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CDMA - TECHNOLOGY

EVOLUTION & SERVICES


CDMA INTRODUCTION

WHAT IS CDMA

CDMA is only a means to transmit bits of information, while IS-95


or CDMA2000 1x are the transmission protocols that employ
CDMA

CDMA works by converting speech into digital information, which


is then transmitted as a radio signal over a wireless network.

Using a unique code to distinguish each different call, CDMA


enables many more people to share the airwaves at the same time -
without static, cross-talk or interference.
WHY IS CDMA BETTER?

A few of the benefits of CDMA are

Wireline/clearer voice quality,


Better reception with less background noise,
Fewer dropped calls,
Enhanced security and greater reliability.

Also, CDMA allows for more users to be on the system


at once -- greater network capacity, resulting in fewer
blocked calls for the users of a CDMA network.
REASONS TO GO CDMA
CDMA2000 OFFERS

AN APPROVED IMT-2000 STANDARD USING JUST 1.25 MHZ


A WELL ESTABLISHED GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY CHOICE
SUPERIOR CAPACITIES FOR VOICE AND DATA
DIRECT MIGRATION TO 3G
A SMOOTH, STANDARDIZED MIGRATION TO ALL-IP
SYNERGIES WITH THE INTERNET AND MULTI-ACCESS CAPABILITIES
REVENUE GENERATION THROUGH ROAMING
MULTIMEDIA CAPABILITIES FOR AN ENHANCED FEATURE SET
A LARGE SELECTION OF HANDSETS
CDMA2000 STANDARDS PROGRESS

CDMAOne CDMA2000
cdma2000 1xEV cdma2000 1xEV
IS-95A IS-95B cdma2000 1X
Phase 1 Phase 2 3G+
Voice Voice 2*Voice Capacity cdma2000 1xEV 2* Voice Capacity
Packet Data
9.6/14.4 Kbps
Packet Data
64 Kbps
Packet Core Net
144 Kbps
Data Only Overlay
2Mbps
Multi-service
2Mbps Data/Voice
All IP
1995 1998 - 1999 2000 - 2001 2001- 2002 2002 - 2003

Products in first 5 years Products introduced in this


were built to commercialize horizon see 3 phases of
CDMA technology evolution
Current CDMA systems are based on IS95 standard (i.e., Mobile
Station-Base Station Compatibility Standard for Dual-Mode
Wide-band Spread Spectrum Cellular System)
IS-95 Revision 0 1993
IS-95 Revision A 1994
IS-95 Revision B 1998
CDMA 2000 is the third generation (3G) digital cellular mobile
telecommunication system. It is defined by Telecommunications
Industry Association (TIA) TR-45 committee.
Phase 1 (3G/1x): 1.25 MHz bandwidth (includes guard band)

Phase 2 (3G/3x): 3.75 MHz bandwidth (includes guard band)

Focus: Phase 1 - 3G 1x
Technical Characteristics

RF characteristics are the same as IS-95A


channel bandwidth = 1.25 MHz
chip rate = 1.2288 Mcps
Pilot based coherent reverse link
Continuous reverse link wave-form
Faster power control on the forward link and reverse link
More powerful forward error correction (FEC)
QPSK modulation (I & Q)
Enhanced handoff algorithms (IS-95B)

3G/1x can be deployed adjacent to IS-95 spectrum or overlaid onto same


spectrum.
CDMA2000 MULTIMEDIA CAPABILITIES
Application-specific Data Speeds & Throughputs
Wide range from 14.4 kbps to 2.4 Mbps and more
Higher data throughput to accommodate more users

Simultaneous Voice and Data Services


cdma2000 assigns multiple channels for single user for various
concurrent voice and data services

QoS for Multimedia Applications


QoS monitoring possible for each channel providing various services
CDMA2000 Multimedia Capabilities
Application-specific Delay Tolerance
Supports applications requiring immediate transmission
Delay-sensitive applications - e.g. VoIP
Supports applications that can wait for transmission slot
Delay-tolerant applications - e.g. e-mail, file transfer, etc.
Premium and value-added services for competitive differentiation, customer
loyalty and satisfaction

