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Basic Hydraulic Systems

Module #251M101
Objectives
To Introduce the concept of Hydraulics systems
To outline the applications and advantages of
hydraulic systems
To introduce hydraulics components
Explain the principle of Hydraulics circuitry
Explain maintenance of hydraulics systems
Definition
Hydraulics is the study of the behavior of fluids.

Hydraulic Power Transmission is a method used


to transmit energy by pushing on a Confined
Liquid.
Confined refers to having limiting boundaries for
motion
Pressure will refer to a force per unit of area
Advantages
Package (Size/Weight) -vs- (Power)
Minimal Maintenance
Simple Operation
Variable Speed
Reversible
Overload Protection
Can Be Stalled
Liquid Behavior
1. CANNOT BE COMPRESSED !

3. LUBRICATES

2. TRANSMITS ENERGY READILY


Conservation of Energy
1. Moving the small piston 10 2. 10 cu. in. of liquid will move
displaces 10 cu. in. of liquid the larger piston only 1 in.

1 sq. in. x 10 in. = 10 cu. in. 10 sq. in. x 1 in. = 10 cu. in.

10 lbs.
Simple Hydraulic 100 lbs.
100 lbs.
1 sq in
Area Press 10 sq. in.
10 sq. in.
10 lbs. 1
10
1 sq in
Area

3. The energy transfer here equals 4. The energy transfer here is also
10 lbs. x 10 in. = 100 in. lbs. 1 in. x 100 lbs. = 100 in. lbs.
Theory of Hydraulic Circuitry

ACTUATOR

HYDRAULIC FLUID

CONTROL VALVE
DIRECTIONAL
RESERVOIR

RELIEF
PUMP
VALVE
Theory of Hydraulic Circuitry

ACTUATOR

HYDRAULIC FLUID

CONTROL VALVE
DIRECTIONAL
RESERVOIR

RELIEF
PUMP
VALVE
Theory of Hydraulic Circuitry

ACTUATOR

HYDRAULIC FLUID

CONTROL VALVE
DIRECTIONAL
RESERVOIR

RELIEF
PUMP
VALVE
Theory of Hydraulic Circuitry

ACTUATOR

HYDRAULIC FLUID

CONTROL VALVE
DIRECTIONAL
RESERVOIR

RELIEF
PUMP
VALVE
Components
RESERVOIR
STRAINER or FILTER
HYDRAULIC FLUID
PUMP
ACTUATOR
GAUGE
PRESSURE CONTROL DEVICE
FLOW DIRECTION CONTROL DEVICE
HEAT EXCHANGER
PLUMBING
Fluid
Transmit Power
Lubricate Parts
Seal Clearances
Dissipate Heat
Requirements
Prevent rust/sludges
Resist Aeration
Temperature Stability
Economics
Viscosity
Reservoir
Hold Fluid
Transfer Heat
Deaerator
Settling Basin
Components
Steel/Aluminum Plate
Inside Coating
Drainage Plug
Oil Level Indicator
Breather
Filler Opening
Cleanout Plates (>10
gal)
Baffles
Connections/Fittings
Contamination
Solid, Liquid or Gas
Solution
Entrainment
Emulsion
Failures
MOF (catastrophic)
Intermittent (annoyance)
Degradation (lost performance)
Sources
Built-in
Environmental
Internal
Contamination Control
Minimization During Service
Making Connections
Component Repair
Care During Filling
Flushing System
Strainer
IN-TANK DESIGN
Relatively Course
Fine Mesh Wire
About 100
Microns
Full Pump Volume
Must Provide Bypass
Filter
RETURN FILTER
Full-Flo Design
Bypass Capability
Interchangeability
Fine Mesh (10
Micron)
PRESSURE FILTER
High System
Pressure
Bypass Capability
Requires Shutdown
Downstream of
Heat Exchanger
Louvered Airflow
Control
Electric or Hydraulic
Fan
Fluid-to-Air Exchanger
Fluid-to-Fluid
Exchanger
Actuators
Converts Fluid Energy
Into Mechanical
Energy

Linear = Cylinders
Rotary = Motors
Ram-Type Actuators

SUPPLY and/or RETURN

BARREL PISTON ROD


Basic Ram Circuit

Motor

Reservoir

Pump
Basic Motor Circuit
Pump
Convert Mechanical
Energy to Fluid Energy
Horsepower
HHP =
(GPM)(psi)(0.000583)
Efficiency
VE% = Actual /
Theoretical
Non-Positive Displacement
Positive Displacement
Fixed -vs- Variable
Principles of Positive
Displacement
Principles of Positive
Displacement
Principles of Positive
Displacement
Principles of Positive
Displacement
Principles of Positive
Displacement
Principles of Positive
Displacement
Principles of Positive
Displacement
Types of Hydraulic Pumps
Centrifugal Type
Vane Type
Gear Type
Piston Type
Vane-Type Pump (balanced)
Unbalanced Vane Pump
Operation

Double click on the box to play movie.


