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Introduction to Teaching
Meaning of Mathematics
It is either the science of number and space or the
science of measurement, quantity and magnitude.
Gauss stated that Mathematics is the queen of
sciences and arithmetic is the queen of all
Characteristics of Mathematics

Logical sequence
Application of Mathematics in measurement and

Measurement is the assignment of a numerical value

to an attribute of an object, or the assignment of a
number to a characteristic of a situation. Mathematics
is a science of measurement because measurement is
an outcome of a sequence of operations carried out
under a set of specified, realizable and experimental
Development of Mathematics- Contribution Of
Commercial necessity was the force behind all
mathematical inventions.
Arithmetic developed as a result of mans need to
assess his wealth and geometry from surveying land.
Trigonometry and logarithm grew up to assist
Greeks in geometry and Indians in arithmetic.
In the development of mathematics curriculum at
Secondary/Higher Secondary School level, very little
attention has been given to the history of mathematics
due to the constrains of time.
Contributions of Aryabhatta to Mathematics
Number Notation
Aryabhatta assigned numerical values to the 33 consonants
of the Indian alphabet to represent 1, 2, 3,..., 25, 30, 40, 50,
60, 70, 80, 90,100. The higher numbers are denoted by these
consonants followed bya vowel to obtain 100 or 10000. It was
possible to represent numbers up to 10i8 using this system
He invented a notation system consisting of alphabet
numerals Digits were denoted by alphabet numerals. In this
system devanagiri scriptcontain varga letters (consonants)
and avarga letters (vowels). 1-25are denoted by 1st 25 varga
Aryabhatta was familiar with the place-value system.
He knew numeral symbols and the sign for zero

He has given the method of addition, subtraction,

multiplication of simple and compound algebraic
He was familiar with series, permutations and linear
and quadratic equations.
He has given a formula for summing up of the
arithmetic series.

Aryabhatta gave a table of sines for calculating the

approximate values at intervals of 90/24 = 3 45'. This
was done using the formula for sin (n+1)x - sin nx in
terms of sin nx and sin (n-l)x.
He introduced the versine (versin = 1-cosine) into
Contribution of Brahmagupta to
Zero divided by negative or positive numbers is either zero or is
expressed as a fraction with zero as numerator and the finite
quantityas denominator.
Zero divided by zero is zero.
Another arithmetical result presented by Brahmagupta is his
algorithm for computing square roots.
Brahmagupta developed some algebraic notation and presents
methods to solve quadratic equations. He presents methods to solve
indeterminate equations of the form ax + c = by.
Brahmagupta perhaps used the method of continued fractions to
find the integral solution of an indeterminate equation of the type ax
+ c =by.
Contributions of Bhaskaracharya to
Bijaganita (Seed Counting or root Extraction) which is on Algebra;
The Siddhantasiromaniwhich is in two parts, the first on
mathematical astronomy and the second part on the sphere;
The Vasanabhasyaof Mitaksarawhich isBhaskaracharyas own
commentary on Siddhantasiromani;
The Karanakutuhala(Calculations of Astronomical Wonders) or
Brahmatulya which is a simplified version of the Siddhantasiromani.
The Vivaranawhich is a commentary on the
Shishyadhividdhidatantraof Lalla.
In differential calculus he was the first mathematician who
presented examples related to differential coefficients.
The fundamentals of Rolles theorem were originated by him.
Contribution of Srinivas Ramanujan to Mathematics
1729 is a very famous Ramanujan number. It is the
smallest numberwhich can be expressed as the sum of
two cubes in two different ways-
i.e. 1729 = 13+ 123 = 93+103
Ramanujan independently discovered results of
Gauss, Kummer and others on hyper-geometric series.
Ramanujans own work on partial sums and products
of hypergeometric series have led to major
development in the topic
Mathematics and its relationship with other disciplines
Relationship of mathematics with life
Relationship of different branches of mathematics
Relationship between the different topics in the same
Relationship of mathematics with other subjects
It is necessary to teach mathematics because
Need and importance of Mathematics