ALL-IP architecture is designed to promote multimedia services


Separation of Circuit Switched and Packet Switched Domains
allows for independent development of multimedia services
Revenue Generation Through Roaming
cdma2000 is backwards compatible with cdmaOne
32 countries worldwide with more than 75 million subscribers
Gives migrating TDMA operator access to roaming base
CDMA Roaming is Happening.
Roaming support defined by the CDMA standards
International roaming agreements in place among major CDMA operators in
Americas, Pacific Rim and Asia
UIM compatible handsets available in 2001
Enables GSM/ CDMA Roaming and smart card services
3G/1x vs. 2G - Conclusion: Capacity Gains

CDMA 3G/1x provides approximately double voice capacity in Erlang for both
13K and EVRC (8K) compared with IS-95A

Technology 2G 3G/1x
Rate Set RS1 RS2 RS1 RS2
Erlang (sector) 13.2 7.4 26.4 14.8

Doubling applies to implementation in cleared spectrum; for spectral overlay on


IS-95, capacity is reduced due to mutual interference between the two systems
(can be computed from mix assumed)
Which Path to Take?

GSM GPRS UMTS


Dominant Technology
Most of Europe and likely most of A/P
Economies of Scale
Variety of Terminals
Common Features
Roaming

CDMA 3G-1X 3G-1XEV


Dominant Technology in U.S.
More Efficient use of Spectrum
1.25 MHz vs 5 MHz
New Spectrum not Required
More Data/Voice Flexibility
Higher Data Rate
Migration to UMTS Possible
Technology choice and Migration
CDMA 1X-EV; GSM-GPRS-EDGE
Wireless License option
Basic operator services or cellular services
Multiple services with BSO
Spectrum availability
Band, amount available and timing
Circle, Competition, Embedded base and Geographical
Contiguity
Voice Capacity Issue

CDMA GSM
CDMA is a Noise Limited System GSM is a Spectrum Limited System
Tradeoff between Capacity, Traditional TDMA channel allocation
Coverage and Quality defines capacity
Spread spectrum and digital codes Optimum power control (minimizing
allow N=1 reuse interference), frequency hopping
Strict power control ensures and microcellular enhance capacity
capacity is maximized by allowing tighter frequency reuse

No of subs supported @ 40mErlang/sub.

CDMA -3G 1X GSM / GPRS


3 carrier /3 sector
(3/3/3) 5918 1117
2 carrier /3 sector
(2/2/2) 3945 675
1 carrier/3sectors
(1/1/1) 1973 221
Spectrum Options

824 - 844 869 - 889 CDMA-WLL


MHz MHz 850 MHz
GSM ?

890 - 915 935 - 960 GSM

No. of sites
MHz MHz 900 MHz

1710 - 1785 1805 - 1880 GSM/CDMA


MHz MHz 1800 MHz

1850-1910 1930 - 1990 GSM/CDMA


MHz MHz 1900 MHz
Worldwide Fixed, Mobile and
Internet Growth

Shortly after the


year 2001, there are
forecast to be
1 billion users of
each of the Mobile,
Fixed and Internet
networks
Wireless Replacing Wireline

(Thousands)

300
The number of
mobile users in 318

the U.S. who use 200


their wireless
device as their 259%
100 122
only phone is 53
233%
quickly 45%
37
increasing 0
1999 2000 2001 2002

Mobile Users

Source: Research Portal


cdma2000
IS-95-A 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DV
1X MC
Voice High Capacity Voice 2.4 Mbps Packet Higher Cap Voice/ Data
14.4 kbps IS-95-B 153 kbps Packet RF Backward Comp. RF Backward Comp.
RF Backward Comp.
Voice cdma2000
64 kbps Packet 3X MC
RF Backward Comp.
High Capacity Voice
384+ kbps Packet
Edge (Europe) RF Backward Comp.
IS-136
Edge (US)
Voice
9.6 kbps GSM GPRS 384 kbps Packet

