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Teaching of Mathematics Paper-1

Teaching of Mathematics Paper-1

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MATHEMATICS-1

DR.P.PRABHA

ASSISTANT PROFESSR

UNIT-1

Introduction to Teaching

Mathematics

Meaning of Mathematics

It is either the science of number and space or the

science of measurement, quantity and magnitude.

Gauss stated that Mathematics is the queen of

sciences and arithmetic is the queen of all

mathematics.

Characteristics of Mathematics

Logical sequence

Structure

Precision

Abstractness

Symbolism

Application of Mathematics in measurement and

Evaluation

to an attribute of an object, or the assignment of a

number to a characteristic of a situation. Mathematics

is a science of measurement because measurement is

an outcome of a sequence of operations carried out

under a set of specified, realizable and experimental

conditions.

Development of Mathematics- Contribution Of

Mathematicians

Commercial necessity was the force behind all

mathematical inventions.

Arithmetic developed as a result of mans need to

assess his wealth and geometry from surveying land.

Trigonometry and logarithm grew up to assist

astronomy.

Greeks in geometry and Indians in arithmetic.

In the development of mathematics curriculum at

Secondary/Higher Secondary School level, very little

attention has been given to the history of mathematics

due to the constrains of time.

Contributions of Aryabhatta to Mathematics

Number Notation

Aryabhatta assigned numerical values to the 33 consonants

of the Indian alphabet to represent 1, 2, 3,..., 25, 30, 40, 50,

60, 70, 80, 90,100. The higher numbers are denoted by these

consonants followed bya vowel to obtain 100 or 10000. It was

possible to represent numbers up to 10i8 using this system

He invented a notation system consisting of alphabet

numerals Digits were denoted by alphabet numerals. In this

system devanagiri scriptcontain varga letters (consonants)

and avarga letters (vowels). 1-25are denoted by 1st 25 varga

letters.

Aryabhatta was familiar with the place-value system.

He knew numeral symbols and the sign for zero

Algebra

multiplication of simple and compound algebraic

quantities

He was familiar with series, permutations and linear

and quadratic equations.

He has given a formula for summing up of the

arithmetic series.

Trigonometry

approximate values at intervals of 90/24 = 3 45'. This

was done using the formula for sin (n+1)x - sin nx in

terms of sin nx and sin (n-l)x.

He introduced the versine (versin = 1-cosine) into

trigonometry.

Contribution of Brahmagupta to

Mathematics

Zero divided by negative or positive numbers is either zero or is

expressed as a fraction with zero as numerator and the finite

quantityas denominator.

Zero divided by zero is zero.

Another arithmetical result presented by Brahmagupta is his

algorithm for computing square roots.

Brahmagupta developed some algebraic notation and presents

methods to solve quadratic equations. He presents methods to solve

indeterminate equations of the form ax + c = by.

Brahmagupta perhaps used the method of continued fractions to

find the integral solution of an indeterminate equation of the type ax

+ c =by.

Contributions of Bhaskaracharya to

Mathematics

Bijaganita (Seed Counting or root Extraction) which is on Algebra;

The Siddhantasiromaniwhich is in two parts, the first on

mathematical astronomy and the second part on the sphere;

The Vasanabhasyaof Mitaksarawhich isBhaskaracharyas own

commentary on Siddhantasiromani;

The Karanakutuhala(Calculations of Astronomical Wonders) or

Brahmatulya which is a simplified version of the Siddhantasiromani.

The Vivaranawhich is a commentary on the

Shishyadhividdhidatantraof Lalla.

In differential calculus he was the first mathematician who

presented examples related to differential coefficients.

The fundamentals of Rolles theorem were originated by him.

Contribution of Srinivas Ramanujan to Mathematics

1729 is a very famous Ramanujan number. It is the

smallest numberwhich can be expressed as the sum of

two cubes in two different ways-

i.e. 1729 = 13+ 123 = 93+103

Ramanujan independently discovered results of

Gauss, Kummer and others on hyper-geometric series.

Ramanujans own work on partial sums and products

of hypergeometric series have led to major

development in the topic

Mathematics and its relationship with other disciplines

Relationship of mathematics with life

Relationship of different branches of mathematics

Relationship between the different topics in the same

branch

Relationship of mathematics with other subjects

It is necessary to teach mathematics because

Need and importance of Mathematics

of concepts and theories is essential for meeting the

challenges of the modern technological society.

Mathematics teaching helps to apply the matical

concept and theorems to new situations.

Teaching of mathematics develops the ability to

transfer the mathematical type of thinking and

reasoning to daily life situations.

