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# CHAPTER

4OUR
REASONING:
IMMEDIATE
IMMEDIATE
INFERENCE
FEREN
REASONING
a mental operation through which
the agreement or disagreement of
two ideas is inferred from their
known relation to a common third
idea.
Methods O
Reasoning F
INDUCTION/Inductive Reasoning
One which proceeds from individual or
particular data to general or universal
conclusion.

Example:

Juan is a man.
Juan is mortal.
All men are mortal.
DEDUCTION/Deductive Reasoning
One which proceeds from universal data to
particular and individual conclusion.

Example:

## All animals are mortal.

All humans are animals.
All humans are mortal.
INFERENCE
any process through which the
mind proceeds from one or more
propositions to other propositions
implied in the former.
INFERENCE
Example:

## All men are mortal.

Julius is a man.
Julius is mortal.

John is a man.
John is mortal.
KindsOF
Inference
IMMEDIATE INFERENCE
Eduction
Conversion
Obversion
Contraposition
Inversion

Logical Opposition
Contrary
Subcontrary
Subaltern Oppositions
Rules governing their oppositions

MEDIATE INFERENCE
IMMEDIATE
INFERENCE
a process of reasoning through
which the mind passes directly
from one proposition to a new
proposition which is nothing else
but a reformulation (partial or
complete) of the very exact
meaning or truth as expressed in
the original proposition.
IMMEDIATE INFERENCE
Contains only two terms, namely, subject
term and predicate term.

Example:

(S) (P)

## No stones are metals.

(S) (P)
EDUCTION
a new proposition is being
formulated either by interchanging
the subject and predicate terms of
the original proposition or by the
use or removal of negatives.
KindsOF
EDUCTION
Conversion
Obversion
Contraposition
Inversion
CONVERSION
CONVERSION
formulation of a new proposition by way of
interchanging the subject and the predicate terms
of an original proposition.
the quality of the original proposition is retained
Two parts:
Convertend- original proposition
Converse- new proposition
Example:
No is a
fish mouse. (Convertend)
(S) (P)
No mouse is a fish (Converse)
(S) (P)
2KindsOF
Conversion
Simple Conversion
the quantity of the convertend is retained in the
converse.
if the convertend is universal, the converse must
also be universal, or if the convertend is particular,
the converse must also be particular.
Only E and I propositions can be simply
converted.
Example:
No men are mortals. (E)
No mortals are men. (E)
Some mortals are men. (I)
Some men are mortals. (I)
Simple Conversion
A and O propositions cannot be converted by
simple conversion.
We cannot convert:
All dogs are animals. (A) to
(Su) (Pp)
All animals are dogs. (A)
(Su) (Pp)

## Some birds are not animals. (O) to

(Sp) (Pu)
Some animals are not birds. (O)
(Sp) (Pu)
Partial Conversion
the quantity of the convertend is reduced from
universal to particular. (but retain the quality)
applicable only to A and E propositions.
A to I; E to O
Examples:
All computers are gadgets. (A) to
(Su) (Pp)
(Sp) (Pp)
No computers are robots. (E) to
(Su) (Pu)
Some robots are not computers. (O)
(Sp) (Pu)
Rules of Conversion
(a) Interchange the subject and the predicate terms.
(b) Retain the quality of the convertend in the
converse.
(c) Simple Conversion: (d) Partial Conversion.
Do not extend any term Reduce the quantity (but
(subject or predicate) of the just the same, retain the
convertend in the converse. quality) of the convertend in
The quantity of the terms in the converse.
the convertend should be
maintained in the converse.
A to I
E to O
E to E
I to I
OBVERSION
OBVERSION
retaining the subject term and the quantity of the
original proposition (obvertend)
changing the quality of the original proposition
(from affirmative to negative or from negative to
affirmative in the obverse);
replacing the predicate of the original proposition
to its contradictory in the obverse.
applicable to all kinds of categorical propositions.
(A,E,I,O)
OBVERSION

OBVERTEND OBVERSE
(1) All men are mortal. (A) (1) No men are non-mortal. (E)
(Su) (Pp) (Su) (Pu)

