Immediate Reference

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Immediate Reference

© All Rights Reserved

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- Immediate Inference

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4OUR

REASONING:

IMMEDIATE

IMMEDIATE

INFERENCE

FEREN

REASONING

a mental operation through which

the agreement or disagreement of

two ideas is inferred from their

known relation to a common third

idea.

Methods O

Reasoning F

INDUCTION/Inductive Reasoning

One which proceeds from individual or

particular data to general or universal

conclusion.

Example:

Juan is a man.

Juan is mortal.

All men are mortal.

DEDUCTION/Deductive Reasoning

One which proceeds from universal data to

particular and individual conclusion.

Example:

All humans are animals.

All humans are mortal.

INFERENCE

any process through which the

mind proceeds from one or more

propositions to other propositions

whose meanings are already

implied in the former.

INFERENCE

Example:

Julius is a man.

Julius is mortal.

John is a man.

John is mortal.

KindsOF

Inference

IMMEDIATE INFERENCE

Eduction

Conversion

Obversion

Contraposition

Inversion

Logical Opposition

Contradictory

Contrary

Subcontrary

Subaltern Oppositions

Rules governing their oppositions

MEDIATE INFERENCE

IMMEDIATE

INFERENCE

a process of reasoning through

which the mind passes directly

from one proposition to a new

proposition which is nothing else

but a reformulation (partial or

complete) of the very exact

meaning or truth as expressed in

the original proposition.

IMMEDIATE INFERENCE

Contains only two terms, namely, subject

term and predicate term.

Example:

(S) (P)

(S) (P)

EDUCTION

a new proposition is being

formulated either by interchanging

the subject and predicate terms of

the original proposition or by the

use or removal of negatives.

KindsOF

EDUCTION

Conversion

Obversion

Contraposition

Inversion

CONVERSION

CONVERSION

formulation of a new proposition by way of

interchanging the subject and the predicate terms

of an original proposition.

the quality of the original proposition is retained

Two parts:

Convertend- original proposition

Converse- new proposition

Example:

No is a

fish mouse. (Convertend)

(S) (P)

No mouse is a fish (Converse)

(S) (P)

2KindsOF

Conversion

Simple Conversion

the quantity of the convertend is retained in the

converse.

if the convertend is universal, the converse must

also be universal, or if the convertend is particular,

the converse must also be particular.

Only E and I propositions can be simply

converted.

Example:

No men are mortals. (E)

No mortals are men. (E)

Some mortals are men. (I)

Some men are mortals. (I)

Simple Conversion

A and O propositions cannot be converted by

simple conversion.

We cannot convert:

All dogs are animals. (A) to

(Su) (Pp)

All animals are dogs. (A)

(Su) (Pp)

(Sp) (Pu)

Some animals are not birds. (O)

(Sp) (Pu)

Partial Conversion

the quantity of the convertend is reduced from

universal to particular. (but retain the quality)

applicable only to A and E propositions.

A to I; E to O

Examples:

All computers are gadgets. (A) to

(Su) (Pp)

Some gadgets are computers. (I)

(Sp) (Pp)

No computers are robots. (E) to

(Su) (Pu)

Some robots are not computers. (O)

(Sp) (Pu)

Rules of Conversion

(a) Interchange the subject and the predicate terms.

(b) Retain the quality of the convertend in the

converse.

(c) Simple Conversion: (d) Partial Conversion.

Do not extend any term Reduce the quantity (but

(subject or predicate) of the just the same, retain the

convertend in the converse. quality) of the convertend in

The quantity of the terms in the converse.

the convertend should be

maintained in the converse.

A to I

E to O

E to E

I to I

OBVERSION

OBVERSION

retaining the subject term and the quantity of the

original proposition (obvertend)

changing the quality of the original proposition

(from affirmative to negative or from negative to

affirmative in the obverse);

replacing the predicate of the original proposition

to its contradictory in the obverse.

applicable to all kinds of categorical propositions.

(A,E,I,O)

OBVERSION

OBVERTEND OBVERSE

(1) All men are mortal. (A) (1) No men are non-mortal. (E)

(Su) (Pp) (Su) (Pu)

(2) No men are mortal. (E) (2) All men are non-mortal. (A)

(Su) (Pu) (Su) (Pp)

(3) Some men are mortal. (I) (3) Some men are not non-mortal. (O)

(Sp) (Pp) (Sp) (Pu)

(4) Some men are not mortal. (O) (4) Some men are non-mortal. (I)

(Sp) (Pu) (Sp) (Pp)

CONTRAPOSITION

CONTRAPOSITION

results from a formulation of a new proposition

whose subject term is the contradictory of the

predicate term in the original proposition.

product of both conversion and obversion.

Partial/Simple contraposition

Complete contraposition

Partial Contraposition

consists the formulation of a new proposition

(contraposit) through the following:

(a) Its (contraposit) subject is the contradictory

of the predicate term of the original proposition

(contraponend)

(b) the quality of the contraponend is changed in

the contraposit; and

(c) the predicate term in the contraposit is the

subject term in the contraponend

A to E

E to I

O to I

Partial Contraposition

Examples:

(1) (Contraponend) All whales are mammals. (A) to

(Contraposit) No non-mammals are whales. (E)

(Contraposit) Some non-dogs are fishes. (I)

(Contraposit) Some non-studious are students. (I)

Complete Contraposition

a new proposition (contraposit) is formulated

through the following:

(a) the subject term in the contraposit is the

contradictory of the predicate term in the

contraponend;

(b) the quality of the contraponend is not

changed in the contraposit; and

(c) the predicate term in the contraposit is the

contradictory of the subject term in the

contraponend.

