Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 46

NICET Exam Prep

Level II, Class 3


FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS
Systems
Conventional or Intelligent (Addressable /
Analog)
Initiating Devices
Smoke, Duct, Heat & Flame Detectors
Manual Fire Alarm Stations
Water Flow Switches
Notification Appliances
Audible & Visual Appliances
FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS
FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS
Conventional System Two Types or Classes
(Hardwire) Class A and Class B
Traditional fire alarm Class A: Allows all
wiring method which devices to operate
provides an independent during a single open or
run of conductors for a non-simultaneous
each device or group of single ground fault on
devices distinctly any circuit conductor.
annunciated. Class B: Does not allow
Wire to wire short all devices to operate
End of Line Resistor for during a single open or
Supervision a non-simultaneous
No T-Tap allowed single ground fault on
any circuit conductor.
Initiating Device Circuit
6.4.2.1.1
FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS
Intelligent System (Multiplex)
Simultaneous or sequential transmissions and
receipt of multiple signals on a single
signaling line circuit
Analog / Addressable
Polling (LED on device blinks)
No EOLR
T-Tap allowed in certain applications
Signaling Line Circuit
Added features
Drift Compensation
Auto Test
FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS

Network System
Communication between 2 or more fire
alarm control panels. May be Peer-to-
Peer or Master-Slave
Common approach in large systems or
campus type environments
System distribution
WIRING
Initiating Device Signaling Line
Circuit Circuit
(Conventional) (Addressable)
Class B (two wire), Two Classes, 10
Style A-C Styles
Class A (four wire), Class B (2 wire),
Style D-E most common Style
4
Class A (4 wire),
most common Style
6 or 7
Indications of what the
system is according to style.
A style A,B,C,D,E is a conventional
system using two to four wires usually
14 AWG.
A style .5, 1, 2, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 6, 7
is an intelligent system using fire
alarm cable.
A style W,X,Y,Z is a notification
appliance circuit.
Definition IDC
3.3.89 Initiating Device Circuit: A circuit to
which automatic or manual initiating devices
are connected where the signal received
does not identify the individual device
operated.
The abbreviations at the end of the
definition indicate the Technical
Correlating Committee the
requirement is assigned to for
coordination and the code making
process.
Definition SLC

3.3.172 Signaling Line Circuit: A circuit


or path between any combination of
circuit interfaces, control units, or
transmitters over which multiple
system input signals or output signals,
or both, are carried.
This is codish for the circuitry of an
intelligent or addressable system.
Definition SLC Inteface

3.3.173 Signaling Line Circuit Interface: A


system component that connects a signaling
line circuit to any combination of initiating
devices, initiating device circuits, notification
appliances, notification appliance circuits,
system control outputs, and other signaling
line circuits.
This is codish for basically all components of
an intelligent or addressable system.
Definition NAC

3.3.114 Notification Appliance Circuit:


A circuit or path directly connected to
a notification appliance.
This is codish for the wiring to and
between and fire alarm horn, strobe or
speaker.
Abbreviation Key
SIG-FUN: Fundamentals of Fire Alarm Systems
SIG-IDA: Initiating Devices for Fire Alarm Systems
SIG-PRO: Protected Premises Fire Alarm System
SIG-NAS: Notification Appliances for Fire Alarm
Systems
SIG-SSS: Supervised Station Fire Alarm System
SIG-PRS: Public Fire Alarm Reporting System
SIG-TMS: Testing And Maintenance of Fire Alarm
Systems
SIG-HOU: Single and Multi-station Alarm Systems
and Household Fire Alarm Systems
Initiating Device Styles

IDCs are categorized based on three


criteria:
Alarm
Trouble
Alarm receipt capability during abnormal
conditions
Criteria Explained

Alarm (Alm): The fire alarm system will go


into alarm mode if this abnormal condition
exists.
Trouble (Trbl): The fire alarm system will
display a trouble signal if this abnormal
condition exists
Alarm receipt capability (ARC): The fire
alarm system will transmit an alarm or
trouble to a supervised location system.
Using Table 6.5

The Abnormal Condition row is for


reference only and is used only when
talking about the table. The conditions
do not apply to specific abnormal
conditions and do not cross reference
with other tables.
Using Table 6.5

