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Nutrition Department

Medical School
University of Sumatera Utara

Ratio of the blood glucose respond to a given

food compared to a standard (typically
glucose or white bread)
Influenced by starch structure, fiber
content, food processing, physical structure,
food temperature and other macronutrients
in the meal, such as fat
The number is based on a serving of food
that would provide 50 grams of carbohydrate
Glycemic index (G.I.)

Reflects the degree to which

ingestion of the food raises
blood glucose and insulin

Area under the glucose

G.I. = curve for 50g food x 100%
Area under the curve for
50g glucose (white bread)
Beans Biscuits Grains
baby lima 32 oatmeal 55 barley 22
baked 43 shortbread 64 brown rice 59
black 30 Vanilla Wafers 77 buckwheat 54
brown 38 Crackers bulger 47
butter 31 Kavli Norwegian 71 chickpeas 36
chickpeas 33 rye 63 cornmeal 68
kidney 27 saltine 72 hominy 40
navy 38 Desserts millet 75
pinto 42 Angel Food Cake 67 rice, instant 91
red lentils 27 bran muffin 60 rice, parboiled 47
split peas 32 Danish 59 rye 34
soy 18 fruit bread 47 sweet corn 55
Breads pound cake 54 wheat, whole 41
bagel 72 sponge cake 46 white rice 88
Kaiser roll 73 wh. rice, high amylose 59
pita 57 apple 38 Juices
pumpernickel 49 apricot, canned 64 apple 41

rye 64 apricot, dried 30 grapefruit 48
rye, whole 50 banana 62 orange 55
white 72 banana, unripe 30 pineapple 46
whole wheat 72 cherries 22 Milk Products

index of
waffles 76 fruit cocktail 55 chocolate milk 34
Cereals grapefruit 25 ice cream 50
All Bran 44 grapes 43 milk 34
Bran Chex 58 yogurt 38

kiwi 52
Cheerios 74 mango 55 Pasta
Corn Bran 75 orange 43 brown rice pasta 92
Corn Chex 83 pear 36 linguine, durum 50

Cornflakes 83 pineapple 66 macaroni 46
Cream of Wheat 66 plum 24 macaroni & cheese 64
Crispix 87 raisins 64 spaghetti 40
Grapenuts 67 strawberries 32 spag. prot. enrich. 28
Grapenuts Flakes 80 watermelon 72 vermicelli 35
Life 66 vermicelli, rice
Muesli 60
NutriGrain 66
Oatmeal 53
Oatmeal 1 min 66
Puffed Wheat 74
Puffed Rice 90
Rice Bran 19
Rice Chex 89
Rice Krispies 82
Shredded Wheat 69
Special K 54
The term dietary fiber refers to
nondigestible (by human digestive enzymes)
CH and lignin that are intact and intrinsic in
Functional fiber consist of nondigestible CH
that have been isolated, extracted or
manufactured and have been shown to have
beneficial physiologic effects in humans
Total fiber is the combination of dietary
fiber and functional fiber in the food product
Dietary fibers Functional fibers

Cellulose Cellulose
Hemicellulose Pectin
Pectin Lignin
Lignin Gums
Gums -glucans
-glucans Fructans
Fructans Chitin & chitosan
Resistant starch Polydextrose & polyols
Resistant dextrins
Resistant starches
In terms of their chemical composition

Fibers are composed primarily of the non-

starch polysaccharides cellulose,
hemicelluloses, pectins, gums, and

The only noncarbohydrate components of

dietary fibers are lignins, which include
complex alcohol derivatives
Classification of Fibers
Type Noncomponent(s) Physiological Effects Major Food Sources

Insoluble (Nonfermentable) : undigestible dietary fibers generally DO NOT

dissolved in hot water and are not generally
metabolized by bacteria in the large intestine
Noncarbohydrate Lignins Increase fecal bulk Whole grains