A to A

E to O

O to O

Complete Contraposition

Examples:

(1) (Contraponend) All whales are mammals. (A) to

(Contraposit) All non-mammals are non-whales. (A)

(Contraposit) Some non-dogs are not non-fishes. (O)

(Contraposit) Some non-studious are not non-students. (O)

INVERSION

INVERSION

method of eduction in which the mind, through

obversion and conversion, finally arrives at a

judgment(inverse) whose subject and predicate

terms are contradictories of the subject and

predicate terms in the original proposition

(invertend)

Only A proposition is qualified for inversion.

Inversion

(Obverse) No terrorists are non-criminals. (E) to

(Converse: Simple) No non-criminals are terrorists. (E) to

(Obverse) All non-criminals are non-terrorists. (A) to

(Converse: Partial) Some non-terrorists are non-criminals. (I) to

(Inverse) Some non-terrorists are non-criminals. (I)

Inversion

Example of E proposition as Invertend:

All corrupt government officials are non-holy. (A)

(Converse: Simple) Some non-holy are corrupt government officials. (I)

(Obverse) Some non-holy are not non-corrupt government

officials. (O)

(Converse: Partial) None

(Inverse) None

Inversion

Example of I proposition as Invertend:

(Obverse) Some government officials are not non-corrupt. (O)

(Converse: Simple) None

(Obverse) None

(Converse: Partial) None

(Inverse) None

Inversion

Example of O proposition as Invertend:

(Obverse) Some government officials are non-corrupt. (O)

(Converse: Simple) Some non-corrupt individuals are government

officials. (I)

(Obverse) Some non-corrupt individuals are not non-

government officials. (O)

(Converse: Partial) None

(Inverse) None

LOGICAL

OPPOSITION

Opposition exists between two

propositions when these

propositions have the same

subject and predicate terms but

differ from each other either in

quantity or quality or in both

quantity and quality.

Logical Opposition

All Filipinos are Asians.

No Germans are Romans.

No Filipinos are Asians.

Types OF

Opposition

Contradictory

Contrariety

Subcontrariety

Subalternation

Square of Opposition

A CONTRARIES E

All x are y. No x are y.

S CC S

U OO U

NN

B TT B

A RR A

AA

L DD L

I ICC

T TT T

E OO E

RR

R I IEE R

N SS N

S S

I SUBCONTRARIES O

CONTRADICTORY

CONTRADICTORY OPPOSITION

an opposition existing between a pair of propositions

having the same subject and predicate terms but these

propositions differ in both quantity and quality.

Rules of Contradictories

(a) If one of the two contradictories is true, the other is

false, and vice versa.

(b) Contradictories cannot be simultaneously true or false

at the same time.

Conclusions

(a) If A is true, O is false.

(b) If E is true, I is false.

(c) If I is true, E is false.

(d) If O is true, A is false.

Square of Opposition

A CONTRARIES E

All x are y. No x are y.

S CC S

U OO U

NN

B TT B

A RR A

AA

L DD L

I ICC

T TT T

E OO E

RR

R I IEE R

N SS N

S S

I SUBCONTRARIES O

CONTRARY

CONTRARY OPPOSITION

an opposition existing between a pair of universal

propositions having the same subject and predicate

terms but differing in quality since A is affirmative

while E is negative.

Rules of Contrariety

(a) If one of the contraries is true, the other is false.

(b) If one of the contraries is false, the other is doubtful.

Conclusions

(a) If A is true, E is false.

(b) If E is true, A is false.

(c) If A is false, E is doubtful.

(d) If E is false, A is doubtful.

SUBCONTRARY

Square of Opposition

A CONTRARIES E

All x are y. No x are y.

S CC S

U OO U

NN

B TT B

A RR A

AA

L DD L

I ICC

T TT T

E OO E

RR

R I IEE R

N SS N

S S

I SUBCONTRARIES O

SUBCONTRARY OPPOSITION

an opposition existing between a pair of particular

propositions having the same subject and predicate

terms but differing in quality.

I and O propositions are subcontraries.

Rules of Subcontraries

(a) If one of the subcontraries is true, the other is

doubtful.

(b) If one of the subcontraries is false, the other is true.

Conclusions

(a) If I is true, O is doubtful.

(b) If O is true, I is doubtful.

(c) If I is false, O is true.

(d) If O is false, I is true.

SUBALTERN

Square of Opposition

A CONTRARIES E

All x are y. No x are y.

S CC S

U OO U

NN

B TT B

A RR A

AA

L DD L

I ICC

T TT T

E OO E

RR

R I IEE R

N SS N

S S

I SUBCONTRARIES O

SUBALTERN OPPOSITION

an opposition existing between a pair of propositions

having the same subject and predicate terms and

having the same quality, but differing in quantity.

SUBALTERN OPPOSITION

Rules of Subalternation

(a) If the universal is true, the particular is true. This means that the

truth of the universal involves the truth of the particular. So if A

is true, I is true, or if E is true, O is also true.

(b) If the universal is false, the particular is doubtful. This means that

the falsity of the universal does not involve the falsity of the

particular. Thus, if A is false, I is doubtful, or if E is false, O is

doubtful.

(c) If the particular is true, the universal is doubtful. This means that

the truth of the particular does not involve the truth of the

universal. Thus, if I is true, A is doubtful, or if O is true, E is

doubtful.

(d) If the particular is false, the universal is false. This means that

the falsity of the particular involves the falsity of the universal.

Thus, if I is false, A is also false, or if O is false, E is also false.

SUBALTERN OPPOSITION

Conclusions:

(a) If A is true, I is true.

(b) If A is false, I is doubtful.

(c) If E is true, O is true.

(d) If E is false, O is doubtful.

(e) If I is true, A is doubtful.

(f) If I is false, A is false.

(g) If O is true, E is doubtful.

(h) If O is false, E is false.

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