GSM 30-40 kbps Packet


RF Backward Comp. W-CDMA
Voice
9.6 kbps
High Capacity Voice
384+ kbps Packet
W-CDMA New RF
PDC PDC
(Japan)
Voice Voice
9.6 kbps 28.8 kbps
RF Backward Comp.
1995 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
IMT-2000 Terrestrial Radio Interfaces

IMT-2000 IMT-2000 IMT-2000 IMT-2000 IMT-2000


CDMA CDMA CDMA TDMA FDMA/
Direct Spread Multi-Carrier TDD Single Carrier TDMA
UMTS cdma2000 UTRA TDD UWC-136/ DECT
DoCoMo 1X and 3X & TD-SCDMA EDGE

Multiple standards meet ITU requirements for IMT2000


Technology choice driven by market requirements and operator partnerships
Delivering common platforms to provide operators maximum flexibility
Future Revenues
CDMA: A Decade of Success
the voice and packet data solution

89 90 93 94 95 96 97 98 99

Commercial
CDMA CDMA IS-95 CDMA launched in Commercial
Cellular standard systems in 50 million
So. Korea
Concept issued 100 U.S. cities subscribers
83 operators,
PCS PrimeCo
Korea selects Japan selects 35 nations*
turns up nation-
CDMA wide PCS service CDMA
More than 75
in 14 cities
companies
OmniTRACS licensed to
goes build and sell
international CDMA subscribers IS-95
Sprint PCS U.S. PCS standard reach over 12.5 products
San Diego selects CDMA issued million in 30
CDMA for nationwide countries on 1x HDR
demonstration network First commercial 5 continents* mobility
Nov. 89 CDMA system demonstrated
in Hong Kong using First 1x HDR
QUALCOMM phones call demonstrated
* According to CDG
CDMA Subscriber Growth History

CDMA2000 Subscriber Growth History: January 2001 through August 2002


CDMA2000 TERMINOLOGY

CDMA2000 Common name for IMT-2000 CDMA Multi-Carrier.


CDMA2000 1X 3G technology which offers up to 2 times increase in voice capacity and provides data
speeds up to 307 kbps on a single (1.25 MHz, or 1X) carrier in new or existing spectrum. CDMA2000
1X is has been commercially available since October 2000.
CDMA2000 1xEV Evolutionary steps of CDMA2000 1X that offer higher data rates and maximize
performance.
CDMA2000 1xEV-DO (Data-Only) 3G technology that uses a separate 1.25 MHz carrier for data and
offers peak data rates of 2.4 Mbps. The first CDMA2000 1xEV-DO networks were launched in early
2002.
CDMA2000 1xEV-DV (Data-Voice) 3G technology that integrates voice & data on the same carrier.
CDMA2000 1xEV-DV has been submitted to ITU for formal standardization approval.
CDMA GLOBAL EVOLUTION

Internet
Evolved ANSI-41 &
GSM-MAP Networks 1x MC DS 1x HDR
3x MC Direct Spread 3x HDR

IP-based Network for


Packet Data Services

Internet 1x HDR
ANSI-41 & GSM-MAP
1x MC
Networks (Multi-Carrier) (High Data Rate)

ANSI-41 Network IS-95 A/B


CDMA Standards

IMT-2000 CDMA
WCDMA Standard

MC Mode
J-STD-008 (1.2288 Mcps
TSB74
and 3.6864 Mcps)

DS Mode
IS-2000 (3.84 Mcps)
IS-95-A TIA/EIA-95-B (cdma2000)
TDD Mode
OHG (3.84 Mcps
Agreement and 1.28 Mcps)

All modes on both


TIA/EIA-41
and GSM-MAP
networks
J-STD-015
CDMA Standards Development Organizations

ITU

3GPP(1) 3GPP2

ETSI (Europe) TIA (US)


ARIB/TTC (Japan) ARIB/TTC (Japan)
TTA (Korea) TTA (Korea)
CWTS (China) CWTS (China)
T1 (US)
CDMA Standards