Mathematics provides a clear understanding of laws of

nature.

Mathematics helps in clear understanding of the

culture and development of our civilization.

Mathematics helps to appreciate the applications of

mathematics for the scientific and technological

advancement.

Teaching of mathematics provides sufficient

mathematical skills to meet the demands of daily life.

Mathematics teaching helps in a better understanding

of the world around us.

Mathematics is an essential element of

communications.

Mathematics is a powerful tool in the hands of the

learners.

Uses of multi-disciplinary approach

Inter-disciplinary approach which is an integral part of the

programme of the teacher education.

It is improving the quality of teacher education than by

integrating content and methods.

The explosion of knowledge that has occurred in recent

years has made new demand on teacher education and

teaching of Mathematics.

The latest developments in knowledge of content are

taught by highly qualified and components staff members.

The methods of teaching are dealt by specialist in pedagogy

and methodology.

UNIT-2

Mathematics

Aims of Teaching Mathematics

Education for productivity

Strengthening social and national integration

Democracy as a form of government and as a way of

life.

Education for modernization, and

Character building by cultivating social, moral and

spiritual values.

Aims of teaching mathematics can be classified under

the following heads.

Utilitarian or Practical Aims

Disciplinary Aims

Cultural Aims and

Social Aims

Utilitarian or Practical Aims

To enable the students to have clear ideas about

number concept.

To give the individual an understanding of ideas and

operations in number and quantity

needed in daily life. To enable the individual to have

clear comprehension of the way the number is applied

to all measures but most particularly to those

frequently used concepts such as length,

volume, area, weight, temperature, speed etc.

To enable the individual to become proficient in the

four fundamental operations of addition, subtraction,

multiplication and division.

Disciplinary Aims

The teaching of mathematics intends to realise the

following disciplinary aims.

To provide opportunities that enable the learners to

exercise and discipline mental faculties.

To help the learner in the intelligent use of reasoning

power.

To develop constructive imagination and inventive

faculties.

To develop the character through systematic and

orderly habits

To help the learner to be original and creative in

thinking.

Cultural Aims

The cultural aims can be summarised as follows.

To enable the learner to appreciate the part played by mathematics in

the culture of the past and that it continues to play in the present world.

To enable the student to appreciate the role played by mathematics in

preserving and transmitting our cultural traditions.

To enable him to appreciate various cultural arts like drawing, design

making, painting, poetry, music, sculpture and architecture.

To provide through mathematical ideas, aesthetic and intellectual

enjoyment and satisfaction and to give an opportunity for creative

expression.

To help the students explore creative fields such as art and architecture.

To make the learner aware of the strengths and virtues of the culture he

has inherited.

To develop in the individual an aesthetic awareness of mathematical

shapes and patterns in nature as well as the products of our civilization.

General Instructional Objectives

The pupil acquires knowledge of polynomial

multiplications

The pupil understands the meaning of the term

probability.

The pupil applies the formula to find the area of a

given quadrilateral.

Writing of Instructional Objectives

The objectives are

It should be attainable i.e. within the realm of possibility

It should be valid i.e. in tune with the aims of the education

It should be comprehensive i.e. should cover fully all the

behaviour and content material

It should be clear and precise

It should be feasible in terms of students level, nature of the

content and learning experience

It should be appropriate for yielding specific outcomes

It should be reasonable in number

It should be consistent with one another

It should contain clear specific action verbs

It should be observable and measurable.

Writing of specification

There are five elements are used in writing specific

behavioural objectives, that is

Performer

Action Required

Task

Conditions

Criteria for judgment.

Objective based Instruction

Learning experiences are those activities that are

planned with a specific purpose of bringing about the

desired changes in the behaviour of the students.

Realisation of the objectives, to a great extent, depends

upon careful selection and planning of appropriate

learning experiences.

The experiences may include seminars, laboratory

works, discussions, audio-visual presentations,

research paper writing, projects etc.

These techniques provide active student involvement

in learning and different techniques work for different

learning needs.

Relationship between objectives, learning

experiences and evaluation

The objectives form the pivot of the entire teaching-

learning process. It should be stated for each course,

unit and topic. They are the mental skills that students

should develop as a result of teaching. The objectives

direct the pupil as to what he or she is expected to do,

what should be the minimum level of acceptance for

his or her performance and under what conditions it

will be achieved.

Cognitive Domain

with the recall or recognition of knowledge and the

development of intellectual abilities and skills.

Knowledge

Comprehension

Application

Analysis

Synthesis

Evaluation

Affective Domain

The affective domain addresses interests, attitudes,

opinions, appreciations, values and emotional sets.

