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FILOSILICATOS

Marco Antonio Mrquez G


Introducin
Capas de tetraedros compartiendo los
oxgenos de la base
Capas coplanares o no
Combinadas con capas de octaedros
en dos patrones:
Trioctaedral
Dioctaedral
Grupos

Tres grupos:
Grupo de las micas
Grupo de la serpentina

Grupo de las arcillas


Composicin de las micas
X2Y4-6Si6Al2O20(OH)4
Moscovita
Chemical Formula: KAl2(Si3Al)O10(OH,F)2
Composition:
Potassium 9.81 % K 11.81 % K2O
Aluminum 20.30 % Al 38.36 % Al2O3
Silicon 21.13 % Si 45.21 % SiO2
Hydrogen 0.46 % H 4.07 % H2O
Oxygen 47.35 % O
Fluorine 0.95 % F 0.95 % F
100.00 % 100.00 % = TOTAL OXIDE
Empirical Formula: KAl3Si3O10(OH)1.8F0.2
Environment: Granites and pegmatites.
IMA Status: Valid Species (Pre-IMA) 1850
Locality: Common world wide.
Name Origin: From Muscovy glass, alluding to the
Russian province of Muscovy.
Synonym: Binnite (Ba) Fuchsite (Cr) Isinglass Potash
Mica
Propiedades Fsicas
Cleavage: [001] Perfect
Color: White, Gray, Silver white, Brownish white,
Greenish white.
Density: 2.77 - 2.88, Average = 2.82
Diaphaniety: Transparent to translucent
Fracture: Brittle - Sectile - Brittle fracture with
slightly sectile shavings possible.
Habit: Foliated - Two dimensional platy forms.
Habit: Massive - Lamellar - Distinctly foliated fine-
grained forms.
Habit: Micaceous - Platy texture with "flexible"
plates.
Hardness: 2-2.5 - Gypsum-Finger Nail
Luminescence: None.
Luster: Vitreous (Glassy)
Streak: white
Pink crystals of fluorapatite with pale blue beryl (aquamarine) on
books of muscovite crystals
Flogopita
Chemical Formula: KMg3(Si3Al)O10(F,OH)2
Composition:
Potassium 9.33 % K 11.23 % K2O
Magnesium 17.39 % Mg 28.84 % MgO
Aluminum 6.44 % Al 12.16 % Al2O3
Silicon 20.10 % Si 42.99 % SiO2
Hydrogen 0.24 % H 2.15 % H2O
Oxygen 41.98 % O
Fluorine 4.53 % F 4.53 % F
100.00 % 100.00 % = TOTAL OXIDE
Environment: Contact and regional metamorphic
limestones and dolomites. Ultramafic igneous rocks.
IMA Status: Valid Species (Pre-IMA) 1841
Locality: St. Lawrence Co., at Edwards, New York, USA.
Name Origin: From the Greek flogopos - "resembling
fire."
Synonym: Magnesium Mica
Propiedades Fsicas
Cleavage: [001] Perfect
Color: Brown, Gray, Green, Yellow, Reddish brown.
Density: 2.7 - 2.9, Average = 2.8
Diaphaniety: Transparent to translucent
Fracture: Uneven - Flat surfaces (not cleavage)
fractured in an uneven pattern.
Habit: Lamellar - Thin laminae producing a lamellar
structure.
Habit: Micaceous - Platy texture with "flexible"
plates.
Habit: Scaly - Morphology like fish scales.
Hardness: 2-2.5 - Gypsum-Finger Nail
Luminescence: None.
Luster: Vitreous - Pearly
Streak: white
Biotita
Chemical Formula: K(Mg,Fe++)3[AlSi3O10(OH,F)2
Composition:
Potassium 9.02 % K 10.86 % K2O
Magnesium 14.02 % Mg 23.24 % MgO
Aluminum 6.22 % Al 11.76 % Al2O3
Iron 6.44 % Fe 8.29 % FeO
Silicon 19.44 % Si 41.58 % SiO2
Hydrogen 0.41 % H 3.64 % H2O
Oxygen 43.36 % O
Fluorine 1.10 % F 1.10 % F
100.00 % 100.00 % = TOTAL OXIDE
