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ECG summer training

Summer Training Schedule :

1- Projects & Departments Workflow.

2- Working Drawings Principals & Material
3- Introduction to Architectural Software.
4- Introduction to Environmental Analysis &
Energy Modelling.
5- site.
6- Finishing Works.

1- Projects & Departments Workflow

1-Conceptual Design
2. Schematic Design
3. Design Development
4. Construction Documents
5. Construction Bidding
6. Shop Drawings
7. Construction Administration

Phase I: Conceptual Design

1- Site Analysis Report 2- Zoning Diagrams

3- Rendered 3D Model 4-Animation or Video
5-Freehand Sketches 6-Power Point Presentation
7-PDF Summary 8- Rough Cost Estimation

Phase II: Schematic Design

1- BODR Report.
2- Basic CAD Drawings.
3- More Detailed Cost Estimation.

Phase III: Design Development

More Detailed CAD Drawings.

Primary Architectural Schedules (Doors, Windows,
Louvers, Elevation Types and Hardware)
Priced BOQ, Specifications and Method of Measurement.

Phase IV: Construction Documents

Full CAD Drawings

Full Architectural Schedules (Doors, Windows, Louvers,
Elevation Types and Hardware)
Priced BOQ, Specifications and Method of Measurement
Fire Report and Drawings

Phase V: Construction Bidding

Revised Construction Package

List of Approved Suppliers
Tender Action
Tender Evaluation

Phase VI: Shop Drawings

Full Shop Drawings Package
Supplier Catalogues
Cut Sheets

Phase VII: Construction Administration

Request for Information Letters

Revised CAD Drawings and Details

2- Working Drawings Principals & Material Selection.

Working Drawings Principals :

Basically Architectural drawings categorized into two

broad divisions.

Communicate the form of the building in terms of shape,
color and texture. Such drawing presented to: -

a. Planning regulation offices for design approval.

b. The client
-To help him in understanding of the program
- To show to him the relationship of spaces and the
general concept of the design.
- To illustrate to him the general appearance of the
building. (The accommodation provided. The effect of
the overall scheme on the environmental)
To get approval from him
c. The public
-Produced for use in periodicals, magazines and other
d. Jury members in the evaluation of design competition


I. Schematic presentation drawing and
II. Design presentation drawing
- Concerned with the preliminary investigation
process for a design. Provides, information about:
the site, immediate surrounding (adjoining
structures, roads, services etc) - Development the
entire site, like circulation pattern. - Rough idea of
the functional

- Those concerned with the presentation of design
solutions. - Provide information about: .
Basic room arrangement
. Exterior features
. Immediate surrounding etc


-Such drawings more need to convey information about

appearance because they presented for less technically
minded people. So the presentation should be easily
understood and preferably three dimensional representation
(like-perspective), etc

Function provided by working drawing

1. Communicate technical information though out the building

2. To show how to design is to materialize
3. Convey informations for people concerned in erecting the
4. Give informations to specification writer
5. for instructing the contractors and other members of
building team
6. Means of obtaining official approval.
7. Helps in the analysis of cost factor.
8. Establish use of materials.
9. Provides detail for tendering.
10. Indicate contractual committeemen
11. Indicate degree of supervision.
12. Demonstrate construction details.
13. Assist in the measurement of progress.
14. Forms parts of documentation in site meetings.
15. Establish type and amount of labor requirement.
16. Basic for ordering materials and components.
Generally presentation drawings presented to client, while 7
working drawings to present to contractors.
The finished drawings made by the architect or Drafter, which used by the
contractor that working drawings includes the following sheets.
1- Title page and index 2. Floor plan
3. Elevations 4. Sections 5. Roof plan
6. Site plan 7. Typical details
8. Reflected ceiling plan 9. Schedules
10. Electrical requirement 11. Plumbing
12. Structural etc.
As working drawing is actually the end result of the entire drafting and design
effort let us have basic informations which shall be included on the above listed

The floor plan is the heart of architectural drawings and is usually
drawn first in professional plans. It is the plan to which all trades
people refer. It is a top view horizontal section cut through the
house about 1.00 1.50cm above the floor.
The purpose of the floor plan is to show the location and
dimensions of exterior and interior walls, windows, doors, major
appliances, cabinets, fireplaces, and other fixed features in the
Upon completion of the preliminary sketches and proposal, a 1:50
1:100 scale floor plan is drawn which is considerably more detailed
than previous floor plans. Windows and doors are coded. All exterior
walls, interior walls, windows, and doors are dimensioned. To
conserve time and paper, the electrical plan is sometimes included
on the floor plan. On more complex plans, the electrical plan, the
heating/cooling plan, and the plumbing plan are drawn separately.
You will have one drawing for the floor plan, and one for the

A. Certain information is required on the floor plan:

Exterior and interior walls

Size and location of windows and doors
Permanent fixtures, stairs, and fireplaces
Sidewalks, patios and decks
Room names and material symbols
Location and size dimensions
Scale of the drawing

B. When applicable, related structures such as freestanding

garages or swimming pools are shown on the floor plan

C. Walls should be drawn accurately. Exterior walls can be either

15cm or 20cm thick, and interior walls should be 15cm thick. If
you are using a brick veneer on the exterior of the house, add 1
air space and an additional 3-3/4 for the brick.

D. Fireplaces or stairs require only basic size and location

information on the floor plan. (Special details will be included in
the plans for these features.).