Native Modes
Developed by 3GPP
CDMA DS-MAP (WCDMA, UTRA)
DS lower layers using GSM signaling
Developed by 3GPP2
CDMA MC-41 (cdma2000 MC modes)
MC lower layers using cdma2000 signaling

Cross Modes
CDMA DS-41 Developed by 3GPP2
DS lower layers using cdma2000 signaling with support from
CDMA MC-MAP 3GPP
MC lower layers using GSM signaling
Where do the Standards Sit

DS-MAP
Release 99: Declared done in March 2000, though many change
requests still being submitted
MC-41
Release 0: Completed July 1999
Release A: Completed March 2000
DS-41
Completed March 2000
MC-MAP
Completed March 2000
CDMA 2000 Phase 1
(IS-2000 Release 0)

Approved for publishing in July 1999


Provides full physical layer support for all modes (MC 1X, MC 3X)
Includes TIA/EIA-95-B as a subset
Provides signaling support for new 1X dedicated channels (as
well as existing TIA/EIA-95-B channels)
Provides signaling support for Quick Paging Channel (F-QPCH)
Uses existing Paging Channel (F-PCH) and Access Channel (R-
ACH) for call setups
Provides basic MAC support
CDMA 2000 Phase 2
(IS-2000 Release A)

Approved for publishing in March 2000


Being developed under 3GPP2 (TIA, ARIB, TTA, TTC, CWTS)
Provides signaling support for 3x MC channels
Provides signaling support for new common channels (F-CCCH,
R-CCCH, R-EACH)
Provides signaling support for concurrent services
Provides QoS negotiation
Supports enhanced authentication and encryption algorithms
Supports 1X reverse link with 3X forward link
CDMA 2000 1X Capacity

cdma2000 has twice the forward link capacity of IS-95 for voice
services with 8 Kbps codecs
How is this achieved?
Fast forward link power control
Lower code rates (rate 1/4 code can be used)
Transmit diversity
cdma2000 increases the reverse link capacity for voice services
by about 30 to 50%
How is this achieved?
Coherent reverse link
Primarily provides better support for high rate and simultaneous
services
3G standardization & development plans
EVOLUTION to 3 G : Options
2G 2.5 G 3G
IS - 95 A
Radio Technology : CDMA IS-95 B cdma 2000 1x cdma2000 3x
( Existing or New Spectrum)
Spectrum : Existing

Backward Compatibility : Yes Yes Yes

GSM
Radio Technology : TDMA GPRS EDGE W-CDMA
CDMA
New Spectrum
Spectrum : Existing

Backward Compatibility : Yes Yes No

TDMA
Radio Technology : TDMA IS-136+ IS-136HS / EDGE
Spectrum : Existing

Backward Compatibility : Yes Yes

The path from cdma One is only option with :


No radio Technology Break
Frequency - Independent Solution
Full support for 2G-3G compatibility
Forward Link Power Control Performance
9600 bps, 1960 MHz, 1 path Rayleigh fading
-4
IS-95 EIB Power Control
Traffic Channel E c / Ior (dB) required

-6
to achieve 1% Frame Error Rate

-8 No Power Control (with known set point)

-10 Fast Forward Power Control

-12

-14

-16

-18

-20

-22
1 10 100
Mobile Station Velocity (km/hr)
Benefits of Transmit Diversity
MC1x Forward Link, RC4 9600 bps, 1% FER, Power Control,
1 path Rayleigh fading Model, Center Frequency= 2 GHz, or /(N 0 +I oc ) = 6 dB
-10 RC4 (rate 1/2
-11 no Tx. Div. coding)
With RC3 (rate 1/4
Avg required Ec/Ior (dB) to achieve given QoS

-12
OTD coding), the
-13 differences
-14 between STS and
STS
OTD are
-15
substantially less
-16
With 2 path
-17 Rayleigh fading,
-18
transmit diversity
only gains about
-19 1/2 dB
-20

