


Coverage Comparison Summary (2/2)
For the same frequency band, LTE voice coverage is
smaller than UMTS voice and larger than GSM voice

For the same data requirement, LTE 2.6G could co-


locate with UMTS2.1G

Given the same site distribution, LTE 2.6G could


achieve a better data performance than HSDPA 2.1G
for 5MHz bandwidth

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 36