E. Floor plans should include several dimensions. Each wall is

dimensioned from its center architectural dimensions should be
in chain fashion or continuous and tics should be used


An elevation is an orthographic drawing of the sides of the structure. The

term elevation" usually refers to an outside elevation Various interior
elevations are included in a set of plans (kitchen, bathroom, etc.), but these
are referred to as details. The purpose of an elevation is to show the
finished appearance of the structure and vertical height dimensions. Four
Elevations are usually drawn, one for each of the sides of the house.
A. Required Information :
- Identification of the specific side of the house elevation
- Grade line -Finish floor and ceiling levels (shown with phantom lines)
-Windows and doors Foundation (shown with hidden lines)
- Vertical dimensions of important features Porches, desks, patios, and
material symbols

B. Elevation Identification
Each elevation must be identified. Two commonly used methods
are (Front, Rear, Right Side, and Left Side), or (North, South, East,
and West).
The first method is the preferred. Right and left sides are
determined by facing the front of the building. Identify each
elevation directly below the drawing to avoid confusion.

C. Grade Lines, Floor and Ceilings

1-The reference point for most elevations is the grade line. All
features that are below the grade line should be shown as hidden
lines. Examples are foundation, footings and window wells.
2. Floor to ceiling height should be shown. Two method are
a. Finished floor to finished ceiling distances. The typical
distance from finished floor to finished ceiling is 2.80m 3.00m.
b. The construction dimension or distance is from the top of the
sub-floor to the top of the wall plate. In this case the construction
dimension for the first floor is 8'-1 1/8". Sometimes second
floors are 7'-7 1/8". Carpenters prefer this method because it
saves them doing the calculations.
c. The top of the foundation must be 8" above the grade to
protect framing members from moisture.
d. Garage floors may be slightly higher than grade but should be
at least 4" lower than an interior when the garage is attached to
the house.

D. Walls, Windows, Doors
1. Exterior walls, windows, and doors must be shown on
2. It is customary to make top of windows the same height as
top of doors
3. Usual door height is 6'- 8" from the top of the sub-floor to
the lower face of the head jam
4. Windows and doors should receive DETAILED presentation
on elevations.

Section drawing is an orthographic projection that has been
cut apart to show interior features.
1. Describe the construction materials of the structure.
2. Describe method of construction. (General assembly of
different parts)
3. Show interior design elements
4. Clearly depict the structural conditions existing in the

Generally, sectional drawings describe constructions

materials and methods especially those things hidden by
wall or ceiling sheathing and are often the easiest way to
describe a complex detail to a contractor.

1. STRUCTURAL SECTION A structural section shows the

entire building construction and also shows the interior
spaces in elevation.
long axis of the building
b. b. BUILDING CROSS-SECTION Section taken across its
narrower dimension.

2. WALL SECTION Shows the construction of a typical wall to

a larger scale than the structural section

3. DETAIL SECTION Section views cut through a small

segment of a building and drawn with enlarged scale This
are some of part are drawn in detail drawing A. Window
and door section B. Stair section C. Chimney section D.
Structural detail section 13
Sectional drawings are drawn in a scale of 1:50 or 1:100 in
common working drawing but detail section drawing are
drawn in a scale 1:20 or 1:25 package. Sections are
basically drawn referenced on plans and elevations.

Site plan is the top view of building which shows the location of the house on
the site (property) together with information on terraces, walks, driveways,
contours, swimming pool, patio, and utilities.
Checklist site plan
-Property lines-lengths each side, direction
- Adjoining building, streets, sidewalk parking, curbs parkways.
- Existing structures and proposed structure.
- All utilities lines (sewer, electric, telephone).
- Contours, existing, new: contour elevations.
- Dimension
Property lines - Side yards, pears, front yard - Street centre line - Length of
walks and walls - Dimensions of building to property line
- Fences, structural retaining walls, area ways and pools
- North arrow
-Drainage lines
- All existing paving weather to remain or to remove, new paving, parking lots,
steps, platforms, signs, play fields, foundations, etc
- Tree, shrubs, if exist
- Legend showing all symbols and materials and materials used on the site.

Climate analysis

Sun path diagram
Environmental Comfort
Psychrometric Chart
Climate refers to the average atmospheric conditions
over a long period of time
weather refers to the daily temperatures and
atmospheric conditions

- Climate refers to the average atmospheric conditions

over a long period of time.
-weather refers to the daily temperatures and
atmospheric conditions.

Why we do Energy Modelling?

Environmental Design (passive solutions)
1- Building Massing and Orientation

For many building types, massing is one of the most

important factors in passive heating, cooling, and
daylighting, "Opt 2" has the same area as "Opt 1" but
uses less than half the energy, because of better massing.

2- Cross Ventilation

3- Trombe Wall

4- Shading for Solar Heat Gain :

4- Wing Walls :

Finish materials
Ceiling :
1- aluminium strips .
2- aluminium tiles .
3-Expanded Metal.
4-Gypsum Board Panels .
5-Gypsum Board Tiles .
6-Plastering+Paint .
7-Wood Panels and strips

1- aluminium strips .

2- aluminium tiles .

3-Expanded Metal. 6- Plastering+Paint

4- Gypsum Board Panels

7- Wood Panels and strips

5- Gypsum Board tiles

Flooring :

- 3D floor - Artificial marble - Asphalt - Ceramic

- Epoxy - Glass Blocks - Grass+Artificial Grass)

- Glass Blocks - HDF - wood

- 3D floor - Artificial marble

- Asphalt - Ceramic

- Epoxy - Glass Blocks

- HDF - wood