-21
1 10 100
km/h
Handoff Capabilities for ANSI-41 Systems

Permits full handoff of


IS-95-A/B MC 3X voice and data
services, including
MAC state

Permits handoff of
voice and data
services, but not MAC
state

MC 1X DS Permits handoff of
voice services

Analog
Handoff Capabilities for DS-MAP Systems

Permits full handoff of


IS-95-A/B MC 3X voice and data
services, including
MAC state

Permits handoff of
voice and data
services, but not MAC
state

MC 1X DS Permits handoff of
voice services

GSM
Forward Quick Paging Channel (F-QPCH)
Functions:
Paging indication
Broadcast short message indication
Configuration change indication
For paging, the mobile station must monitor one (sometimes two)
indicator (bit) on the F-QPCH once per slot cycle (wakeup cycle)
If the mobile station cannot reliably detect the first indicator, the mobile
station monitors the second indicator
If indicator is set, then the mobile station monitors either the F-PCH (Paging
Channel) or the F-CCCH (Forward Common Control Channel)
Indicators are organized so that a set indicator implies with a high probability
that there is a page for the mobile station
Depending upon implementation, the F-QPCH can reduce battery
consumption by a factor of 15 or more
Quick Paging Channel Timeline
Slot cycle (1.28 s shown)
Paging Channel or
Forward Common
Control Channel

2047 0 1 2 ... 15 16

t
*

Paging Channel Slot


(80 ms)

Quick Paging Channel Quick Paging Channel


Slot (80 ms) Slot (80 ms)

Quick
Paging
Channel

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
t
20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms

Quick paging indicators: 192 or 96 indicators per 20 ms


Coupling 1X and 3X Together
1.25 M Hz

Forward
Link cdma2000 3X M C
FL

cdma2000 1X M C
0 1M Hz 2 M Hz 3 M Hz 4 M Hz 5 M Hz R L-left

cdma2000 1X M C
R L-center
Reverse
Link cdma2000 1X M C
R L-right

0 1M Hz 2 M Hz 3 M Hz 4 M Hz 5 M Hz

Coupling 1X reverse link with 3X forward link


MC forward link can be sent through different power amplifiers, which dont have
intermodulation between them
For many applications, higher reverse link data rates are not needed;
Provides much less out-of-band interference
cdma2000 Product Development

MSM5000 baseband ASIC CSM5000 baseband ASIC


RF hardware the same as IS-95 RF hardware the same as IS-95

Voice calls being made


High rate packet data being
done in the lab

Commercial cdma2000 service is expected in Q4 2000


CSM5000

Channels
64 forward link channels
32 reverse link channels
6 sectors
Standards
IS-95-A/B
cdma2000 Release 0
Most cdma2000 Release A
features
MSM5000

Channels
FCH, DCCH, SCH
153.6 Kbps of F/R-SCH
with both Turbo and
convolutional coding
F-QPCH
Standards
IS-95-A/B
cdma2000 Release 0
Many cdma2000
Release A capabilities
What is HDR

Allocates one or more dedicated 1.25 MHz carriers to IP


packet data.
Under active standardization process
Allows the reuse of all analog/RF designs and components
developed for voice services both in the Access Terminal and
Access Point.
Existing cdmaOne subscriber products are HDR enabled by
dual-mode baseband ASIC.
Can be integrated into existing voice networks.
How Does HDR Work
Key is the forward link
HDR attempts to follow low-to-medium speed fading
Forward link is
Time division multiplexed into slots with a duration of 1.67 ms
Spread with a PN waveform
Mobile station measures C/I of base station
Sends back DRC which is the rate for the base station to transmit
Base station transmits at the requested rate when there is data to
send
IS-95/cdma2000 and HDR

Multi-Carrier
BTS

IS-95/1X IS-95/
Dual Mode cdma2000
RF Carrier
IS-95/1X & HDR T1/E1 BSC IS-634 MSC PSTN
HDR HDR
RF Carrier