Carbohydrate Cellulose Increase fecal bulk All plants

Hemicelluloses Decrease intestinal Wheat, rye, rice,
transit time vegetables
Soluble (Viscous) : dietary fiber either dissolve in hot water, and
bacteria in the large intestine can break down soluble fibers
Carbohydrate Pectins,gums, Delays gastric Fruits, citrus,
glucans, mucilages, emptying, slows vegetables, oat
some hemicelluloses glucose absorption, products, rice,
can lower blood soybean fibers
cholesterol beans, thickeners
added to food and
psyllium seeds
Selected properties and
physiological & metabolic effects
of fiber
Solubility in water
Soluble fiber
- delay gastric emptying
- increase transit time (through slower
- decrease nutrient absorption (glucose)
Insoluble fiber
- decrease intestinal trasit time
- increase fecal bulk
Water holding/hydration capacity and
- delayed emptying of food from stomach
- reduced mixing of gastrointestinal
contents with digestive enzyme
Adsorption or binding ability
- diminished absorption of lipids
- increase fecal bile acid excretion
- lowered serum cholesterol concentration
Degradability / fermentability
- fermentable fibers SCFA
- water & sodium absorption in the colon
- mucosal cell proliferation
- provision of energy
- acidification of luminal environment
- nonfermentable fibers
- detoxification
- fecal bulk
Adequate intake
19 50 yrs 38 g
51 yrs 31 g
19 50 yrs 25 g
51 yrs 21 g
To obtain fiber via the diet, food sources of
fiber need to be varied and complimentary
Artificial sweeteners
- energy (-)
- nonnutritive sweeteners
- saccharin, aspartame, acesulfam potassium,
sucralose, neotame

Sugar replacers
- energy (+)
- nutritive sweeteners
- sugar alcohol (mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol)

Rapidly excreted in the urine
Does not accumulate in the body
Relative sweetness 450
Acceptable daily intake 5 mg/kgBW
Average amount to replace 1tsp sugar 12
In 2000 was removed from the list of
suspected cancer-causing substance

Phenylalanine H2 Aspartic acid

OCH3 Methanol
Long term consumption is not associated
with any adverse health effects
Contain phenylalanine & aspartic acid
Warning to people with PKU
Relative sweetness 200
Energy 4 kkal/g
Acceptable daily intake 50 mg/kgBW
Average amount to replace 1tsp sugar 18
Relative sweetness 200
Energy (-)
Acceptable daily intake 15 mg/kgBW
Average amount to replace 1tsp sugar 25
Relative sweetness 600
Energy (-)
Acceptable daily intake 5 mg/kgBW
Average amount to replace 1tsp sugar 6
Passes through the GI tract undigested &
The most recent
Relative sweetness 8000 very little is
Energy (-)
Acceptable daily intake 18 mg/kgBW
Average amount to replace 1tsp sugar 0.5
Sugar replacers

Sugar alcohols Relative sweetness energy (kkal/g)

Isomalt 0.5 2
Lactitol 0.4 2
Maltitol 0.9 2.1
Mannitol 0.7 1.6
Sorbitol 0.5 2.6
Xylitol 1.0 2.4
In food phytochemicals impart tastes,
aromas, colors & other characteristics
Give hot peppers their burning sensation,
garlic its pungent flavor, etc
In the body acting as antioxidants,
mimicking hormone, and supprssing the
developmentof disease
E.g. :Carotenoids, flavonoids,
phytoestrogens, capsaicin, etc
Include flavones, flavonols, isoflavones,
catechin, etc
Possible effect :
- act as antioxidants
- scavenge carcinogens
- bind to nitrate in the stomach, preventing
conversion to nitrosamine
Food source : black tea, green tea, onions,
soybeans & soy products
Plant derived compounds that have
structural and functional similarities to
human estrogen

Include genisten, daidzein and glycitein

Food sources : soybeans, soy flour, tofu,

soy milk, textured vegetable
protein and other legume
Possible effects

Estrogen inhibition may produce this action :

Inhibit cell replication in GI tract

Reduce risk of breast, colon, ovarian,

prostate and other estrogen-sensitive
Reduce cancer cell survival

Estrogen mimicking may reduce risk of

Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA)
1% reduction SFA = 2% reduction of
SFAs 12:0 16:0 hypercholesterolemic
Most potent 14:0 (myristic acid)

Kris-Etherton PM & Yu S, Individual fatty acids effects on plasma lipids

and lipoproteins: human studies, Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65
Monounsaturated (MUFA)

Oleic acids (18:1) : hypocholesterolemic ,

lowers LDL-C
Effects are less than linoleic acids
HDL raises
Polyunsaturates (PUFA)

18:2n-6 (linolenic acid) decreases TC & LDL-C

HDL effect: not significant
Trans Fatty Acids
Formed in the hydrogenation process
Mostly elaidic acid(trans 18:1n-9)
Elevates LDL-C and reduces HDL-C
Less potent regulator of plasma lipoprotein
than fatty acids
Wider variation in response to dietary
Synergy of cholesterol and fatty acids ?

Schaefer EJ, lipoproteins, nutrition, and heart disease, am J Clin

Paracelsus (1493-1541)
All substances are poisons, there is
none which is not a poison. The right
dose differentiates a poison and a