Affective domain includes those objectives which are

concerned with development of attitude, values,

appreciation, adjustment etc.

Receiving

Responding

Valuing

Organisation

Characterization

Psychomotor Domain

Psychomotor domain the focus is on the development

of motor skill. The psychomotor domain includes

those objectives that are concerned with the

development of manual and motor skills. The

suggested areas include manipulative skills required in

business, training, industrial technology and

performance areas in science, art and musi.c

Unit-3

teaching

Micro-Teaching

Allen defined microteaching as a scaled down teaching

encounter in class size and class time.

Teach Feedback > Replan > Reteach >

Refeedback were formulated.

The name of microteaching was coined for this method

of developing teaching skills in 1963.

Since then this technique of teacher training has been

widely used in almost all Colleges and Universities.

Need & Importance of MicroTeaching

It helps teacher trainees to scrutinize their own

teaching in order to discover their strength &

weakness.

It makes them conscious of developing their own skills

and strategies in order to understand their teaching.

It helps to pursuer self-initiated, self directed & self

observed growth.

It enables understanding of behaviors important in

classroom teaching.

It focuses on sharpening & developing specific

teaching skills and eliminating errors.

It increases the confidence of the learner teacher.

Objectives of Micro- teaching

To lessen the complexities that exist in micro classes

To develop confidence in student-teachers with

adequate motivation

To practice teaching in a short duration of time

To identify the deficiencies of the student- teachers

To give immediate feedback to enable them to modify

their teaching behavior

To encourage researchers identify new teaching skills

and develop new teaching-training programmes

Characteristics of Micro- teaching

Microteaching is new experiment in the field of teacher

education more specifically in students teaching or

during practice of teaching.

It is a teacher training technique and not a teaching

technique.

Microteaching is micro or miniaturized teaching in the

sense that it scaled down the complexities of real

teaching with the provision of

Practicing one teaching skill at a time

Reducing the class size (5 to 10 students)

Reducing the duration of the lesson from 5 to 10 minutes

Limiting the content size (i.e.) one concept at a time

Principles Underlying Microteaching Technique

Microteaching is based on the premise that teaching

can be analyzed into various component behaviours

called teaching skills.

The teaching skills can be defined, practiced,

observed, controlled, measured and evaluated.

This technique seems to be based on Skinners operant

conditioning i.e. reinforcing an operant response

increases the possibility of its recurrence and non-

reinforcement decreases the possibility of recurrence

of a response. This principle is fundamental to the

feedback session.

Steps & Procedure of Micro- Teaching

Orientation

Discussion of Teaching skills

Selection of a particular Teaching skill

Presentation of model demonstration lesson

Observation of the model lesson and critism

Preparation of micro-lesson plan

Steps in Microteaching Cycle

Planning

Teaching

Re-planning

Re-teaching

Re-feedback

Micro Teaching cycle

Advantages of Micro-Teaching

It is useful for both pre-service and in-service

teachers.

There is provision of immediate and effective

feedback.

It provides an opportunity of integration of the theory

and practice.

Specific skills can be developed by it.

Self evaluation is possible by tape-recorder and video-

tape.

It is a successful method of individualized training.

Disadvantages of Micro-Teaching

Costly

Narrow scope

Disturbs existing time-table

Presentation in parts

Difficulty in actual practice

Feedback requires equipments without that it

cannot be successful

Requires trained, competent teacher educators

Major Micro-Teaching skills

Writing instructional objectives

Introduction of a lesson

Fluency and questioning

Probing questioning

Explaining

Illustrating with examples

Stimulus Variation

Silence and non-verbal cause

Reinforcement to students participation

Increasing pupil participation

Using B1ack Board

Achieving Closure and

Recognizing attending behaviour.

Skill of Explaining

Explaining bridges the gap in understanding the new

knowledge by relating it to the past experience. Thus

explanation depends upon the type of the past

experience, the type of the new knowledge (i.e. the

concept, the principle, the phenomenon etc) and the

type of the relationship between them.

The following behaviours are desirable for

Explanation:

Gaining attention, establishing rapport and

maintaining interest.

Clearly stating the aim.

Clearly stating the concepts.

Developing the explanation from

(i) known to unknown concepts/rules or

(ii) examples to rules, or

(iii) rule-example-rule.

Using simple and suitable language.

Skill of Stimulus variation

It is very important for a teacher to secure and sustain

pupils attention. For this purpose the teacher uses

some gestures, body movements, makes certain verbal

statements etc.

All theses behaviours are related to stimulus variation.

The skill of stimulus variation can be defined as

deliberate change in the attention drawing behaviours

of the teacher in order to secure and sustain pupils

attention towards the lesson.