A good mathematical background with the knowledge

of concepts and theories is essential for meeting the
challenges of the modern technological society.
Mathematics teaching helps to apply the matical
concept and theorems to new situations.
Teaching of mathematics develops the ability to
transfer the mathematical type of thinking and
reasoning to daily life situations.
Mathematics provides a clear understanding of laws of
Mathematics helps in clear understanding of the
culture and development of our civilization.
Mathematics helps to appreciate the applications of
mathematics for the scientific and technological
Teaching of mathematics provides sufficient
mathematical skills to meet the demands of daily life.
Mathematics teaching helps in a better understanding
of the world around us.
Mathematics is an essential element of
Mathematics is a powerful tool in the hands of the
Uses of multi-disciplinary approach
Inter-disciplinary approach which is an integral part of the
programme of the teacher education.
It is improving the quality of teacher education than by
integrating content and methods.
The explosion of knowledge that has occurred in recent
years has made new demand on teacher education and
teaching of Mathematics.
The latest developments in knowledge of content are
taught by highly qualified and components staff members.
The methods of teaching are dealt by specialist in pedagogy
and methodology.

Aims and Objectives of Teaching

Aims of Teaching Mathematics
Education for productivity
Strengthening social and national integration
Democracy as a form of government and as a way of
Education for modernization, and
Character building by cultivating social, moral and
spiritual values.
Aims of teaching mathematics can be classified under
the following heads.
Utilitarian or Practical Aims
Disciplinary Aims
Cultural Aims and
Social Aims
Utilitarian or Practical Aims
To enable the students to have clear ideas about
number concept.
To give the individual an understanding of ideas and
operations in number and quantity
needed in daily life. To enable the individual to have
clear comprehension of the way the number is applied
to all measures but most particularly to those
frequently used concepts such as length,
volume, area, weight, temperature, speed etc.
To enable the individual to become proficient in the
four fundamental operations of addition, subtraction,
multiplication and division.
Disciplinary Aims
The teaching of mathematics intends to realise the
following disciplinary aims.
To provide opportunities that enable the learners to
exercise and discipline mental faculties.
To help the learner in the intelligent use of reasoning
To develop constructive imagination and inventive
To develop the character through systematic and
orderly habits
To help the learner to be original and creative in
Cultural Aims
The cultural aims can be summarised as follows.
To enable the learner to appreciate the part played by mathematics in
the culture of the past and that it continues to play in the present world.
To enable the student to appreciate the role played by mathematics in
preserving and transmitting our cultural traditions.
To enable him to appreciate various cultural arts like drawing, design
making, painting, poetry, music, sculpture and architecture.
To provide through mathematical ideas, aesthetic and intellectual
enjoyment and satisfaction and to give an opportunity for creative
To help the students explore creative fields such as art and architecture.
To make the learner aware of the strengths and virtues of the culture he
has inherited.
To develop in the individual an aesthetic awareness of mathematical
shapes and patterns in nature as well as the products of our civilization.
General Instructional Objectives
The pupil acquires knowledge of polynomial
The pupil understands the meaning of the term
The pupil applies the formula to find the area of a
given quadrilateral.
Writing of Instructional Objectives
The objectives are
It should be attainable i.e. within the realm of possibility
It should be valid i.e. in tune with the aims of the education
It should be comprehensive i.e. should cover fully all the
behaviour and content material
It should be clear and precise
It should be feasible in terms of students level, nature of the
content and learning experience
It should be appropriate for yielding specific outcomes
It should be reasonable in number
It should be consistent with one another
It should contain clear specific action verbs
It should be observable and measurable.
Writing of specification
There are five elements are used in writing specific
behavioural objectives, that is
Action Required
Criteria for judgment.
Objective based Instruction
Learning experiences are those activities that are
planned with a specific purpose of bringing about the
desired changes in the behaviour of the students.
Realisation of the objectives, to a great extent, depends
upon careful selection and planning of appropriate
learning experiences.
The experiences may include seminars, laboratory
works, discussions, audio-visual presentations,
research paper writing, projects etc.
These techniques provide active student involvement
in learning and different techniques work for different
learning needs.
Relationship between objectives, learning
experiences and evaluation
The objectives form the pivot of the entire teaching-
learning process. It should be stated for each course,
unit and topic. They are the mental skills that students
should develop as a result of teaching. The objectives
direct the pupil as to what he or she is expected to do,
what should be the minimum level of acceptance for
his or her performance and under what conditions it
will be achieved.
Cognitive Domain

Cognitive domain includes those objectives which deal

with the recall or recognition of knowledge and the
development of intellectual abilities and skills.
Affective Domain
The affective domain addresses interests, attitudes,
opinions, appreciations, values and emotional sets.
Affective domain includes those objectives which are
concerned with development of attitude, values,
appreciation, adjustment etc.
Psychomotor Domain
Psychomotor domain the focus is on the development
of motor skill. The psychomotor domain includes
those objectives that are concerned with the
development of manual and motor skills. The
suggested areas include manipulative skills required in
business, training, industrial technology and
performance areas in science, art and musi.c

