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EDUCATIONAL

TECHNOLOGY
Christopher Allan E. Talili
Learning Episode 5:

The Cone of Experience


The cone is a visual analogy and like all analogies, it does not bear an
exact and detailed relationship to the complex elements it present.

- Edgar Dale
Learning Episode 6-Direct, Purposeful Experiences and Beyond

The Cone of Experience is a visual model, a


pictorial device that presents bans of
experience arranged according to degree of
abstraction and not degree of difficulty. The
farther you go from the bottom of the cone,
the more abstract the experience becomes.
Learning Episode 5-The Cone of Experience

Direct Purposeful Experiences


These are the first hand experiences which serves as the
foundation of our learning.
Contrived Experiences
In here, we make use of representative models or mock ups
of reality for practical reasons and so that we can make the real life
accessible to the students perception and understanding.
Dramatized Experiences
By dramatization, we can participate in a reconstructed
experience, even though the original event is far removed from us in
time.
Learning Episode 5-The Cone of Experience

Demonstrations
It is a visualized explanation of an important fact, ideas or
process by the use of photographs, drawings, films, displays or
guided motions.
Study Trips
These are excursions and visits conducted to observe an
event that is unavailable within the classroom.
Exhibits
These are displays to be seen by spectators. They may
consist of working models arranged meaningfully or photographs
with models, charts and posters.
Learning Episode 5-The Cone of Experience

Television and Motion Pictures


Television and motion pictures can reconstruct the reality of
the past so effectively that we are made to feel we are there.
Still Pictures, Recordings, Radio
These are visual and auditory devices may be used by an
individual or a group.
Visual Symbols
These are no longer realistic reproduction of physical things
for these are highly abstract representation.
Verbal Symbols
They are not like the objects or ideas for which they stand.
They usually do not contain visual clues to their meaning.
Learning Episode 6:

Using and Evaluating


Instructional Material
The cone is a visual analogy and like all analogies, it does not bear an
exact and detailed relationship to the complex elements it present.

- Edgar Dale
Learning Episode 6-Using and Evaluating Instructional Material

For an effective use of instructional


material such as fieldtrip, there are
guidelines that ought to be
observed , first of all, in their
selection, second, in their use.
Learning Episode 6-Using and Evaluating Instructional Material

Selections of Materials
The following guide questions express standards to consider in
the selection of instructional materials:

Do the materials give a true picture of the ideas they present?


Do the materials contribute meaningful content to the topic
under study?
Is the material appropriate for the age, intelligence and
experience of the learners?
Is the physical condition of the material satisfactory?
Learning Episode 6-Using and Evaluating Instructional Material

Selections of Materials
The following guide questions express standards to consider in
the selection of instructional materials:

Is there a teachers guide to provide a briefing for effective use?


Can the materials in question help to make students better
thinkers and develop their critical faculties?
Is the material worth the time, expense and effort involved?
Learning Episode 6-Using and Evaluating Instructional Material

The Proper use of Materials


To ensure the effective use of
instructional material, Hayden
Smith and Thomas Nangel (1972)
book of authors on Instructional
Media, advise us to abide by the
acronym PPPF.
Learning Episode 6-Using and Evaluating Instructional Material

P Prepare yourself
P Prepare your Student
P Present the Material
F Follow Up
Learning Episode 6-Using and Evaluating Instructional Material

Prepare Yourself
You know your lesson objective and what you
expect from the class after the session and why you
have selected such particular instructional material.
Prepare Your Students
Set class expectations and learning goals. It is
sound practice to give them guide questions for them
to be able to answer during discussion.
Learning Episode 6-Using and Evaluating Instructional Material

Present the Material


Present the materials under the best possible
conditions. Many teachers are guilty of R. O. G.
Syndrome. This means running out of gas which
usually results from poor planning.
Follow up
Remember that you use instructional material to
achieve an objective, not to kill time nor to give yourself
a break, neither to merely entertain class.
FIN