(2) No men are mortal. (E) (2) All men are non-mortal. (A)
(Su) (Pu) (Su) (Pp)
(3) Some men are mortal. (I) (3) Some men are not non-mortal. (O)
(Sp) (Pp) (Sp) (Pu)

(4) Some men are not mortal. (O) (4) Some men are non-mortal. (I)
(Sp) (Pu) (Sp) (Pp)
CONTRAPOSITION
CONTRAPOSITION
results from a formulation of a new proposition
whose subject term is the contradictory of the
predicate term in the original proposition.
product of both conversion and obversion.

## Two types of contraposition

Partial/Simple contraposition
Complete contraposition
Partial Contraposition
consists the formulation of a new proposition
(contraposit) through the following:
(a) Its (contraposit) subject is the contradictory
of the predicate term of the original proposition
(contraponend)
(b) the quality of the contraponend is changed in
the contraposit; and
(c) the predicate term in the contraposit is the
subject term in the contraponend
A to E
E to I
O to I
Partial Contraposition
Examples:
(1) (Contraponend) All whales are mammals. (A) to
(Contraposit) No non-mammals are whales. (E)

## (2) (Contraponend) No fishes are dogs. (E) to

(Contraposit) Some non-dogs are fishes. (I)

## (3) (Contraponend) Some students are not studious. (O) to

(Contraposit) Some non-studious are students. (I)
Complete Contraposition
a new proposition (contraposit) is formulated
through the following:
(a) the subject term in the contraposit is the
contradictory of the predicate term in the
contraponend;
(b) the quality of the contraponend is not
changed in the contraposit; and
(c) the predicate term in the contraposit is the
contradictory of the subject term in the
contraponend.
A to A
E to O
O to O
Complete Contraposition
Examples:
(1) (Contraponend) All whales are mammals. (A) to
(Contraposit) All non-mammals are non-whales. (A)

## (2) (Contraponend) No fish is a dog. (E) to

(Contraposit) Some non-dogs are not non-fishes. (O)

## (3) (Contraponend) Some students are not studious. (O) to

(Contraposit) Some non-studious are not non-students. (O)
INVERSION
INVERSION
method of eduction in which the mind, through
obversion and conversion, finally arrives at a
judgment(inverse) whose subject and predicate
terms are contradictories of the subject and
predicate terms in the original proposition
(invertend)
Only A proposition is qualified for inversion.
Inversion

## (Invertend) All terrorists are criminals. (A) to

(Obverse) No terrorists are non-criminals. (E) to
(Converse: Simple) No non-criminals are terrorists. (E) to
(Obverse) All non-criminals are non-terrorists. (A) to
(Converse: Partial) Some non-terrorists are non-criminals. (I) to
(Inverse) Some non-terrorists are non-criminals. (I)
Inversion
Example of E proposition as Invertend:

## (Invertend) No corrupt government officials are holy. (E) (Obverse)

All corrupt government officials are non-holy. (A)
(Converse: Simple) Some non-holy are corrupt government officials. (I)
(Obverse) Some non-holy are not non-corrupt government
officials. (O)
(Converse: Partial) None
(Inverse) None
Inversion
Example of I proposition as Invertend:

## (Invertend) Some government officials are corrupt. (I)

(Obverse) Some government officials are not non-corrupt. (O)
(Converse: Simple) None
(Obverse) None
(Converse: Partial) None
(Inverse) None
Inversion
Example of O proposition as Invertend:

## (Invertend) Some government officials are not corrupt. (O)

(Obverse) Some government officials are non-corrupt. (O)
(Converse: Simple) Some non-corrupt individuals are government
officials. (I)
(Obverse) Some non-corrupt individuals are not non-
government officials. (O)
(Converse: Partial) None
(Inverse) None
LOGICAL
OPPOSITION
Opposition exists between two
propositions when these
propositions have the same
subject and predicate terms but
differ from each other either in
quantity or quality or in both
quantity and quality.
Logical Opposition
All Filipinos are Asians.
No Germans are Romans.