Micro teaching and Macro

Allen defined microteaching as a scaled down teaching
encounter in class size and class time.
Teach Feedback > Replan > Reteach >
Refeedback were formulated.
The name of microteaching was coined for this method
of developing teaching skills in 1963.
Since then this technique of teacher training has been
widely used in almost all Colleges and Universities.
Need & Importance of MicroTeaching
It helps teacher trainees to scrutinize their own
teaching in order to discover their strength &
It makes them conscious of developing their own skills
and strategies in order to understand their teaching.
It helps to pursuer self-initiated, self directed & self
observed growth.
It enables understanding of behaviors important in
classroom teaching.
It focuses on sharpening & developing specific
teaching skills and eliminating errors.
It increases the confidence of the learner teacher.
Objectives of Micro- teaching
To lessen the complexities that exist in micro classes
To develop confidence in student-teachers with
adequate motivation
To practice teaching in a short duration of time
To identify the deficiencies of the student- teachers
To give immediate feedback to enable them to modify
their teaching behavior
To encourage researchers identify new teaching skills
and develop new teaching-training programmes
Characteristics of Micro- teaching
Microteaching is new experiment in the field of teacher
education more specifically in students teaching or
during practice of teaching.
It is a teacher training technique and not a teaching
Microteaching is micro or miniaturized teaching in the
sense that it scaled down the complexities of real
teaching with the provision of
Practicing one teaching skill at a time
Reducing the class size (5 to 10 students)
Reducing the duration of the lesson from 5 to 10 minutes
Limiting the content size (i.e.) one concept at a time
Principles Underlying Microteaching Technique
Microteaching is based on the premise that teaching
can be analyzed into various component behaviours
called teaching skills.
The teaching skills can be defined, practiced,
observed, controlled, measured and evaluated.
This technique seems to be based on Skinners operant
conditioning i.e. reinforcing an operant response
increases the possibility of its recurrence and non-
reinforcement decreases the possibility of recurrence
of a response. This principle is fundamental to the
feedback session.
Steps & Procedure of Micro- Teaching
Discussion of Teaching skills
Selection of a particular Teaching skill
Presentation of model demonstration lesson
Observation of the model lesson and critism
Preparation of micro-lesson plan
Steps in Microteaching Cycle
Micro Teaching cycle
Advantages of Micro-Teaching
It is useful for both pre-service and in-service
There is provision of immediate and effective
It provides an opportunity of integration of the theory
and practice.
Specific skills can be developed by it.
Self evaluation is possible by tape-recorder and video-
It is a successful method of individualized training.
Disadvantages of Micro-Teaching
Narrow scope
Disturbs existing time-table
Presentation in parts
Difficulty in actual practice
Feedback requires equipments without that it
cannot be successful
Requires trained, competent teacher educators
Major Micro-Teaching skills
Writing instructional objectives
Introduction of a lesson
Fluency and questioning
Probing questioning
Illustrating with examples
Stimulus Variation
Silence and non-verbal cause
Reinforcement to students participation
Increasing pupil participation
Using B1ack Board
Achieving Closure and
Recognizing attending behaviour.
Skill of Explaining
Explaining bridges the gap in understanding the new
knowledge by relating it to the past experience. Thus
explanation depends upon the type of the past
experience, the type of the new knowledge (i.e. the
concept, the principle, the phenomenon etc) and the
type of the relationship between them.
The following behaviours are desirable for
Gaining attention, establishing rapport and
maintaining interest.
Clearly stating the aim.
Clearly stating the concepts.
Developing the explanation from
(i) known to unknown concepts/rules or
(ii) examples to rules, or
(iii) rule-example-rule.
Using simple and suitable language.
Skill of Stimulus variation
It is very important for a teacher to secure and sustain
pupils attention. For this purpose the teacher uses
some gestures, body movements, makes certain verbal
statements etc.
All theses behaviours are related to stimulus variation.
The skill of stimulus variation can be defined as
deliberate change in the attention drawing behaviours
of the teacher in order to secure and sustain pupils
attention towards the lesson.
The main components of the skill are as follows:
Teacher Movement
Teacher Gestures
Interactional Styles
Change in Sensory Focus
Change in Speech pattern
Skill of Black board writing
Good blackboard writing leads to the following:
Clarity in the understanding of concepts.
Reinforcement of the idea which is being verbally
Conveying a holistic picture of the content.
Adding variety to the lesson and drawing attention of
the pupils to the key concepts.
The main components of the skill are as follows:
Legible Hand Writing
Neatness in Writing
Orderliness in Writing
Variation in Writing
Adequacy of the Black board work with reference with
content covered
Continuity and Relevancy in Writing
Underline the important points and use of colour
Use of Charts/Tables/Diagrams/Pictures
Skill of Reinforcement
Reinforcement is strengthening the connection
between a stimulus and a response.
There are two types of reinforcements i.e., positive
reinforcement and negative reinforcement.
Positive reinforcement provide pleasant experience
or a feeling of satisfaction which contributes towards
strengthening of desirable responses or behaviours.
The negative reinforcement results in unpleasant
experiences, which help in weakening the occurrence
of undesirable responses or behaviours.
The main components of the skill are as follows:
Positive verbal reinforcement
Positive gestures
Token reinforcement
Activity reinforcement
Negative verbal
Negative Gesture
No reinforcement
Macro Teaching
When a teacher teach the large group of people is
called Macro teaching.
Nature of Micro Teaching
The teacher trainees use a combination of skills
The content is not limited to a single concept.
The class usually consists of 40 or 45 students.
The duration of teaching is 40-45 minutes.
Macro Teaching Steps
Macro Teaching & its importance in Teaching
Macro teaching process to be effective, planning for
the instruction should be done at three levels.
Planning the instruction for the whole year-year
Planning the instruction for a unit unit planning.
Planning the instruction for a topic-lesson planning.