The main components of the skill are as follows:

Teacher Movement

Teacher Gestures

Pausing

Interactional Styles

Change in Sensory Focus

Change in Speech pattern

Skill of Black board writing

Good blackboard writing leads to the following:

Clarity in the understanding of concepts.

Reinforcement of the idea which is being verbally

presented.

Conveying a holistic picture of the content.

Adding variety to the lesson and drawing attention of

the pupils to the key concepts.

The main components of the skill are as follows:

Legible Hand Writing

Neatness in Writing

Orderliness in Writing

Variation in Writing

Appropriateness

Adequacy of the Black board work with reference with

content covered

Continuity and Relevancy in Writing

Underline the important points and use of colour

chalk

Use of Charts/Tables/Diagrams/Pictures

Skill of Reinforcement

Reinforcement is strengthening the connection

between a stimulus and a response.

There are two types of reinforcements i.e., positive

reinforcement and negative reinforcement.

Positive reinforcement provide pleasant experience

or a feeling of satisfaction which contributes towards

strengthening of desirable responses or behaviours.

The negative reinforcement results in unpleasant

experiences, which help in weakening the occurrence

of undesirable responses or behaviours.

The main components of the skill are as follows:

Positive verbal reinforcement

Positive gestures

Proximity

Contact

Token reinforcement

Activity reinforcement

Negative verbal

Negative Gesture

No reinforcement

Macro Teaching

When a teacher teach the large group of people is

called Macro teaching.

Nature of Micro Teaching

The teacher trainees use a combination of skills

The content is not limited to a single concept.

The class usually consists of 40 or 45 students.

The duration of teaching is 40-45 minutes.

Macro Teaching Steps

Motivation

Presentation

Application

Re-capitualation

Assignment

Macro Teaching & its importance in Teaching

Macro teaching process to be effective, planning for

the instruction should be done at three levels.

Planning the instruction for the whole year-year

planning.

Planning the instruction for a unit unit planning.

Planning the instruction for a topic-lesson planning.

UNIT-4

Lesson Plan

Planning

Planning is the key to success in any activity, success of

teaching-learning process also depends upon proper

and meticulous planning.

Planning for instruction involves planning at three levels

1.Year planning

2.Unit planning

3.Lesson planning

Need and Importance of Planning

Planning is needed for the success of a particular task.

The aim of an activity can be fulfilled only through

effective planning

For teaching, a perfect planning lesson is needed.

Effective teaching needs an effective and systematic plan.

Teaching consists of two parts.1. science parts of teaching

& 2. Art part of teaching.

Science part of the teaching presents the plan and the art

part of the teaching represents action of the plan.

These parts of teaching are important and they will

decide the efficiency of teaching.

Year Plan

Year planning is done by the teachers in the beginning

of the year for the entire course.

A teacher who teaches a course in mathematics for a

particular class plans the curricular and co-curricular

activities as per the syllabus for the entire academic

year.

Importance in Year planning

The year plan entails the teacher to consider the time

available and makes the optimum use of it, by

planning per week, per month, per term and so on

before the commencement of the academic session.

The year planning helps the teacher in taking

decisions regarding when to teach, what to teach, how

much time can be assigned for each unit/ topic.

It helps the teacher to carry out all the curricular and

co-curricular activities in time without haste and

anxiety.

It is a tentative plan for the instructional programme

and the teacher may make changes in the plan as

required by the situation.

Steps in Year Planning

The objectives to be achieved

The number of units to be covered as per the syllabus

during the academic year.

The number of periods required to cover each unit, the

number of periods allotted for mathematics per week.

The number of working days [per term and for the year.

The number of days allotted for projects, revisions tests

and examinations

The number of holidays during the academic years.

The resources available.

The potential of the students.

The social and psychological need of the students.

Advantages of Year Plan

Year planning keeps the teacher on the right track.

It helps the teacher in orderly and systematic teaching.

It helps the teacher in making optimum utilization of

the available resources.

It enables the teacher to analyse the depth and extent

of the content to be covered in eachunit.

It gives a self-confidence to the teachers as she is sure

of what is expected of her during each

period/week/monthly/term etc

Unit Plan

A variety of meanings have been assigned to the term

unit. Some of them are:

The lesson for the day

It is a block of work

As a chapter in a textbook, a project

as a method of instruction rather than a method of

organisation of instructional

materials etc

Importance of unit plan

A unit is a large segment of subject matter having a

common theme or idea.

A unit can be split up into smaller subunits called

topics and the topics are linked to

another by a common idea or a principle.

A unit should not be too lengthy or too short.