Empirical Formula: KMg2.5Fe2+0.5AlSi3O10(OH)1.75F0.25
Environment: Granitic rocks. Forms a series with phlogopite. Has several
polytypes (1M, 3T, 2M1). Biotite is now a group name for phlogopite,
siderophyllite and eastonite.
IMA Status: Not Approved IMA 1998
Locality: Common world wide.
Name Origin: Named in 1847 after the French physicist, Jean Baptiste
Biot (1774 - 1862), who studied the optical properties of the micas.
Synonym: Iron Mica Lepidomelane (Fe) Manganophyllite (Mn)
Micaceous Iron Ore
Prismatic wohlerite crystals with lepidomelane (Fe-rich biotite).
Fibrous mass of anthophyllite as a shell around biotite
Propiedades Fsicas
Cleavage: [001] Perfect
Color: Dark brown, Greenish brown, Blackish brown,
Yellow, White.
Density: 2.8 - 3.4, Average = 3.09
Diaphaniety: Transparent to translucent to opaque
Fracture: Uneven - Flat surfaces (not cleavage) fractured
in an uneven pattern.
Habit: Lamellar - Thin laminae producing a lamellar
structure.
Habit: Micaceous - Platy texture with "flexible" plates.
Habit: Pseudo Hexagonal - Crystals show a hexagonal
outline.
Hardness: 2.5-3 - Finger Nail-Calcite
Luminescence: None.
Luster: Vitreous - Pearly
Streak: gray
Vermiculita
Chemical Formula:
(Mg,Fe++,Al)3(Al,Si)4O10(OH)24(H2O)
Composition:
Magnesium 8.68 % Mg 14.39 % MgO
Aluminum 23.01 % Al 43.48 % Al2O3
Iron 9.97 % Fe 12.82 % FeO
Silicon 5.57 % Si 11.92 % SiO2
Hydrogen 2.00 % H 17.87 % H2O
Oxygen 50.77 % O
100.00 % 100.48 % = TOTAL OXIDE
Empirical Formula:
Mg1.8Fe2+0.9Al4.3SiO10(OH)24(H2O)
IMA Status: Valid Species (Pre-IMA) 1824
Name Origin: From the Latin vermiculus, "little
worm."
Propiedades Fsicas
Cleavage: [001] Perfect
Color: Colorless, Green, Gray white, Yellow
brown.
Density: 2.3 - 2.7, Average = 2.5
Diaphaniety: Translucent
Fracture: Uneven - Flat surfaces (not
cleavage) fractured in an uneven pattern.
Habit: Lamellar - Thin laminae producing a
lamellar structure.
Habit: Scaly - Morphology like fish scales.
Hardness: 1.5-2 - Talc-Gypsum
Luster: Vitreous - Dull
Streak: greenish white
Clorita (Tosudita)-Grupo del Clinocloro
Chemical Formula: Na0,5(Al,Mg)6(Si,Al)8O18(OH)125(H2O)
(Mg,Fe)5(Al,Fe3+)2Si3O10(OH)8
Composition:
Sodium 1.18 % Na 1.59 % Na2O
Magnesium 4.99 % Mg 8.28 % MgO
Aluminum 13.85 % Al 26.18 % Al2O3
Silicon 20.19 % Si 43.19 % SiO2
Hydrogen 2.28 % H 20.35 % H2O
Oxygen 57.51 % O
100.00 % 99.59 % = TOTAL OXIDE
Empirical Formula: Na0.5Al4Mg2Si7AlO18(OH)125(H2O)
Environment: Hydrothermal alteration product of tuffs, andesites,
sediments, and so on.
IMA Status: Approved IMA 1963
Locality: Al-tosudite - Alushta, Crimea, Russia. Mg-tosudite -
Kamakita mine, Aomori Prefecture, Japan. Li-tosudite - Himalaya
pegmatite, San Diego County, Californina, USA.
Name Origin: Named for Toshio Sudo (1911-), Japanese
mineralogist and crystallographer, University of Tokyo, Japan.
Synonym: Alushtite Chlorite
Propiedades Fsicas
Cleavage: [001] Perfect
Color: Azure, Blue white, Green,
Yellow, White.
Density: 2.42
Habit: Massive - Lamellar - Distinctly