Planning- Year Plan, Unit Plan and

Lesson Plan
Planning is the key to success in any activity, success of
teaching-learning process also depends upon proper
and meticulous planning.
Planning for instruction involves planning at three levels
1.Year planning
2.Unit planning
3.Lesson planning
Need and Importance of Planning
Planning is needed for the success of a particular task.
The aim of an activity can be fulfilled only through
effective planning
For teaching, a perfect planning lesson is needed.
Effective teaching needs an effective and systematic plan.
Teaching consists of two parts.1. science parts of teaching
& 2. Art part of teaching.
Science part of the teaching presents the plan and the art
part of the teaching represents action of the plan.
These parts of teaching are important and they will
decide the efficiency of teaching.
Year Plan
Year planning is done by the teachers in the beginning
of the year for the entire course.
A teacher who teaches a course in mathematics for a
particular class plans the curricular and co-curricular
activities as per the syllabus for the entire academic
Importance in Year planning
The year plan entails the teacher to consider the time
available and makes the optimum use of it, by
planning per week, per month, per term and so on
before the commencement of the academic session.
The year planning helps the teacher in taking
decisions regarding when to teach, what to teach, how
much time can be assigned for each unit/ topic.
It helps the teacher to carry out all the curricular and
co-curricular activities in time without haste and
It is a tentative plan for the instructional programme
and the teacher may make changes in the plan as
required by the situation.
Steps in Year Planning
The objectives to be achieved
The number of units to be covered as per the syllabus
during the academic year.
The number of periods required to cover each unit, the
number of periods allotted for mathematics per week.
The number of working days [per term and for the year.
The number of days allotted for projects, revisions tests
and examinations
The number of holidays during the academic years.
The resources available.
The potential of the students.
The social and psychological need of the students.
Advantages of Year Plan
Year planning keeps the teacher on the right track.
It helps the teacher in orderly and systematic teaching.
It helps the teacher in making optimum utilization of
the available resources.
It enables the teacher to analyse the depth and extent
of the content to be covered in eachunit.
It gives a self-confidence to the teachers as she is sure
of what is expected of her during each
period/week/monthly/term etc
Unit Plan
A variety of meanings have been assigned to the term
unit. Some of them are:
The lesson for the day
It is a block of work
As a chapter in a textbook, a project
as a method of instruction rather than a method of
organisation of instructional
materials etc
Importance of unit plan
A unit is a large segment of subject matter having a
common theme or idea.
A unit can be split up into smaller subunits called
topics and the topics are linked to
another by a common idea or a principle.
A unit should not be too lengthy or too short.
The length of the unit should be such as to retain the
interests of the student.
A good unit should be part of a unit that permits
growth from year to year
Principles and Steps