## All Filipinos are Asians.

No Filipinos are Asians.
Types OF
Opposition
Contrariety
Subcontrariety
Subalternation
Square of Opposition
A CONTRARIES E
All x are y. No x are y.

S CC S
U OO U
NN
B TT B
A RR A
AA
L DD L
I ICC
T TT T
E OO E
RR
R I IEE R
N SS N
S S

## Some x are y. Some x are not y.

I SUBCONTRARIES O
an opposition existing between a pair of propositions
having the same subject and predicate terms but these
propositions differ in both quantity and quality.
(a) If one of the two contradictories is true, the other is
false, and vice versa.
(b) Contradictories cannot be simultaneously true or false
at the same time.
Conclusions
(a) If A is true, O is false.
(b) If E is true, I is false.
(c) If I is true, E is false.
(d) If O is true, A is false.
Square of Opposition
A CONTRARIES E
All x are y. No x are y.

S CC S
U OO U
NN
B TT B
A RR A
AA
L DD L
I ICC
T TT T
E OO E
RR
R I IEE R
N SS N
S S

## Some x are y. Some x are not y.

I SUBCONTRARIES O
CONTRARY
CONTRARY OPPOSITION
an opposition existing between a pair of universal
propositions having the same subject and predicate
terms but differing in quality since A is affirmative
while E is negative.
Rules of Contrariety
(a) If one of the contraries is true, the other is false.
(b) If one of the contraries is false, the other is doubtful.

Conclusions
(a) If A is true, E is false.
(b) If E is true, A is false.
(c) If A is false, E is doubtful.
(d) If E is false, A is doubtful.
SUBCONTRARY
Square of Opposition
A CONTRARIES E
All x are y. No x are y.

S CC S
U OO U
NN
B TT B
A RR A
AA
L DD L
I ICC
T TT T
E OO E
RR
R I IEE R
N SS N
S S

## Some x are y. Some x are not y.

I SUBCONTRARIES O
SUBCONTRARY OPPOSITION
an opposition existing between a pair of particular
propositions having the same subject and predicate
terms but differing in quality.
I and O propositions are subcontraries.
Rules of Subcontraries
(a) If one of the subcontraries is true, the other is
doubtful.
(b) If one of the subcontraries is false, the other is true.
Conclusions
(a) If I is true, O is doubtful.
(b) If O is true, I is doubtful.
(c) If I is false, O is true.
(d) If O is false, I is true.
SUBALTERN
Square of Opposition
A CONTRARIES E
All x are y. No x are y.

S CC S
U OO U
NN
B TT B
A RR A
AA
L DD L
I ICC
T TT T
E OO E
RR
R I IEE R
N SS N
S S

## Some x are y. Some x are not y.

I SUBCONTRARIES O
SUBALTERN OPPOSITION
an opposition existing between a pair of propositions
having the same subject and predicate terms and
having the same quality, but differing in quantity.
SUBALTERN OPPOSITION
Rules of Subalternation
(a) If the universal is true, the particular is true. This means that the
truth of the universal involves the truth of the particular. So if A
is true, I is true, or if E is true, O is also true.
(b) If the universal is false, the particular is doubtful. This means that
the falsity of the universal does not involve the falsity of the
particular. Thus, if A is false, I is doubtful, or if E is false, O is
doubtful.
(c) If the particular is true, the universal is doubtful. This means that
the truth of the particular does not involve the truth of the
universal. Thus, if I is true, A is doubtful, or if O is true, E is
doubtful.
(d) If the particular is false, the universal is false. This means that
the falsity of the particular involves the falsity of the universal.
Thus, if I is false, A is also false, or if O is false, E is also false.
SUBALTERN OPPOSITION
Conclusions:
(a) If A is true, I is true.
(b) If A is false, I is doubtful.
(c) If E is true, O is true.
(d) If E is false, O is doubtful.
(e) If I is true, A is doubtful.
(f) If I is false, A is false.
(g) If O is true, E is doubtful.
(h) If O is false, E is false.