foliated fine-grained forms.
Hardness: 1-2 - Between Talc and
Gypsum
Luster: Vitreous (Glassy)
Streak: white
Lepidolita
Chemical Formula: K(Li,Al)3(Si,Al)4O10(F,OH)2
Composition:
Potassium 10.07 % K 12.13 % K2O
Lithium 3.58 % Li 7.70 % Li2O
Aluminum 6.95 % Al 13.13 % Al2O3
Silicon 28.93 % Si 61.89 % SiO2
Hydrogen 0.26 % H 2.32 % H2O
Oxygen 45.32 % O
Fluorine 4.89 % F 4.89 % F
100.00 % 100.00 % = TOTAL OXIDE
Empirical Formula: KLi2AlSi4O10F(OH)
Environment: Lithia-bearing pegmatites.
IMA Status: Valid Species (Pre-IMA) 1792
Locality: Pala, San Diego Co., California, USA.
Name Origin: From the Greek lepidion - "scale" and lithos
- "stone."
Synonym: Lithium Mica
Propiedades Fsicas
Cleavage: [001] Perfect
Color: Colorless, Gray white, Lilac, Yellowish, White.
Density: 2.8 - 2.9, Average = 2.84
Diaphaniety: Translucent
Fracture: Uneven - Flat surfaces (not cleavage)
fractured in an uneven pattern.
Habit: Foliated - Two dimensional platy forms.
Habit: Massive - Uniformly indistinguishable crystals
forming large masses.
Habit: Platy - Sheet forms (e.g. micas).
Hardness: 2.5-3 - Finger Nail-Calcite
Luminescence: None.
Luster: Vitreous - Pearly
Streak: white
Margarita
Chemical Formula: CaAl2(Al2Si2)O10(OH)2
Composition:
Calcium 10.07 % Ca 14.08 % CaO
Aluminum 27.10 % Al 51.21 % Al2O3
Silicon 14.11 % Si 30.18 % SiO2
Hydrogen 0.51 % H 4.52 % H2O
Oxygen 48.22 % O
100.00 % 100.00 % = TOTAL OXIDE
Empirical Formula: CaAl4Si2O10(OH)2
Environment: Commonly associated with corundum
as an alteration product.
IMA Status: Valid Species (Pre-IMA) 1823
Locality: Corundum mines at Ekaterinurg Distict, Ural
Mountains, Russia.
Name Origin: From the Greek margaritos - "pearl."
Propiedades Fsicas
Cleavage: [001] Good
Color: White, Gray, Pinkish gray, Yellowish gray.
Density: 2.99 - 3.08, Average = 3.03
Diaphaniety: Translucent to subtranslucent
Fracture: Brittle - Generally displayed by glasses
and most non-metallic minerals.
Habit: Lamellar - Thin laminae producing a lamellar
structure.
Habit: Massive - Lamellar - Distinctly foliated fine-
grained forms.
Habit: Scaly - Morphology like fish scales.
Hardness: 4 - Fluorite
Luminescence: None.
Luster: Pearly
Streak: white
Glauconita
Chemical Formula: (K,Na)(Fe+++,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Composition:
Potassium 5.49 % K 6.62 % K2O
Sodium 0.27 % Na 0.36 % Na2O
Magnesium 2.28 % Mg 3.78 % MgO
Aluminum 1.90 % Al 3.58 % Al2O3
Iron 19.62 % Fe 3.37 % FeO / 24.31 % Fe2O3
Silicon 25.00 % Si 53.48 % SiO2
Hydrogen 0.47 % H 4.22 % H2O
Oxygen 44.97 % O
100.00 % 99.72 % = TOTAL OXIDE
Empirical Formula: K0.6Na0.05Fe3+1.3Mg0.4Fe2+0.2Al0.3Si3.8O10(OH)2
Environment: Altered from detrital biotite by marine diagenesis
in shallow water under reducing conditions; especially in
sandstone.
IMA Status: Valid Species (Pre-IMA) 1828
Locality: Otago Peninsula, New Zealand. Common world wide.
Name Origin: From the Greek "glaucos" for the blue green
color.
Propiedades Fsicas
Cleavage: [001] Perfect
Color: Blue green, Green, Yellow green.