Content analysis
Stating General and Specific Objectives.
Planning the learning activities.
Evaluation procedure.
Unit plan breaks up a lengthy unit into smaller sub-
units or topics so that pupils can easily grasp the scope
of these during a brief overview.
It provides frequent opportunities for the students to
review and reorganize their learning.
It helps the teacher to plan definite outcomes of
learning so that they are clear not only to the teacher,
but also to the students.
It enables the pupils to see clearly the relationship
between the various facts, processes and principles
that make up the unit.
Lesson Plan
Lesson plan is an arrangement of learning, planning,
organizing and controlling by a teacher.-Davies
Need of Lesson Plan
Lesson planning makes the teachers work more
regular, organized and systematic.
The lesson plan should reveal the development of the
It should out line in detail the various steps that the
teacher proposes to take in the class.
The teaching techniques to be used by the teacher
should be clearly explained in the lesson plan.
Evaluation the attainment of the stated objectives.
Components Lesson Plan
Functions of a Good Lesson Plan in Mathematics
Lesson planning makes the teachers work more regular,
organised and systematic.
It delimits the teachers field of work and thus enables him
to define his aims and objectives more clearly.
It forces consideration of goals and objectives, the
selection of subject matter, the selection of procedure, the
planning of activities and the planning of evaluation
It prevents waste of time, as every step has been planned
with forethought. Unnecessary repetition is thus avoided.
It enhances self-confidence of the teacher as it paves the
way for the teacher to enter the class without anxiety.
Important Features of a Good Lesson Plan
A good lesson plan should have certain important
All the objectives of the lesson both general and
specific should be stated clearly in the lesson plan.
A good lesson plan should outline in detail the various
steps that the teacher proposes to take in the class.
A good lesson plan should not remain at the oral or
mental stage, it should be preferably written.
A good lesson plan should have its basis on the
previous knowledge and experience of the learner and
the present knowledge should be well integrated with
the previous knowledge.
Steps in Preparing Lesson Plan
Herbartian approach to lesson planning involves the
following steps. They are
Preparation or Introduction
Comparison or Association
Advantages of Year Plan
Year planning keeps the teacher on the right track.
It helps the teacher in orderly and systematic teaching.
It helps the teacher in making optimum utilization of
the available resources.
It enables the teacher to analyse the depth and extent
of the content to be covered in each unit.
It gives a self-confidence to the teachers as she is sure
of what is expected of her during each
period/week/monthly/term etc.,
Advantages of Unit plan
Unit plan breaks up a lengthy unit into smaller sub-
units or topics so that pupils can easily grasp the scope
of these during a brief overview.
It provides frequent opportunities for the students to
review and reorganize their learning.
It helps the teacher to plan definite outcomes of
learning so that they are clear not only to the teacher,
but also to the students.
It enables the pupils to see clearly the relationship
between the various facts, processes and principles
that make up the unit.
Advantages of Lesson plan
It makes the teachers work regular, well organised and
It prompts confidence and self-reliance in the teacher.
It helps the teacher to proceed with particular aims in
view and thus makes him
conscious of interests and attitudes to be developed in
the students.
It render a saving in time, for the students have a
better understanding of the subject and develop some
desirable attitudes in a specified time, while in the
absence of a plan it might have taken more time for the
similar understanding.

