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OPERATING SYSTEM

BY BHASWANTH
Contents

Intro
Evolution of Operating Systems
Structure of an Operating System
Functions of an Operating System
Types of Operating Systems
What is an Operating System?

A program that acts as an intermediary between a user of


a computer and the computer hardware
Operating system goals:
Execute user programs and make solving user problems
easier
Make the computer system convenient to use
Use the computer hardware in an efficient manner
Operating System is a software, which makes a computer to
actually work.

It is the software the enables all the programs we use.

The OS organizes and controls the hardware.

OS acts as an interface between the application programs and


the machine hardware.

Examples: Windows, Linux, Unix and Mac OS, etc.,


EVOLUTION OF OPERATING SYSTEMS
First generation: 1945 1955
Vacuum tubes
Plug boards
Second generation: 1955 1965
Transistors
Batch systems
Third generation: 1965 1980
Integrated circuits
Multiprogramming
Fourth generation: 1980 present
Large scale integration
Personal computers
Next generation: ???
Systems connected by high-speed networks?
Wide area resource management?
STRUCTURE OF OPERATING
SYSTEM
Application Programs

System Programs

Software (Operating System)

HARDWARE
The structure of OS consists of 4 layers:
Hardware
Hardware consists of CPU, Main memory, I/O
Devices, etc.,

Software (Operating System)


Software includes process management routines,
memory management routines, I/O control routines,
file management routines.
System programs
This layer consists of compilers, Assemblers,
linker etc.

Application programs
This is dependent on users need. Ex. Railway
reservation system, Bank database management
etc.,
FUNCTIONS OF OPERATING SYSTEMS

Provide a user interface


Run programs
Manage hardware devices
Organized file storage
Providing a User Interface

User interface
How a user interacts with a computer
Require different skill sets
Graphical User Interface and Command Line Interface
are some of the User Interfaces
Graphical User Interface

Most common interface


Windows, OS X, Gnome, KDE
Uses a mouse to control objects
Uses a desktop metaphor
Shortcuts open programs or documents
Open documents have additional objects
Task switching
Dialog boxes allow directed input
Graphical User Interface
Command Line Interface

Older interface
DOS, Linux, UNIX
User types commands at a prompt
User must remember all commands
Included in all GUIs
Command Line Interface
Running Programs

Many different applications supported


System call
Provides consistent access to OS features
Share information between programs
Copy and paste
Object Linking and Embedding
Managing Hardware

Programs need to access hardware


Interrupts
CPU is stopped
Hardware device is accessed
Device drivers control the hardware
Organizing Files and Folders

Organized storage
Long file names
Folders can be created and nested
All storage devices work consistently
TYPES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS

Real-time operating system


Very fast small OS
Built into a device
Respond quickly to user input
MP3 players, Medical devices
Single user/Single tasking OS
One user works on the system
Performs one task at a time
MS-DOS and Palm OS
Take up little space on disk
Run on inexpensive computers
Single user/Multitasking OS
User performs many tasks at once
Most common form of OS
Windows XP and OS X
Require expensive computers
Tend to be complex
Multi user/Multitasking OS
Many users connect to one computer
Each user has a unique session
UNIX, Linux, and VMS
Maintenance can be easy
Requires a powerful computer