DHCP
HDR is a separate PDSN Server

carrier specially DNS


Server
designed for
IP Network RADIUS
packet data Server

Ethernet

to Internet
IS-95/cdma2000 and HDR Alternative Model
Sharing
of Cell
Sites and
Antennas

IS-95/ BSC MSC


T1/E1 IS-634
IS-95/1X cdma2000 PSTN
Dual Mode BTS
IS-95/1X & HDR

HDR HDR Access


Point DHCP
PDSN Server

DNS
Server

RADIUS
IP Network Server

Ethernet

to Internet
HDR Performance
Air-Link provides 7.4 Mbps/cell (3 sectors) Forward Peak Throughput with
a Single CDMA Frequency Carrier

Asymmetric Forward and Reverse links


Average Forward Link Throughput = 2 Mbps/cell (3 sectors)

Average Forward Link Throughput = 3.6 Mbps/cell with dual receive Antennas
(3 sectors)

Average Reverse Link Throughput = 660 Kbps/cell (3 sectors)



Identical RF Characteristics as IS-95/1X
Same chip rate, link budget, power requirements, and coverage area
HDR carrier looks to the rest of the network as an IS-95/cdma2000 1X carrier
HDR Forward Link Structure
400 mSec

13.33 mSec 13.33 mSec

Control Control
Traffic Channel
Forward Link Traffic Channel
Traffic

8 Slots

1.67 mSec
1/2 Slot 1/2 Slot
The time each User receives data
on the forward traffic channel
varies for each data rate

Active Users

User N

232 Slots
HDR in the Soft Handoff Region

Selection of best serving sector


based on measured C/I

Fwd Data

Base
Station 1
Base
Time 1 Time 2 Station 2

Mobile station measures (C/I)2 > (C/I)1 and


requests data from base station 2 at data Rate R

Reverse link operated in soft handoff like IS-95/cdma2000


Cdma2000/HDR Deployments

Mix 1X/HDR CDMA cells with


TIA/EIA-95-A/B cells
IS-95-A/B Cell
Support higher data rates
Support enhanced capacity
cdma2000 MC 1X/HDR and 3X
cells can support TIA/EIA-95-
A/B mobile stations on the
same frequency
cdma2000
MC 1X/HDR cell
Can deploy cdma2000 MC
1X/HDR and MC 3X cells on
the same or different
frequency as
TIA/EIA-95-A/B cells
Can deploy cdma2000 MC
cdma2000
MC 3X cell 1X/HDR and then migrate to
cdma2000 MC 3x
Voice Erlangs vs Data Throughput (Kbps)
Assumptions (5 MHz)
1. 70% on dual and 30%
on Single Rx antenna for
100
HDR
90
2. Environment: Mobile
80

70

60
Erlangs

50

40

30

20

10

0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800

Data Throughput/sector (Kbps)

3-HDR 2-HDR+1-1X 1-HDR+2-1X 3-1X


Voice Erlangs vs Data Throughput (Kbps)
Assumptions (10 MHz)
1. 70% on dual and 30%
on Single Rx antenna for
250
HDR
2. Environment: Mobile
200

150
Erlangs

100

50

0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000

Data Throughput/sector (Kbps)

7-HDR 6-HDR+1-1X 5-HDR+2-1X 4-HDR+3-1X 3-HDR+4-1X 2-HDR+5-1X 1-HDR+6-1X 7-1X


Voice Erlangs vs Data Throughput (Kbps)
Assumptions (15 MHz)
1. 70% on dual and 30%
400
on Single Rx antenna for
HDR
350
2. Environment: Mobile
300

250
Erlangs

200

150

100

50

0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000

Data Throughput/sector (Kbps)

11-HDR 10-HDR+1-1X 9-HDR+2-1X 8-HDR+3-1X 7-HDR+4-1X 6-HDR+5-1X 5-HDR+6-1X

4-HDR+7-1X 3-HDR+8-1X 2-HDR+9-1X 1-HDR+10-1X 11-1X


CDMA -
The Third Generation Technology