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D.

C Machines & Transformers

Prepared By:
Sukant K. Sahoo (SKS)
Assistant Professor
Department of Electrical Engineering
Electrical Engg. Dept, IT-NU
Mail: sukanta.sahoo@nirmauni.ac.in
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Single-phase Transformer:

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Introduction
Definition: It is a static electromagnetic energy
conversion device which transforms power from one
side to another side without changing its frequency.

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Application of Transformer:
Transferring power from generating to load end with
minimum losses.
For stepping up and stepping down the voltage for
power supply etc.

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S. K. Sahoo, EE, IT-NU
Features of Transformer:
Constant power device
Constant frequency device
Constant flux device
Coupled circuit
Phase shifting device
Two port network

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S. K. Sahoo, EE, IT-NU
Working Principle of Transformer
Iron core
Flux ()

AC
Supply ~ L

Primary Winding Secondary Winding


Constructional details of 1- Transformer
The main parts of the transformer are:
1. magnetic core
2. windings
3. insulations of windings
4. tank, oil, cooling arrangement, conservators etc.

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S. K. Sahoo, EE, IT-NU
1. Magnetic core:
Its ensures maximum flux linkage with the both the
windings.
It is made up of Si-steel.
Thin laminated Si-steel stacked together to form a
core.
The magnetic circuit can be core type or shell type.
A core type transformer is one in which there is only
one iron path.
A shell type there are two parallel magnetic paths in to
which the flux from the central limb can divide.

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S. K. Sahoo, EE, IT-NU
1. Magnetic core:

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S. K. Sahoo, EE, IT-NU
1. Magnetic core:

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S. K. Sahoo, EE, IT-NU
1. Magnetic core:

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S. K. Sahoo, EE, IT-NU
2. Windings
It is made up of Cupper.
The coils of the transformer are generally of two types.
Cylindrical concentric coils
Sandwich coils

Cylindrical concentric coils

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2. Windings

Sandwich coils

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S. K. Sahoo, EE, IT-NU
3. Insulations
Enamel insulation is used as the inner-turn insulation
of low voltage transformers.
For power transformers, enameled copper with paper
insulation is used.
Paper in the form of tape may be utilized for taping
winding leads and other parts.
Connections from the windings are brought out by
means of bushings.
Ordinary porcelain insulators can be used as bushings
up to 33 kV.
Above 33 kV, capacitor and oil filled type bushings are
used.
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S. K. Sahoo, EE, IT-NU
4. Cooling arrangements in Transformer
Air natural cooling
Air blast cooling
Oil Natural cooling
Forced circulation of oil
Oil and water cooled
Forced oil and water cooled

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S. K. Sahoo, EE, IT-NU
Conservator

Buchholz relay

Explosion vent

Breather

Winding and
Core

Cooling tube Tank


Concept of Ideal Transformer
No winding resistance
No leakage reactance
No core losses
Magnetization curve is linear

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S. K. Sahoo, EE, IT-NU
Thank you for your kind attention.

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