Class: Either A or B
Style: A,B,C,D,E
The styles are not intended to be a
grading system. They are merely
intended to give general information
The capabilities are general minimum
requirements only. Systems may have
greater capabilities than listed.
Using Table 6.5

- : Indicates a void or NO
X : Indicates a YES and that the action will
happen at the protected premises and in
accordance with Chapter 8. (Supervising
Station Fire Alarm Systems)
R: Indicates that the signal will be
transmitted to a supervised Station Fire
Alarm station under the abnormal condition.
Example of using Table
6.5
A style D system will cause the A style B system will cause the
system to go into alarm if a system to go into alarm if a
Wire-to-wire short occurs. The wire-to-wire short occurs. The
system will go into trouble if a system will go into trouble if a
single open or single ground signal ground or single open
condition exists. condition exists.
The trouble signals will be The trouble signal for the
capable of being transmitted single ground fault will be
to a supervising station capable of being transmitted
system. to a supervising station
It is a class A system so the system. The trouble signal for
rest of the initiating devices the single open will not.
will remain operational under It is a class B system so the
the adverse condition. rest of the devices will not
remain operational under the
adverse condition.
Group Discussion

Define all the characteristics of a style


E IDC.
Define all the characteristics of a style
A IDC.
Signal Line Circuits

Signal line circuits are circuits that are


multiplexing. They carry power and
information for the fire alarm system.
Any intelligent or addressable system
uses signal line circuits for input.
Signal line circuits are categorized
based on the same criteria as IDCs.
Using Table 6.6.1

- : Indicates a void or NO
X : Indicates a YES and that the action will
happen at the protected premises and in
accordance with Chapter 8. (Supervising
Station Fire Alarm Systems)
R: Indicates that the signal will be
transmitted to a supervised Station Fire
Alarm station under the abnormal condition.
Signal Line Circuits
SLC are capable of analyzing more data
than IDC circuits.
The table reflects by having ratings for the
following:
Single open
Single ground
Wire to wire short
Wire to wire short & open
Wire to wire short & ground
Open and Ground
Loss of carrier/ channel interface
Example using Table
6.6.1
Style 4 will put the Style 6 is the same as
alarm system in trouble style 4 except the
if any of the possible single open, single
conditions exists. ground and open and
Only the single ground ground are required to
condition is required to be transmitted.
be transmitted. It is a class A so the
It is class B so the rest rest of the system will
of the system may not remain operational.
be operational.
Notification Appliance
Circuits
Notification Appliance circuits are
categorized on only two criteria:
Trouble indication at protected premises
Alarm capability during abnormal
conditions
Criteria Explained
Trouble indication at Alarm Capability during
protected premises abnormal conditions
This is required for all The trouble signal will
types of NACs. be required to be
A trouble signal will be transmitted to a
indicated at the supervising station fire
protected premises if a alarm system.
single open, single
ground or wire to wire
short exists.
Using Table 6.7

- : Indicates a void or NO
X : Indicates a YES and that the action will
happen at the protected premises and in
accordance with Chapter 8. (Supervising
Station Fire Alarm Systems)
R: Indicates that the signal will be
transmitted to a supervised Station Fire
Alarm station under the abnormal condition.
Example of Using Table
6.7
A type Z will A type X will
transmit a trouble if transmit a trouble if
a single open or a single open
single ground conditions exists
occurs. only.
It is a class A It is a class B so the
system so the rest rest of the system
of the system will may not remain
remain operational. operational.
Some Practical Things
to Memorize for the Test
SMOKE DETECTION
Ionization Detector 3.3.180.2
Radioactive material used to ionize
air between two electrodes
Smoke reduces conductance of air
Best for fast flaming fires

Photoelectric Detector
Light obscuration 3.3.180.3
or light scattering 3.3.180.4
Best slow smoldering fires

900 square foot coverage (typical)