Density: 2.4 - 2.95, Average = 2.67
Diaphaniety: Translucent to Subopaque
Habit: Micaceous - Platy texture with
"flexible" plates.
Hardness: 2 - Gypsum
Luminescence: Non-fluorescent.
Luster: Earthy (Dull)
Magnetism: Nonmagnetic
Streak: light green
Paragnesis de las micas
Primary minerals in igneous and
metamorphic rocks
Muscovite: Metamorphic rocks (pelitic
schists), some granites.
Biotite: Metamorphic rocks (pelitic
schists), all granites and granodiorites.
Phlogopite: Ultramafic rocks
(kimberlites), metamorphosed Mg-rich
limestones
Chlorite: Alteration product of biotite in
retrograde metamorphic rocks;
greenschist facies.
Grupo de la
serpentina y el
talco
Amesite:Mg 2Al[(OH) 4| Kaolinite:Al 2Si 2O 5(OH) 4
AlSiO 5] Kellyite:Mn2+2Al[(OH) 4|
Antigorite: AlSiO 5]
(Mg,Fe2+ ) 3[(OH) 4|Si 2O 5] Lizardite:Mg 3[(OH) 4|
Berthierine:(Fe,Fe,Mg) 2- Si 2O 5]
3(Si,Al) 2O 5(OH) 4
Brindleyite:
Manandonite
(Ni,Mg,Fe) 2Al(Si,Al)O 5(OH) 4 :LiAl 4Si 3BO 10(OH) 6
Caryopilite: Nacrite:Al 2Si 2O 5(OH) 4
(Mn,Mg) 3Si 2O 5(OH) 4 Npouite:
Clinochrysotile (Ni,Mg) 3Si 2O 5(OH) 4
:Mg 3Si 2O 5(OH) 4 Odinite:
Cronstedtite (Fe,Mg,Al,Fe,Ti,Mn) 2.4(Si,Al)
:Fe2+2Fe3+ [(Si,Fe3+ )O 5] 2O 5(OH) 4
(OH) 4 Orthochrysotile
Dickite:Al 2Si 2O 5(OH) 4 :Mg 3Si 2O 5(OH) 4
Fraipontite: Parachrysotile
(Zn,Al) 3(Si,Al) 2O 5(OH) 4 :Mg 3Si 2O 5(OH) 4
Greenalite:(Fe,Fe) 2-
3Si 2O 5(OH) 4
Pecoraite:Ni 3[(OH) 4|
Si 2O 5]
Halloysite:Al 2Si 2O 5(OH) 4
Antigorita
Chemical Formula: (Mg,Fe++)3Si2O5(OH)4
Composition:
Magnesium 18.18 % Mg 30.15 % MgO
Iron 13.93 % Fe 17.92 % FeO
Silicon 18.68 % Si 39.95 % SiO2
Hydrogen 1.34 % H 11.98 % H2O
Oxygen 47.88 % O
100.00 % 100.00 % = TOTAL OXIDE
Empirical Formula: Mg2.25Fe2+0.75(Si2O5)(OH)4
Environment: Common in regional and contact
metamorphosed serpentinites
IMA Status: Valid Species (Pre-IMA) 1840
Locality: Antigorio, Italy
Name Origin: Named after its locality. From the Latin,
serpens - "snake."
Synonym: Bowenite Jenkinsite Picrolite Picrosmine
Williamsite
Propiedades Fsicas
Cleavage: [001] Good
Color: Green, Gray, Bluish gray, Brown, Black.
Density: 2.5 - 2.6, Average = 2.54
Diaphaniety: Translucent to Subopaque
Fracture: Brittle - Generally displayed by glasses
and most non-metallic minerals.
Habit: Massive - Uniformly indistinguishable crystals
forming large masses.
Habit: Platy - Sheet forms (e.g. micas).
Habit: Scaly - Morphology like fish scales.
Hardness: 3.5-4 - Copper Penny-Fluorite
Luster: Vitreous - Greasy
Streak: greenish white
Chromite veins in yellow to green antigorite with picrolite, chromian
antigorite and dolomite (polished section).
Location: Wood's Mine, near 'Texas', Little Britain Township,
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, USA.
Lizardita
Chemical Formula: Mg3Si2O5(OH)4
Composition:
Magnesium 26.31 % Mg 43.63 % MgO
Silicon 20.27 % Si 43.36 % SiO2
Hydrogen 1.45 % H 13.00 % H2O
Oxygen 51.96 % O
100.00 % 100.00 %
IMA Status: Valid Species (Pre-IMA)
1956
Synonym: Orthoantigorite
Propiedades Fsicas