The length of the unit should be such as to retain the

interests of the student.

A good unit should be part of a unit that permits

growth from year to year

Principles and Steps

Content analysis

Stating General and Specific Objectives.

Planning the learning activities.

Evaluation procedure.

Advantages

Unit plan breaks up a lengthy unit into smaller sub-

units or topics so that pupils can easily grasp the scope

of these during a brief overview.

It provides frequent opportunities for the students to

review and reorganize their learning.

It helps the teacher to plan definite outcomes of

learning so that they are clear not only to the teacher,

but also to the students.

It enables the pupils to see clearly the relationship

between the various facts, processes and principles

that make up the unit.

Lesson Plan

Lesson plan is an arrangement of learning, planning,

organizing and controlling by a teacher.-Davies

Need of Lesson Plan

Lesson planning makes the teachers work more

regular, organized and systematic.

The lesson plan should reveal the development of the

topic.

It should out line in detail the various steps that the

teacher proposes to take in the class.

The teaching techniques to be used by the teacher

should be clearly explained in the lesson plan.

Evaluation the attainment of the stated objectives.

Components Lesson Plan

Knowledge

Understanding

Application

Skill

Functions of a Good Lesson Plan in Mathematics

Lesson planning makes the teachers work more regular,

organised and systematic.

It delimits the teachers field of work and thus enables him

to define his aims and objectives more clearly.

It forces consideration of goals and objectives, the

selection of subject matter, the selection of procedure, the

planning of activities and the planning of evaluation

devices.

It prevents waste of time, as every step has been planned

with forethought. Unnecessary repetition is thus avoided.

It enhances self-confidence of the teacher as it paves the

way for the teacher to enter the class without anxiety.

Important Features of a Good Lesson Plan

A good lesson plan should have certain important

characteristics.

All the objectives of the lesson both general and

specific should be stated clearly in the lesson plan.

A good lesson plan should outline in detail the various

steps that the teacher proposes to take in the class.

A good lesson plan should not remain at the oral or

mental stage, it should be preferably written.

A good lesson plan should have its basis on the

previous knowledge and experience of the learner and

the present knowledge should be well integrated with

the previous knowledge.

Steps in Preparing Lesson Plan

Herbartian approach to lesson planning involves the

following steps. They are

Preparation or Introduction

Presentation

Comparison or Association

Generalization

Application

Recapitulation

Advantages of Year Plan

Year planning keeps the teacher on the right track.

It helps the teacher in orderly and systematic teaching.

It helps the teacher in making optimum utilization of

the available resources.

It enables the teacher to analyse the depth and extent

of the content to be covered in each unit.

It gives a self-confidence to the teachers as she is sure

of what is expected of her during each

period/week/monthly/term etc.,

Advantages of Unit plan

Unit plan breaks up a lengthy unit into smaller sub-

units or topics so that pupils can easily grasp the scope

of these during a brief overview.

It provides frequent opportunities for the students to

review and reorganize their learning.

It helps the teacher to plan definite outcomes of

learning so that they are clear not only to the teacher,

but also to the students.

It enables the pupils to see clearly the relationship

between the various facts, processes and principles

that make up the unit.

Advantages of Lesson plan

It makes the teachers work regular, well organised and

systematic.

It prompts confidence and self-reliance in the teacher.

It helps the teacher to proceed with particular aims in

view and thus makes him

conscious of interests and attitudes to be developed in

the students.

It render a saving in time, for the students have a

better understanding of the subject and develop some

desirable attitudes in a specified time, while in the

absence of a plan it might have taken more time for the

similar understanding.

UNIT-5

Teaching Mathematics

Learner Centred approaches

The following are the methods which are suitable

for classroom teaching of mathematics.

Analytic Methods

Synthetic Methods

Inductive Methods

DeductiveMethods

LaboratoryMethod

Analytic Method

The word analytic is derived from the word analysis

which means breaking up or resolving a thing into its

constituent elements.

This method is based on analysis and therefore in this

method we break up the problem in hand into its

constituent parts so that it ultimately gets connected

with something obvious, or already known.

Advantage of Analytic Method

It leaves no doubts in the minds of the students as

every step is justified.

It is a psychological method.

It facilitates clear understanding of the subject matter

as every step is derived by the student himself.

It helps in developing the spirit of enquiry and

discovery among the students.

No cramming is necessitated in this method as each

step has its reason and justification.

Demerits of Analytic Method

It is a lengthy, time consuming method and therefore

not economical.

With this method it is difficult to acquire efficiency

and speed.

This method may not be suitable for all topics of

mathematics.

