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GSM

GSM Networks
Networks
GSM Network Overview
:Access Network :Core Network
Base Station Subsystem GSM CS network

HLR VLR EIR AuC

BSC
BTS SS7
Mobile
Station MSC
PSTN

BTS

Um Abis A
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GSM Network Protocols

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GSM Signaling Protocols

Layer 1 (physical layer)


Uses many channel structures
Layer 2 (data link layer)
Across Um interface uses LAPDm (a slight
modification of LAPD protocol used in ISDN)
Across Abis uses LAPD
Across A interface, uses MTP and SCCP of SS7
SAPI=0 Identifies radio signaling procedures
Layer 3 is sub-divided into 3 sub-layers

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Layer 3 Signaling Protocols

RR: Radio Resources Management


Establishment, maintenance, and termination of radio channels
that allow point-to-point dialogue between network and mobile
stations; including cell selection and handover procedures
MM: Mobility Management
Manages location updating, registration, security and
authentication procedures
CM: Connection Management
Handles general call control, similar to CCITT Recommendation
Q.931, and provides supplementary services & Short Message
Services (SMS)

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Handover

Four types of handovers:


Channels (time slots) in same cell
Between cells within same BSC
Between BSCs, within same MSC
Between MSCs
BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS

BTS BTS BTS BTS

BTS BTS BTS BTS

BSC BSC BSC BSC

MSC MSC

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MAP (Mobile Application Part)

SS7 top layer protocol


Responsible for signaling between different entities
in network, such as between HLR and VLR
MAP specification is complex
Several variants for the big manufacturers (Ericsson,
Motorola )

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Summary

GSM is the dominant cellular technology today


GSM offers high quality voice with advanced services
GSM is the stepping-stone to 3G networks

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