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Broadside, End Fire &

binomial array antennas

by
Sushant Burde (B-48)
Vaibhav Deshmukh(B-52)
Rohit Dhongde(B-41)
Pratik Suryavanshi(B-40)
Driven Arrays: Broadside
Antenna
A broadside array is a stacked collinear antenna
consisting of half-wave dipoles spaced from one another
by one-half wavelengths.
This antenna produces a highly directional radiation
pattern that is broadside or perpendicular to the plane of
the array.
The broadside antenna is bidirectional in radiation, but
the radiation pattern has a very narrow beam width and
high gain.
Broadside Array
Bidirectional Array
Uses Dipoles fed in phase and separated by 1/2
wavelength

Broadside arrays may also b e formed from other types


of elements, such as horns, slots, helixes and polyrods
Radiation Pattern for Arrays
Depends on:

The type of the individual elements


Their orientation
Their position in space
The amplitude and phase of the current feeding them
The total number of elements

O. Kilic EE 542
4
Broadside Arrays
Beam steering by phase variation is possible.
broadside array antenna

Figure 14-30: A broadside array.


Driven Arrays: End-Fire
Antenna
The end-fire array uses two half-wave dipoles spaced
one-half wavelength apart.
The end-fire array has a bidirectional radiation pattern,
but with narrower beam widths and lower gain.
The radiation is in the plane of the driven elements.
A highly unidirectional antenna can be created by careful
selection of the optimal number of elements with the
appropriately related spacing.
End-Fire Array
Similar to broadside array except dipoles are fed 180
degrees out of phase

Radiation max. off the ends


End-fire Arrays
Higher directivity.
Provide increased directivity in elevation and azimuth
planes.
Generally used for reception.
Impedance match difficulty in high power transmissions.
Variants are:
Horizontal Array of Dipoles
RCA Fishborne Antenna
Series Phase Array
End fire arrays

F: End-fire antennas. (a) Bidirectional. (b) Unidirectional.


Binomial array antenna
Binomial array is an array of non-uniform amplitudes
and the amplitude of the radiating sources are
arranged according to the co-efficient of successive
term of the following binomial series and hence the
name
Amplitude distributions
Uniform distribution
Binomial distribution
Edge distribution
Optimum distribution
Uniform distribution
Maximum directivity
Minor lobes are large
Half power beamwidth is 23 degree.
Binomial distribution
The amplitude of the radiating sources are arranged
according to the co-efficient of successive term of
the following binomial series and hence the name
To reduce sidelobe level,Johnstone proposed the
source have amplitude proportional to the coefficient of
binomial series

Secondary lobe can be eliminated if the following


condition are satisfied.

(i)spacing between the radiating source does not exist


/2

The amplitude of the radiating sources are arranged


according to the co-efficient of successive term of
the following binomial series
Advantages
To reduce secondary lobes
2. to optimize them.
As we increase the array length the directivity
increases and side lobes appear.
Pattern multiplication
Multiplication pattern is the total field pattern of an array
of non-isotropic but similar source

It is the multiplication of the individual source pattern


and the pattern of an array of isotropic point source
each located at the phase centre of individual sources
having the same amplitude and phase T

The total phase pattern is the addition of the phase


pattern of the individual source and that of the array of
isotropic point sources.
Principle

The total field pattern of an array of non-isotropic but


similar sources is the product of the individual source
&The array pattern of isotropic point sources each
located at the phase centre of the individual source and
the array pattern of isotropic point sources each located
at the phase centre of the individual sources having the
same amplitude and phase.