In this method information is not presented in a well

organised manner.

This method may not be very effective for below

average students who would find it difficult to follow

the analytical reasoning.

Synthetic Method

Synthetic is derived from the word Synthesis.

Synthesis is the complement of analysis

To synthesise is to combine the constituent elements

to produce something new.

In this method we start with something already known

and connect it with the unknown part of the

statement.

Merits of Synthetic Method

This method is logical as in this method one proceeds

from the known to unknown

It is short and elegant

It facilitates speed and efficiency

It is more effective for slow learners.

Demerits of Synthetic Method

It leaves many doubts in the minds of the learner and

offers no explanation for them.

As it does not justify all the steps, recall of all the steps

may not be possible.

There is no scope for discovery and enquiry in this

method.

It does not provide full understanding.

It makes the students passive listeners and encourages

rote memorization.

Inductive Method

Inductive method is advocated by Pestalozzi and

Francis Bacon. Inductive method is based on

induction. Induction is the process of proving a

universal truth or a theorem by showing that if it is

true of any particular case, it is true of the next case in

the same serial order and hence true for any such cases

Steps in Inductive Method

Selection of a number of cases

Observation of the case under give conditions.

Investigation and analysis

Finding common relations

Arriving at genralisation

Verification or application.

Merits of Inductive Method

It helps understanding.

It is a logical method and develops critical thinking.

It encourages active participation of the students in

learning.

It provides ample opportunities for exploration and

observation.

It sustains the students interest as they proceed from

known to unknown.

It curbs the tendency for rote learning as it clears the

doubts of the students.

Demerits of Inductive Method

Its application is limited to very few topics in

mathematics where actual observation of the

particular instances is possible

This method is not suitable for higher classes because

higher order mathematical principles cannot be

generalised through the observation of concrete cases.

It is a lengthy, time-consuming and laborious method.

Deductive Method

Deductive method is based on deductive reasoning.

Deductive reasoning is the process of drawing logical

inferences from established facts or fundamental

assumptions. Contrary to inductive method, in

deductive method we begin with the formula, or rule

or generalization and apply it to a particular case. In

this method, the teacher presents the known facts or

generalisation and draws inferences regarding the

unknown, following a network of reasoning.

Steps in Deductive Method

Deductive method of teaching follows the steps given

below for effective teaching.

Clear recognition of the problem : A clear recognition

of the problem statement provides the basic link for

the thinking process and the solution to the problem.

Search for a tentative hypothesis: The second step in

deductive method is the search for a tentative

hypothesis, a tentative solution to the problem.

Merits of Deductive Method

It saves time and labour for both the teacher and the

student

It enhances speed, skill and efficiency in solving

problems.

It is a short and elegant method.

It helps in fixation of formulae and rules as it provides

adequate opportunities for

practice and revision

It helps in increasing the memory power of the

students, as the students are required to

memorise a large number of laws, formulae etc.

Demerits of Deductive Method

It encourages rote memory as deductive method

demands the use of certain laws, rules or formulae to

be recalled by the learner from their memory.

It does not clarify the doubts of the student regarding

the generalisation and hence learning is incomplete

It is not suitable for beginners.

It does not encourage students involvement in

learning.

It is not suitable for development of thinking,

reasoning and discovery.

Laboratory Method

Laboratory method is a procedure for stimulating the

activities of the students and to encourage them to

make discoveries. In this method students are required

to do some experiments or carry out certain activities

in order to verify the validity of a mathematical

generalisation, a law or a statement. It is the

experimental portion of the inductive method or the

practical form of the heuristic method.

Procedure

The teacher clearly states the aim of the practical work or

experiment to be carried out by the students.

Example: to establish a relation, to arrive at a

generalisation/rule/ formula or verify a fact)

The students are provided with the necessary materials and

instruments.

Example: Papers, cardboard, scissors, pebbles, beads, gum,

instrument box etc.)

Provide clear instructions as to the procedure of the

experiment

The students carry out the experiment

The teacher provides timely guidance and help

The students are required to draw the conclusions as per the

aim of the experiment

Merits of Laboratory Method

It is based on the psychological laws of learning: law of exercise and

law of effect.

It is based on the principle of learning by doing.

It stimulates die interest of the students to work with concrete material

It provides an opportunity for the students to verify the validity of the

mathematical rules

through their application.

Knowledge and skills acquired through experiments help in better

understanding and

longer retention.

It provides for individual differences and best suited for average and

below average

students for thorough understanding of abstract concepts.

It promotes self-confidence and self-reliance and a sense of

achievement among the

students.

Demerits of laboratory Method

Laboratory method does not contribute much towards the

mental development of the students.

