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Moving Particles and Temperature

States of Matters

The particles are The particles are The particles are


away from each close to each tight because their
other because other because forces are the
their forces are their forces are strongest
the weakest stronger than gas
State of Matters

1. Vibrates 1. Vibrates 1. Move about at high speed


2. Holds shape vigorously 2. Same shape as the container
3. Fixed volume 2. Same shape as 3. Same volume as the
the container container
3. Fixed volume
Particles Movement
Howto observe particles movement:
1. Drop food coloring into a glass of water. Observe
the motion of the food coloring

or

2. Observe the movement of smoke under a


microscope

or

3. Simply observe the movement of smoke of a


blown out candle
Particle Movements
Energy in Particles

Particles have KE and PE.


The total of KE and PE in particles is called
INTERNAL ENERGY.
The HOTTER a material, the FASTER its particles
move, the MORE INTERNAL ENERGY it has.
Energy Transfer
When a hot material touches a cold material, the hot
material gives some of its internal energy to the cold
one.
The transferred internal energy is called HEAT
Heat is transferred when there is temperature
difference, from high temperature to low
temperature.
Heat transfer stops when same temperature
achieved
HOT COLD
Temperature is not heat.
Temperature is measured by thermometer.
Types of thermometer:
It works based on liquid expansion
How to choose the liquid?
Feature Mercury Alcohol
Sensitivity Less (need narrower More
tube to increase
sensitivity)
Range -39C to 500C -115C to 70C

Use small and thin bulb Use small and thin


Responsiveness
for fast response bulb for fast response

Consistency/Linearity Good at 0 to 100C Good at 0 to 100C


Temperature Scale

Upper Fixed Point =


Boling point of pure
water

Lower Fixe Point =


Melting point of pure
ice
Temperature Scale Conversion
Pure waters boiling point
(upper fixed point)

Pure ices melting point


(lower fixed point)

Use the difference between upper fixed point and lower fixed
point as the ratio.
Celcius : Fahrenheit : Reamur : Kelvin
100-0 : 212-32 : 80-0 : 373-273
100 : 180 : 80 : 100 Simplify, divide
5 : 9 : 4 : 5 by 20
Temperature Scale Conversion
Example:
77 F = .... C = .... R= .... K
Answer:
Write the scales and their ratio Celcius : Fahrenheit : Reamur : Kelvin
number 5 : 9 : 4 : 5
x5 x5 x5 x5
Subtract given temperature and its
25 45 20 25
lower fixed point and put it under
its ratio number 0 0 273
(77-32 = 45) + + +
25 20 298
Find the multiplier and multiply
the rest of the ratio with it

Add the result with the lower fixed


point of each scale
Thermometer X
The liquid in thermometer X is 14 cm when it is
put in melting ice and 69 cm when it is in boiling
water. Thus, 80C equals to.... cm in
thermometer X.
Thermometer X
The liquid in thermometer Y is 22 cm when it is
put in melting ice and 78 cm when it is in boiling
water. Thus, 50 cm in thermometer Y equals
to.... K
Questions
1. The liquid in thermometer Y is 34 cm when it
is put in melting ice and 66 cm when it is in
boiling water. Thus, 122F equals to....cm in
thermometer Y.

2. The liquid in thermometer H is 12 cm when it


is put in melting ice and 76 cm when it is in
boiling water. Thus, 32 cm in thermometer H
equals to.... R

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