Cleavage: [001] Perfect


Color: Green, Green blue, Yellow,
White.
Density: 2.55 - 2.6, Average = 2.57
Diaphaniety: Translucent
Hardness: 2.5 - Finger Nail
Streak: white
Lizardite pseudomorphously replacing olivine
Location: Snarum, Norway
Clinocrisotilo
Chemical Formula: Mg3Si2O5(OH)4
Composition:
Magnesium 26.31 % Mg 43.63 % MgO
Silicon 20.27 % Si 43.36 % SiO2
Hydrogen 1.45 % H 13.00 % H2O
Oxygen 51.96 % O
100.00 % 100.00 % = TOTAL OXIDE
Empirical Formula: Mg3Si2O5(OH)4
Environment: Metamorphosed and hydrothermally-
altered ultra-basic rocks.
IMA Status: Valid Species (Pre-IMA) 1951
Name Origin: From the Greek chrysos - "gold" and
tilos - "fiber."
Synonym: Asbestos, Chrysotile, Deweylite,Mountain
Leather, Serpentine, amianto
Propiedades Fsicas
Cleavage: [???] Distinct
Color: Green, Red, Yellow, White.
Density: 2.53 - 2.65, Average = 2.59
Diaphaniety: Translucent to opaque
Fracture: Conchoidal - Fractures developed in brittle
materials characterized by smoothly curving surfaces,
(e.g. quartz).
Habit: Amorphous - No crystalline form or imitative
shape.
Habit: Granular - Generally occurs as anhedral to
subhedral crystals in matrix.
Habit: Massive - Fibrous - Distinctly fibrous fine-grained
forms.
Hardness: 2.5-3 - Finger Nail-Calcite
Luminescence: Non-fluorescent.
Luster: Resinous
Streak: white
Aplicacin
Asbestos is commonly found in many
building materials and household items.
Asbestos is a commercial term applied to
the asbestiform varieties of six different
minerals:
1. Chrysotile (asbestiform serpentine)
2. Amosite (asbestiform grunerite)
3. Crocidolite (asbestiform riebeckite)
4. Tremolite (asbestiform)
5. Actinolite (asbestiform)
6. Anthophyllite (asbestiform)
Aplicacin
The properties of asbestos that
caused it to be widely used
commercially are:
1. The ability to be separated into long, thin,
flexible fibers
2. High tensile strength