SMOKE DETECTION
Projected Beam Detector 5.7.3.4
Operates like a photoelectric smoke detector
in an open room or area
Air Sampling Detector 5.7.3.3
Draws air through a series of perforated tubes
to a smoke detector
Duct Smoke Detector
Standard smoke detector mounted in a
housing with a perforated sampling tube
supplying air to the detector
DUCT MOUNTED vs. IN-
DUCT 5.14.5
Duct Mounted uses a
standard smoke detector in
a housing
Perforated sampling
tube supplying air to
the detector
Typically use photoelectric
smoke detectors because
they are not as susceptible
to air velocity and false
alarms
In-duct uses an area
detector mounted within
the duct
Typically used in zero
velocity conditions
BEAM DETECTORS
Photoelectric principle
Can be considered equivalent to a row of
spot-type detectors
Transmitter and receiver shall be placed
according to manufacturers instructions.
Path can be reflected with mirrors
Light path can not be broken by small
angular movements of the light source.
HEAT DETECTION 5.6
Fixed Temperature Detector
Heated to a predetermined level
Not restorable
Color coded 5.6.2.1.1 Table
Rate Compensation Detector
Heated to a predetermined level
Self restoring
Color Coded 5.6.2.1.1 Table

Rate-of-Rise Detector
Responds to temperature rise above a predetermined
rate
Color Coded 5.6.2.1.1 Table
Group Practice

Find the appropriate code reference


for each of the statements in the
following slides.
Determine if the statement is correct
and make any necessary corrections.
We will discuss our findings as a class
LOCATION & SPACING
Detectors shall be located more than 4
inches from a sidewall or between 4
inches and 12 inches from the ceiling
when mounted on a wall
Under raised floors
Smoke detectors mounted as listed to
avoid dust contamination
LOCATION & SPACING
In general, spot-type smoke detectors in
smooth ceiling applications may use a 30
foot spacing as a guide.
30 x 30 = 900 square feet
All points on the ceiling to have a detector
(smoke or heat) within 0.7 times the
selected spacing
For smoke detector: 0.7 x 30 = 21
30 foot spacing can be adjusted within a circle
with a radius of 21 feet
For example, 40 foot spacing in 10 foot wide corridors
LOCATION & SPACING
Other considerations include:
Beam pockets
Sloped ceilings
Raised floors
Air movement
Ceiling height
HVAC
Not within 3 feet of supply or return opening
Not within direct airflow
INITIATING DEVICES
Operating Ranges
32 100 F
10 93% Humidity
Air Velocity over 300 ft/min
(smoke detectors only)
DOOR RELEASE SERVICE
Depth of wall Section above door:
24 inches or less, one detector
Greater than 24 inches - one side,
detector on high side
Greater than 24 inches - both sides,
detectors on each side
Separation between doors exceeds 24
inches, treat each door separately
NOTIFICATION
APPLIANCES
Audible
Speakers, Horns, Bells, Chimes
Visual
Strobes
Other Types of Appliances
Two-way voice communications
Fire Fighters Telephone Jacks
Stairwell phones
AUDIBLE APPLIANCES

Speakers
Locally, provide actual sound level of not
less than 80 dBA throughout and no more
than 120 dBA
Elsewhere, installed to provide a sound
output level of at least 15 dBA above
ambient sound level
Average ambient sound levels are provided in
NFPA 72
VISUAL APPLIANCES
Flash rate of 1 to 2 per second
Wall mounting heights
NFPA 72 / ANSI 80 to 96 AFF
ADA the lower of 80 AFF or 6 BFC
Ceiling mounted strobes are acceptable
Ceiling height will affect the spacing
More than three visible appliances in view
synchronized
VISUAL APPLIANCES
Spacing In Rooms
15 candela 20 x 20
30 candela 30 x 30
75 candela 40 x 40
110 candela 50 x 50
Spacing would be decreased as ceiling
height increases for ceiling mounted
devices, above are wall applications or 10
max ceiling height
VISUAL APPLIANCES
Visual Spacing In Corridors
Corridor spacing applies only for 20 and
narrower corridor as follows:
Within 15 of end of each corridor

Maximum distance between is 100

Obstructions, elevations changes,


changes in direction, etc. shall be treated
as separate corridors
Corridors wider than 20 are treated using
the room spacing requirements
MONITORING

Fan Status
Automatic Transfer Switch
Smoke Control Panels
Fire Pump
Security Systems