Methods and Approaches of

Teaching Mathematics
Learner Centred approaches
The following are the methods which are suitable
for classroom teaching of mathematics.
Analytic Methods
Synthetic Methods
Inductive Methods
Analytic Method
The word analytic is derived from the word analysis
which means breaking up or resolving a thing into its
constituent elements.
This method is based on analysis and therefore in this
method we break up the problem in hand into its
constituent parts so that it ultimately gets connected
with something obvious, or already known.
Advantage of Analytic Method
It leaves no doubts in the minds of the students as
every step is justified.
It is a psychological method.
It facilitates clear understanding of the subject matter
as every step is derived by the student himself.
It helps in developing the spirit of enquiry and
discovery among the students.
No cramming is necessitated in this method as each
step has its reason and justification.
Demerits of Analytic Method
It is a lengthy, time consuming method and therefore
not economical.
With this method it is difficult to acquire efficiency
and speed.
This method may not be suitable for all topics of
In this method information is not presented in a well
organised manner.
This method may not be very effective for below
average students who would find it difficult to follow
the analytical reasoning.
Synthetic Method
Synthetic is derived from the word Synthesis.
Synthesis is the complement of analysis
To synthesise is to combine the constituent elements
to produce something new.
In this method we start with something already known
and connect it with the unknown part of the
Merits of Synthetic Method
This method is logical as in this method one proceeds
from the known to unknown
It is short and elegant
It facilitates speed and efficiency
It is more effective for slow learners.
Demerits of Synthetic Method
It leaves many doubts in the minds of the learner and
offers no explanation for them.
As it does not justify all the steps, recall of all the steps
may not be possible.
There is no scope for discovery and enquiry in this
It does not provide full understanding.
It makes the students passive listeners and encourages
rote memorization.
Inductive Method
Inductive method is advocated by Pestalozzi and
Francis Bacon. Inductive method is based on
induction. Induction is the process of proving a
universal truth or a theorem by showing that if it is
true of any particular case, it is true of the next case in
the same serial order and hence true for any such cases
Steps in Inductive Method
Selection of a number of cases
Observation of the case under give conditions.
Investigation and analysis
Finding common relations
Arriving at genralisation
Verification or application.
Merits of Inductive Method
It helps understanding.
It is a logical method and develops critical thinking.
It encourages active participation of the students in
It provides ample opportunities for exploration and
It sustains the students interest as they proceed from
known to unknown.
It curbs the tendency for rote learning as it clears the
doubts of the students.
Demerits of Inductive Method
Its application is limited to very few topics in
mathematics where actual observation of the
particular instances is possible
This method is not suitable for higher classes because
higher order mathematical principles cannot be
generalised through the observation of concrete cases.
It is a lengthy, time-consuming and laborious method.
Deductive Method
Deductive method is based on deductive reasoning.
Deductive reasoning is the process of drawing logical
inferences from established facts or fundamental
assumptions. Contrary to inductive method, in
deductive method we begin with the formula, or rule
or generalization and apply it to a particular case. In
this method, the teacher presents the known facts or
generalisation and draws inferences regarding the
unknown, following a network of reasoning.
Steps in Deductive Method
Deductive method of teaching follows the steps given
below for effective teaching.
Clear recognition of the problem : A clear recognition
of the problem statement provides the basic link for
the thinking process and the solution to the problem.
Search for a tentative hypothesis: The second step in
deductive method is the search for a tentative
hypothesis, a tentative solution to the problem.
Merits of Deductive Method
It saves time and labour for both the teacher and the
It enhances speed, skill and efficiency in solving
It is a short and elegant method.
It helps in fixation of formulae and rules as it provides
adequate opportunities for
practice and revision
It helps in increasing the memory power of the
students, as the students are required to
memorise a large number of laws, formulae etc.
Demerits of Deductive Method
It encourages rote memory as deductive method
demands the use of certain laws, rules or formulae to
be recalled by the learner from their memory.
It does not clarify the doubts of the student regarding
the generalisation and hence learning is incomplete
It is not suitable for beginners.
It does not encourage students involvement in
It is not suitable for development of thinking,
reasoning and discovery.
Laboratory Method
Laboratory method is a procedure for stimulating the
activities of the students and to encourage them to
make discoveries. In this method students are required
to do some experiments or carry out certain activities
in order to verify the validity of a mathematical
generalisation, a law or a statement. It is the
experimental portion of the inductive method or the
practical form of the heuristic method.
The teacher clearly states the aim of the practical work or
experiment to be carried out by the students.
Example: to establish a relation, to arrive at a
generalisation/rule/ formula or verify a fact)
The students are provided with the necessary materials and
Example: Papers, cardboard, scissors, pebbles, beads, gum,
instrument box etc.)
Provide clear instructions as to the procedure of the
The students carry out the experiment
The teacher provides timely guidance and help
The students are required to draw the conclusions as per the
aim of the experiment
Merits of Laboratory Method
It is based on the psychological laws of learning: law of exercise and
law of effect.
It is based on the principle of learning by doing.
It stimulates die interest of the students to work with concrete material
It provides an opportunity for the students to verify the validity of the
mathematical rules
through their application.
Knowledge and skills acquired through experiments help in better
understanding and
longer retention.
It provides for individual differences and best suited for average and
below average
students for thorough understanding of abstract concepts.
It promotes self-confidence and self-reliance and a sense of
achievement among the
Demerits of laboratory Method
Laboratory method does not contribute much towards the
mental development of the students.
It is an expensive method in terms of time, equipments,
laboratory facilities and number of skilled and able teachers.
a Only very few topics, in mathematics can be taught
through this method as concretisation is not possible for all
mathematical concepts and hence it has limited
It is too much to expect the students to work independently
and discover and verify mathematical facts like a
It is not suitable for larger classes as the teacher has to give
individual attention to each student.
The following are the methods which are suitable for
classroom teaching of mathematics.
Heuristic approach
Project method
Programmed instruction
Heuristic approach
The term heuristic is derived from the Greek word
Heurisco which means I discover. This method was
advocated by Professor H.E. Armstrong ofthe City and
Guilds Institute, London, who felt that by placing the
student in the position of a discoverer, he would learn
much more than being merely told about things.
Essential Conditions For Heuristic Learning
The following conditions should be kept in mind while
following heuristic method.
Freedom of action to the students.
Providing responsive environment
Minimum help from the teacher
Timely guidance from the teacher when it is absolutely essential
Asking constructive questions
Availability of necessary supplementary material like library
books, Internet resources
and so on.
Encouragement to continue learning through heuristic method
Providing well-graded problems (experiments) to match the
level and ability of the
Merits of Heuristic Method