It is an expensive method in terms of time, equipments,

laboratory facilities and number of skilled and able teachers.

a Only very few topics, in mathematics can be taught

through this method as concretisation is not possible for all

mathematical concepts and hence it has limited

applicability.

It is too much to expect the students to work independently

and discover and verify mathematical facts like a

mathematician.

It is not suitable for larger classes as the teacher has to give

individual attention to each student.

ActivityCentredapproaches

The following are the methods which are suitable for

classroom teaching of mathematics.

Heuristic approach

Project method

Programmed instruction

Heuristic approach

The term heuristic is derived from the Greek word

Heurisco which means I discover. This method was

advocated by Professor H.E. Armstrong ofthe City and

Guilds Institute, London, who felt that by placing the

student in the position of a discoverer, he would learn

much more than being merely told about things.

Essential Conditions For Heuristic Learning

The following conditions should be kept in mind while

following heuristic method.

Freedom of action to the students.

Providing responsive environment

Minimum help from the teacher

Timely guidance from the teacher when it is absolutely essential

Asking constructive questions

Availability of necessary supplementary material like library

books, Internet resources

and so on.

Encouragement to continue learning through heuristic method

Providing well-graded problems (experiments) to match the

level and ability of the

student.

Merits of Heuristic Method

It helps in the realisation of aims of teaching mathematics.

It helps in the development of mathematical sense and reasoning.

It provides for individual differences as each student can work at

his own pace.

It helps in real understanding and enduring mastery over the

subject matter.

It enhances the problem-solving skills of the student as each

student rediscovers the

mathematical principles and rules.

It helps in the development of social skills as the students have to

cooperate with another.

Project Method

Project should be a purposeful activity related to life

and it should be carried out in a natural

environment.

In project method, teaching and learning are

considered from the childs point of view and in this

method knowledge and skills are learnt by pupils

through practical handling of problem in their

natural setting.

This method is an ideal way of promoting creativity,

arousing curiosity and inculcating the spirit of enquiry

among the students. However, in this method teaching

is more or less incidental.

Steps involved in Project Method

Providing a situation

Selecting & purposing of the project

Planning of the project

Executing the project

Evaluating the project

Recording

Criteria of a Good Project

A good project can be assessed using the following criteria.

The project should be purposeful, useful, and practically

applicable to the daily life of the students, with clear, well

defined objectives.

The project should help in providing useful and meaningful

learning experiences to each member of the group.

The project should be within the reach of the students in

accordance with their interest and ability levels.

The project should be feasible in terms of the availability of

human and material resources and time limit.

The level of complexity of the project should match the ability

level of the students.

The learning activities of the project should be life-like,

purposeful and natural.

Merits of Project Method

It is based on sound psychological principles and laws of

teaching.

It provides scope for independent work and individual

development

It promotes habits of critical thinking and encourages the

students to adopt problem

solving methods.

It provides for individual differences as the students can

select the activity and works

their own pace.

It promotes social interaction, inculcates spirit of co-

operation and exchanges o!

experiences among the students.

Demerits of Project Method

The project method does not provide necessary drill and

practice for the learners of the subject.

It does not provide any training in mathematical thinking

and reasoning

The learning is incomplete and uniform learning or

balanced learning is not possible for all students as each

student performs a different activity.

Textbooks and instructional materials are hardly available.

For the success of this method the teachers should be

exceptionally resourceful and gifted and knowledgeable.

It is an expensive method as it makes use of a lot of

resources which are not immediately available in the

school.

Programmed Instruction

Programmed instruction is an application of the

principles of behavioral sciences and

technology to classroom teaching.

It is an innovative step directed towards automation

and individualization of instruction.

This is a method of self-instruction in which all of the

instructional load is carried by teaching machine or

programmed texts.

The learner takes activerole in learning and controls

the learning situation.

Basic Principles of Programmed Instruction

The following are the basic principles of programmed

instruction:

Principle of small steps.

Principle of active responding.

Principle of immediate confirmation.

Principle of self-pacing.

Principle of student testing.

Essential Features of Programmed Instruction

The important features of Programmed Instruction are:

Predetermined objectives

Content presented in a logical sequence of small steps

Active responding

Immediate feed back

Self pacing

Mastery criterion

Self testing

Successive approximation

Prompts or cues

Testing of the programmes

ACTIVITY BASED LEARNING (ABL)

Activity Based Learning (ABL) gives joy to children, and

teachers

have the satisfaction of imparting a life-long love for learning.

In Activity-Based Learning children can be motivated and fully

occupied, while they aremastering the fundamentals.

