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Gas Power Cycle - Jet Propulsion Technology, A Case Study

Ideal Brayton Cycle


Fuel Combustor

3 1-2 Isentropic compression


2 2-3 Constant pressure heat addition
3-4 Isentropic expansion
4-1 Constant pressure heat rejection

Compressor
4
Air 1 Turbine
Products
P 3 3
2 T

2
4

1 4 1
v s
Ideal Brayton Cycle - 2
The thermal efficiency of the ideal Brayton cycle is

th
wnet wout win qin qout

q h h
1 out 1 4 1
qin qin qin qin h3 h2
c p (T4 T1 ) T1 (T4 / T1 1)
1 1 equation (1)
c p (T3 T2 ) T2 (T3 / T2 1)
Processes 1-2 and 3-4 are isentropic (adiabatic), therefore
( k 1) / k ( k 1) / k
T2 P2 T3 P3
, and
T1 P1 T4 P4
T2 T3 T T
Also, P2 P3 and P4 P1 , therefore and 2 1
T1 T4 T3 T4
T1 T 1 1
Equation (1) becomes th 1 1 4 1 ( k 1) / k
1
T2 T3 P2 rp( k 1) / k

P1
P2
where rp is the pressure ratio of the compressor and the turbine
P1
Jet Propulsion Cycle

T 4
P=constant
qin
1-2, inlet flow decelerates in the diffuser;
3 5 pressure and temperature increase

5-6, outlet flow accelerates in the nozzle


6
2 section, pressure and temperature decrease
qout
1 P=constant
s
Propulsive Power
Jet Engine

Mass flow in Action force, FA Mass flow out

Inlet velocity, Vin Reaction force, FR Exit velocity, Vexit

Due to the action force F , the momentum of the air flowing


A

through the engine increases:


d d
F (linear momentum change) = [ ( mV )] [ ( mV )] mV
A
mV
exit in exit in
dt dt
From Newton' s third law: F F Propulsive force
A R

F m (V V )
R exit in

Propulsive Power
W = F V m (V V )V
P R aircraft exit in aircraft
Gas Turbine Improvements

Increase the gas combustion temperature (T3) before it enters the


turbine since th = 1 - (T4/T3)
Limited by metallurgical restriction: ceramic coating over
the turbine blades
Improved intercooling technology: blow cool air over the
surface of the blades (film cooling), steam cooling inside the
blades.

Modifications to the basic thermodynamic cycle: intercooling,


reheating, regeneration

Improve design of turbomachinery components: multi-stage


compressor and turbine configuration. Better aerodynamic design
on blades (reduce stall).
PW8000 Geared Turbofan Engine

Twin-spool configuration: H-P turbine drives H-P compressor


L-P turbine drives L-P compressor, on separated shafts
Gearbox to further decrease the RPM of the fan
More fuel efficiency
Less noise
Fewer engine parts From Machine Design Magazine
Nov. 5, 1998