It develops the habit of enquiry and investigation among students.

It helps in the realisation of aims of teaching mathematics.
It helps in the development of mathematical sense and reasoning.
It provides for individual differences as each student can work at
his own pace.
It helps in real understanding and enduring mastery over the
subject matter.
It enhances the problem-solving skills of the student as each
student rediscovers the
mathematical principles and rules.
It helps in the development of social skills as the students have to
cooperate with another.
Project Method
Project should be a purposeful activity related to life
and it should be carried out in a natural
In project method, teaching and learning are
considered from the childs point of view and in this
method knowledge and skills are learnt by pupils
through practical handling of problem in their
natural setting.
This method is an ideal way of promoting creativity,
arousing curiosity and inculcating the spirit of enquiry
among the students. However, in this method teaching
is more or less incidental.
Steps involved in Project Method
Providing a situation
Selecting & purposing of the project
Planning of the project
Executing the project
Evaluating the project
Criteria of a Good Project
A good project can be assessed using the following criteria.
The project should be purposeful, useful, and practically
applicable to the daily life of the students, with clear, well
defined objectives.
The project should help in providing useful and meaningful
learning experiences to each member of the group.
The project should be within the reach of the students in
accordance with their interest and ability levels.
The project should be feasible in terms of the availability of
human and material resources and time limit.
The level of complexity of the project should match the ability
level of the students.
The learning activities of the project should be life-like,
purposeful and natural.
Merits of Project Method
It is based on sound psychological principles and laws of
It provides scope for independent work and individual
It promotes habits of critical thinking and encourages the
students to adopt problem
solving methods.
It provides for individual differences as the students can
select the activity and works
their own pace.
It promotes social interaction, inculcates spirit of co-
operation and exchanges o!
experiences among the students.
Demerits of Project Method
The project method does not provide necessary drill and
practice for the learners of the subject.
It does not provide any training in mathematical thinking
and reasoning
The learning is incomplete and uniform learning or
balanced learning is not possible for all students as each
student performs a different activity.
Textbooks and instructional materials are hardly available.
For the success of this method the teachers should be
exceptionally resourceful and gifted and knowledgeable.
It is an expensive method as it makes use of a lot of
resources which are not immediately available in the
Programmed Instruction
Programmed instruction is an application of the
principles of behavioral sciences and
technology to classroom teaching.
It is an innovative step directed towards automation
and individualization of instruction.
This is a method of self-instruction in which all of the
instructional load is carried by teaching machine or
programmed texts.
The learner takes activerole in learning and controls
the learning situation.
Basic Principles of Programmed Instruction
The following are the basic principles of programmed
Principle of small steps.
Principle of active responding.
Principle of immediate confirmation.
Principle of self-pacing.
Principle of student testing.
Essential Features of Programmed Instruction
The important features of Programmed Instruction are:
Predetermined objectives
Content presented in a logical sequence of small steps
Active responding
Immediate feed back
Self pacing
Mastery criterion
Self testing
Successive approximation
Prompts or cues
Testing of the programmes
Activity Based Learning (ABL) gives joy to children, and
have the satisfaction of imparting a life-long love for learning.
In Activity-Based Learning children can be motivated and fully
occupied, while they aremastering the fundamentals.
ABL offers solutions to two major problems :multi-grade classes
and inadequate staffing.
ABL appears to be a system where the teacher can facilitate
learning, without dominating the classroom or intimidating the
The child learns in a self-directed way from the systematic
materials provided.
Abstract concepts are difficult for most young children to grasp
simply by hearing them explained.
ABL makes the abstract concrete.
Process of ABL approach
Skills are divided into different units and are converted into
Each unit is called a milestone, and the appropriate milestones
are grouped to form a chain. This chain is called Ladder
Different milestone have different steps of learning process and
each step is presented by a logo.
Logos of animal & insect forms are used for different aspects of
the curriculum.
The activities of each milestone and also the milestone are
arranged in a logical sequence.
Group cards are used to organize children in groups.
When the child complete one set, there is a card for self
Progress of the child is recorded using annual assessment chart.
Effective of ABL method
Clarity of lessons
Classroom environment
Childrens involvement process
Teachers role
Scope for creativity
Active Learning Method is a method of learning and
teaching of mathematics that puts forward the
necessity of social construction of mathematical
meaning and the role of the teacher as facilitator in
this construction process. In this method the learner is
an active problem-solver, working individually and in
small groups to make connections between multiple
forms of representations of mathematical concepts.
Element of ALM
Active Learning Techniques
Leading Questions
Mind Mapping
Visual webs:
Cognitive analogies
Instructor and student
Simulations, Scenarios & Role playing
Work at the black board
Problem based learning
Concept Mapping
Panel Discussion
Applications of ABL & ALM
The teacher creates a problematic situation and a
responsive environment and stimulate the students to
find the solution.
Students work on the Problem independently and
tryout different hypotheses and various methods.