ABL offers solutions to two major problems :multi-grade classes

and inadequate staffing.

ABL appears to be a system where the teacher can facilitate

learning, without dominating the classroom or intimidating the

children.

The child learns in a self-directed way from the systematic

materials provided.

Abstract concepts are difficult for most young children to grasp

simply by hearing them explained.

ABL makes the abstract concrete.

Process of ABL approach

Skills are divided into different units and are converted into

activities.

Each unit is called a milestone, and the appropriate milestones

are grouped to form a chain. This chain is called Ladder

Different milestone have different steps of learning process and

each step is presented by a logo.

Logos of animal & insect forms are used for different aspects of

the curriculum.

The activities of each milestone and also the milestone are

arranged in a logical sequence.

Group cards are used to organize children in groups.

When the child complete one set, there is a card for self

evaluation.

Progress of the child is recorded using annual assessment chart.

Effective of ABL method

Clarity of lessons

Classroom environment

Childrens involvement process

Teachers role

Scope for creativity

ACTIVE LEARNING METHOD (ALM)

Active Learning Method is a method of learning and

teaching of mathematics that puts forward the

necessity of social construction of mathematical

meaning and the role of the teacher as facilitator in

this construction process. In this method the learner is

an active problem-solver, working individually and in

small groups to make connections between multiple

forms of representations of mathematical concepts.

Element of ALM

Situation

Groupings

Bridges

Questioning

Exhibit

Reflections

Active Learning Techniques

Leading Questions

Brainstorming:

Mind Mapping

Visual webs:

Cognitive analogies

Instructor and student

Simulations, Scenarios & Role playing

Work at the black board

Problem based learning

Concept Mapping

Panel Discussion

Applications of ABL & ALM

The teacher creates a problematic situation and a

responsive environment and stimulate the students to

find the solution.

Students work on the Problem independently and

tryout different hypotheses and various methods.

teacher has to direct the activities and channelize the

thinking process by asking constructive and

stimulating questions and The students reach the

solution on their own.

Models of Teaching

The strategy to be used for training teachers in models

of teaching has been a malterc

great concern for researchers. Joyce and Weil (1978)

suggested four components of the

training as follows.

Presentation of theoretical bases

Demonstration of correct performance

Planning and executing peer teaching and provision of

feedback

Transfer of training, i.e. adaptation of teaching

behaviour in the classroom.

Concept attainment Model

The content a teacher transacts in a classroom can be

broadly classified into three categories, namely facts,

concepts and generalisations. Though the process of

acquiring these three types of content by the pupils is

not uniform, mostly teachers use the same strategy for

teaching these three types of content.

Theory of Concepts

Concept has the following five elements.

1. Name of the concept

2. Examples

3. Attribute

4. Rules

Concept Attainment Model has 3 variations

1. Reception Model

2. Selection Model

3. Unorganized Material Model

Advance Organiser Model.

Ausubel is one of the few educational psychologists to

address himself simultaneously to learning, teaching

and curriculum. His theory of Meaningful Verbal

Learning deals with three concerns: (1) how knowledge

(curriculum content) is organised (2) how the mind

works toprocess new information (learning) and (3)

how teachers can apply these ideas about curriculum

and learning when they present new material to

students (instruction). Advance Organiser Model was

developed based on Ausubels Theory of Meaningful

Verbal Learning.

Characteristics of AOM

Short set of verbal or visual information

Presented prior to a larger body of to-be-learned

content

Contain no content from the to-be-learned

information

Provide a means of generating logical relationship

among elements in the to-be learned information

Influence the learners encoding process.

Syntax of the AOM

It is the presentation of the advance organiser. This phase

consists of three

activities: clarifying the aims of the lesson, presenting the

advance organiser and prompting awareness of relevant

knowledge.

It is the presentation of the learning task or material. In this

phase an important task is to maintain students attention

The new learning material in the students existing cognitive

structure. Ausubel identifies four activities in this phase

Promoting integrative reconciliation

Promoting active reception learning

Eliciting a principle approach to subject matter

Clarification.

ApplicationofAOM

It is used in face- to- face teaching in the form of

lectures and explanation.

It can be used in developing instructional material.

It can be used to teach any subject.

It is very effective for high school and higher secondary

school students

Inquiry Training Model

It was developed by Richard suchman to teach

students a process for investigating & explaining any

type of puzzling problem, phenomenon or event, can

be a way of orienting their minds towards scientific

inquiry.

Syntax of the Inquiry of the Model

Encounter with the problem

Data gathering verification

Data gathering -Experimentation

Formulating an explanation

Analysis of the inquiry process

Thank you

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