Esc. To stop.
Vane Pump Operation (non-
balanced)
Vane Pump Operation
Vane Pump Operation
Vane Pump Operation
Vane Pump Operation
Vane Pump Operation
Vane Pump Operation
Vane Pump Operation
Vane Pump Operation
Vane Pump Operation
Vane Pump Operation
Vane Pump Operation
Vane Pump Operation
Vane Pump Operation
Vane Pump Operation
Vane Pump Operation
Vane Pump Operation
Vane Pump Operation
Balanced Vane Pump
The rotor is centered within the
cam ring eccentric thus there are
two chambers for accepting and
discharging fluid from the tank

DISCHARGE

Forces as a result of system pressure


are shared at opposing angles to balance
the rotor/drive shaft loading. As a result
friction is reduced allowing higher system
pressure capabilities.
SUPPLY
Balanced Vane Pump Operation

Double click on the box to play movie.


Esc. To stop.
Changing Direction
Counter-Clockwise
Clockwise
Rotation
Rotation

Changing the position of the


cam ring in relation to the inlet
and outlet porting will change
the direction of rotation.
Gear-Type Pump
Outlet

Drive Gear Driven Gear

Inlet
Gear-Type Motor (Actuator)
4. These two teeth have only
tank line pressure opposing.
3. Pressure between teeth in 3. Pressure between teeth in
this segment push both ways this segment push both ways
thus torque is not affected thus torque is not affected

2. Segments of two meshing teeth tend


to oppose rotation thus net torque is a
function of only one tooth.
1. These two teeth are subjected to pressure
and tend to rotate gears in direction of arrow
Gear Pump Operation

Double click on the box to play movie.


Esc. To stop.
Piston Pump Operation

Double click on the box to play movie.


Esc. To stop.
Fixed vs Variable Displacement

Double click on the box to play movie.


Esc. To stop.
Pressure Compensated

Double click on the box to play movie.


Esc. To stop.
Pressure Relieving
Normally Closed
Limits Pressure
Direct Acting
Pilot Operated
Cracking Pressure
Full Flo Pressure
Override Pressure
Relieving Valve Types
Direct Acting
Pilot Operated
Unloader
Sequencing
Pressure Reducing
Counterbalance
Direct Acting
Adjustment Knob
Adjustment Stem
Sealing Section
Top Grommet
Spring
Seat Assy.
Stem Assy.
Direct Acting Operation
4. Can be adjusted

3. Spring tension
determines setting
1. Spring holds
piston seated

Flow to tank

2. When pressure here


5. When valve setting
is less than the valve is reached, pump flow
setting, valve remains is directed to tank.
closed.
Pilot Operated - Balanced Piston
Adjustment Head
Poppet Valve
Venting Port Poppet Spring
Adjustment
Plunger Spring

Piston Plunger Poppet Spring

Inlet Outlet

Plunger Seat

Valve Body

Return
Balanced Piston Operation
System Pressure is sensed System pressure overcomes Due to the pressure drop, the
in the adjustment head via adjustment head setting and piston is forced up opening the
small port thru the piston. The allows fluid to pass thru the system to the tank. It takes 20
spring tension on the poppet piston out the return port .The to 45 psi differential for this to
keeps fluid confined. pressure drops in upper section occur. Once pressure equalizes
valve closes.

Normally CLOSED Initial CRACKING Fully RELIEVING


Remote Adjustment
Pilot flow can
take this path

VENT

Remote valve limits pressure from


its minimum up to the limit set by
the pilot section of the main valve
Directional Flow Control
Starts/Stops Actuators P T

Controls Direction of
Actuators
Single or Multiple
Positions A B

P T

FREE FLOW NO FLOW

A B
Spool Type Valves
Two-Way Spool Valves
Land on the Groove between the lands Slide spool
valve spool completes the flow passage left, changes
blocks flow A B between the two ports. A B flow path

T P T A B
T P T

Pressure to B while Pressure to A while


A is routed to tank B is routed to tank

P T
Four-Way Spool Valves
A B A B

T P T A B
T P T

P T