The teacher provides minimum help; however the

teacher has to direct the activities and channelize the
thinking process by asking constructive and
stimulating questions and The students reach the
solution on their own.
Models of Teaching
The strategy to be used for training teachers in models
of teaching has been a malterc
great concern for researchers. Joyce and Weil (1978)
suggested four components of the
training as follows.
Presentation of theoretical bases
Demonstration of correct performance
Planning and executing peer teaching and provision of
Transfer of training, i.e. adaptation of teaching
behaviour in the classroom.
Concept attainment Model
The content a teacher transacts in a classroom can be
broadly classified into three categories, namely facts,
concepts and generalisations. Though the process of
acquiring these three types of content by the pupils is
not uniform, mostly teachers use the same strategy for
teaching these three types of content.
Theory of Concepts
Concept has the following five elements.
1. Name of the concept
2. Examples
3. Attribute
4. Rules
Concept Attainment Model has 3 variations
1. Reception Model
2. Selection Model
3. Unorganized Material Model
Advance Organiser Model.
Ausubel is one of the few educational psychologists to
address himself simultaneously to learning, teaching
and curriculum. His theory of Meaningful Verbal
Learning deals with three concerns: (1) how knowledge
(curriculum content) is organised (2) how the mind
works toprocess new information (learning) and (3)
how teachers can apply these ideas about curriculum
and learning when they present new material to
students (instruction). Advance Organiser Model was
developed based on Ausubels Theory of Meaningful
Verbal Learning.
Characteristics of AOM
Short set of verbal or visual information
Presented prior to a larger body of to-be-learned
Contain no content from the to-be-learned
Provide a means of generating logical relationship
among elements in the to-be learned information
Influence the learners encoding process.
Syntax of the AOM
It is the presentation of the advance organiser. This phase
consists of three
activities: clarifying the aims of the lesson, presenting the
advance organiser and prompting awareness of relevant
It is the presentation of the learning task or material. In this
phase an important task is to maintain students attention
The new learning material in the students existing cognitive
structure. Ausubel identifies four activities in this phase
Promoting integrative reconciliation
Promoting active reception learning
Eliciting a principle approach to subject matter
It is used in face- to- face teaching in the form of
lectures and explanation.
It can be used in developing instructional material.
It can be used to teach any subject.
It is very effective for high school and higher secondary
school students
Inquiry Training Model
It was developed by Richard suchman to teach
students a process for investigating & explaining any
type of puzzling problem, phenomenon or event, can
be a way of orienting their minds towards scientific
Syntax of the Inquiry of the Model
Encounter with the problem
Data gathering verification
Data gathering -Experimentation
Formulating an explanation
Analysis of the inquiry process
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