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# Quantitative Research

Group 2
Muh. Farid Sehudin
Mita Mustika Rahdiani R.
Sarah Syatirah Syahrir
Suharyati
Outline

## Definition of Quantitative Research

Colleting the Quantitative data
Analyzing and interpreting quantitative data
Definition of quantitative research

## Quantitative research methods describe and measure the level of

occurrences on the basis of numbers and calculations. Moreover, the
questions of how many? and how often? are often asked in
quantitative studies.

## Quantitative research is defined by Bryman and Bell (2005, p. 154)

that entailing the collection of numerical data and exhibiting the view
of relationship between theory and research as deductive, a predilection
for natural science approach, and as having an objectivist conception of
social reality. So the this specific form of research uses the quantitative
data to analysis.
Collecting Quantitative data

## The steps of collecting quantitative data:

Determining the participants to study
Obtaining permissions needed from several individuals and organizations
Considering what types of information to collect from several sources
available to the quantitative research
Locating and selecting instruments to use that will net useful data for the
study
Administering the data collection process to collect data.
Collecting Quantitative data

## State the Five Steps in the Process of Quantitative Data Collection

The process of data collection involves more than simply gathering
information; it includes ve interrelated steps. It involves the steps of
determining the participants to study, obtaining permissions needed from
several individuals and organizations, considering what types
Identify How to Select Participants for a Study
The rst step is to select participants for the study. This selection involves
specifying the population and sample, determining how you will choose the
participants, and deciding on an appropriate sample size.
Collecting Quantitative data

## Identify the Permissions Needed for a Study

The second step is to obtain permission from the participants to be involved
in your study. Permissions may be needed from leaders of institutions or
organizations, individuals at specic sites, participants (and their parents, for
minor children), and a campus institutional review board.
List Different Options for Collecting Information
The third step is to decide what type or types of data to collect. This
decision begins with specifying the variables in your research questions or
hypotheses, dening these variables, and seeking measures that
operationalize these denitions. Typical quantitative data consists of
measures of performance and attitudes, observations of behavior, and
records and documents.
Collecting Quantitative data

## Locate, Select, and Assess an Instrument(s) for Use in Data Collection

The fourth step is to locate, modify, or develop instruments that provide these
measures. The easiest procedure is to use an existing instrument or modify one
rather than develop your own instrument. Procedures exist for searching for an
instrument, and when you nd one that may be satisfactory, consider whether
scores from past uses of it are reliable and valid, whether the procedure for
recording information ts your research questions/ hypotheses, and whether the
scales will measure either categorical or continuous data.
Describe Procedures for Administering Quantitative Data Collection
The nal step involves actually collecting the data. Your procedures need to be
standard so that there is a uniform procedure for data collection. Also, as with all
phases in research, the data collection process needs to be conducted in a way
that is ethical to individuals and to research sites.
Analyzing and interpreting quantitative data

Identify the Steps in the Process of Analyzing and Interpreting Quantitative Data
The steps in the process of quantitative data analysis and interpretation involve rst
preparing your numeric data for analysis using statistical programs, conducting the analysis
using statistics that report both descriptive and inferential results, representing and
reporting the results using tables, gures, and a discussion of each statistical test, and nally
interpreting the results by restating the general ndings, comparing the ndings to past
literature, mentioning the potential limitations of the study, and advancing ideas that will
extend the research in the future.
After collecting numeric scores on instruments or through observations, quantitative
researchers need to prepare and organize their data for statistical analysis. This process
consists of assigning numeric scores to each response option on instruments (if the
instrument does not already include this information); determining whether single-item, net,
or difference scores will be used in the analysis; and selecting a computer software program
to analyze the data. Next, the investigator enters the data into a computer le by building a
data grid consisting of variables and their values.
Analyzing and interpreting quantitative data

## Analyzing the Data

With the dataset built, the researcher begins the process of analyzing the
data to address the research questions or hypotheses. Some questions may call for
describing trends in the data, and the researcher uses descriptive analysis such as
measures of central tendency, the spread of the scores, and the relative ranking
of the scores. Other research questions and hypotheses call for inferential
analysis in which the researcher studies a sample and draws inferences from the
sample to a population.
Reporting the Results
Whether the analysis consists of descriptive or inferential analysis, or both,
the researcher presents results in tables, gures, and a detailed discussion of the
results. This detailed discussion involves presenting information about the results
of each statistical test and presenting information using language acceptable to
quantitative researchers.
Analyzing and interpreting quantitative data

## Interpreting the Results

Finally, investigators conclude their research by summarizing the detailed
results in general statements. They also provide explanations for their
ndings based on prior predictions made in the literature or in theories, and
they contrast their results with past research. It is also important in
concluding a study to advance limitations to the research, noting potential
weaknesses that might have affected the results. These limitations build
directly into suggestions for future research that will improve the weaknesses
and further contribute to the literature on a topic.