3. Low thermal and electrical conductivity

4. High mechanical and chemical durability

5. High heat resistance


Talco
Chemical Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Composition:
Magnesium 19.23 % Mg 31.88 % MgO
Silicon 29.62 % Si 63.37 % SiO2
Hydrogen 0.53 % H 4.75 % H2O
Oxygen 50.62 % O
100.00 % 100.00 %
Environment: Hydrothermal alteration of non-
aluminous magnesian silicates
IMA Status: Valid Species (Pre-IMA) 1546
Locality: Common world wide
Name Origin: From the Arabic
Synonym: Kerolite, Magnesium Talc, Soapstone,
Steatite - massive
Propiedades Fsicas
Cleavage: [001] Perfect
Color: Pale green, White, Gray white, Yellowish
white, Brownish white.
Density: 2.7 - 2.8, Average = 2.75
Diaphaniety: Translucent
Fracture: Uneven - Flat surfaces (not cleavage)
fractured in an uneven pattern.
Habit: Foliated - Two dimensional platy forms.
Habit: Massive - Uniformly indistinguishable crystals
forming large masses.
Habit: Scaly - Morphology like fish scales.
Hardness: 1 - Talc
Luminescence: Fluorescent.
Luster: Vitreous - Pearly
Streak: white
White talc pseudomorphous after quartz
Location: Johannezeche, Bavaria, Germany
Pirofilita
Chemical Formula: Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Composition:
Aluminum 14.98 % Al 28.30 % Al2O3
Silicon 31.18 % Si 66.70 % SiO2
Hydrogen 0.56 % H 5.00 % H2O
Oxygen 53.28 % O
100.00 % 100.00 %
IMA Status: Valid Species (Pre-IMA) 1829
Locality: Pyschminsk and Beresovsk, Ural
Mountains, Russia.
Propiedades Fsicas
Cleavage: [001] Perfect
Color: Brown green, Brownish yellow,
Greenish, Gray green, Gray white.
Density: 2.8 - 2.9, Average = 2.84
Diaphaniety: Translucent to opaque
Fracture: Flexible - Flexible fragments.
Habit: Earthy - Dull, clay-like texture with
no visible crystalline affinities, (e.g. howlite).

Hardness: 1.5-2 - Talc-Gypsum


Luminescence: Fluorescent.
Luster: Pearly
Streak: white
Rutile on fine-grained pyrophyllite.
Location: Graves Mt. Georgia, USA.
Caolinita
Chemical Formula: Al2Si2O5(OH)4
Composition:
Aluminum 20.90 % Al 39.50 % Al2O3
Silicon 21.76 % Si 46.55 % SiO2
Hydrogen 1.56 % H 13.96 % H2O
Oxygen 55.78 % O
100.00 % 100.00 % = TOTAL OXIDE
Environment: Secondary mineral derived from the
wathering of alumino-silicate minerals
IMA Status: Valid Species (Pre-IMA) 1930
Locality: Kao-Ling, China
Name Origin: Named after the locality
Synonym: Pianlinite - Disordered
Propiedades Fsicas
Cleavage: [001] Perfect
Color: White, Brownish white, Grayish white,
Yellowish white, Grayish green.
Density: 2.6
Diaphaniety: Transparent to translucent
Fracture: Earthy - Dull, clay-like fractures with no
visible crystalline affinities, (e.g. howlite).
Habit: Earthy - Dull, clay-like texture with no visible
crystalline affinities, (e.g. howlite).
Hardness: 1.5-2 - Talc-Gypsum
Luminescence: None.
Luster: Earthy (Dull)
Streak: white
Pyramidal diagentic quartz overgrowth on a sand grain
with associated kaolinite platelets
Montmorillonita
Chemical Formula: (Na,Ca)0,3(Al,Mg)2Si4O10(OH)2n(H2O)
Composition:
Sodium 0.84 % Na 1.13 % Na2O
Calcium 0.73 % Ca 1.02 % CaO
Aluminum 9.83 % Al 18.57 % Al2O3
Silicon 20.46 % Si 43.77 % SiO2
Hydrogen 4.04 % H 36.09 % H2O
Oxygen 64.11 % O
100.00 % 100.58 % = TOTAL OXIDE
Empirical Formula: Na0.2Ca0.1Al2Si4O10(OH)2(H2O)10
IMA Status: Valid Species (Pre-IMA) 1847
Locality: Veinne, Montmorillone, France.
Name Origin: Named after the locality.
Synonym: Bentonite
Propiedades Fsicas
Cleavage: [001] Perfect
Color: White, Gray white, Yellow, Brownish yellow,
Greenish yellow.
Density: 2 - 2.7, Average = 2.35
Diaphaniety: Translucent to Opaque
Fracture: Earthy - Dull, clay-like fractures with no
visible crystalline affinities, (e.g. howlite).
Habit: Earthy - Dull, clay-like texture with no visible
crystalline affinities, (e.g. howlite).
Hardness: 1.5-2 - Talc-Gypsum
Luminescence: None.
Luster: Earthy (Dull)
Streak: white
Authigenic smectite (montmorillonite) overgrown on
pore spaces and authigenicly-overgrown quartz grains
in a sandstone. SEM image of a core sample