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Rainwater Harvesting

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Rain Water Harvesting?.
Rain Water Harvesting RWH- process of collecting,
conveying & storing water from rainfall in an area for
beneficial use.
Storage in tanks, reservoirs, underground storage-
groundwater
Hydrological Cycle
What Is Rainwater Harvesting?

RWH technology consists of simple systems to collect, convey, and


store rainwater. Rainwater capture is accomplished primarily from
roof-top, surface runoff, and other surfaces.
RWH either captures stored rainwater for direct use (irrigation,
production, washing, drinking water, etc.) or is recharged into the
local ground water and is call artificial recharge.
In many cases, RWH systems are used in conjunction with Aquifer
Storage and Recovery (ASR). ASR is the introduction of RWH
collected rainwater to the groundwater / aquifer through various
structures in excess of what would naturally infiltrate then
recovered for use

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Why Rainwater Harvesting?
Conserve and supplement existing water resources
Available for capture and storage in most global locations
Potentially provide improved quality of water
Supply water at one of the lowest costs possible for a
supplemental supply source.
Capturing and directing storm water (run-off) and
beneficially use it
Commitment as a corporate citizen - showcasing
environmental concerns
Public Mandate (India)
Replenishing local ground water aquifers where lowering
of water tables has occured

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Why Not RWH?
Not applicable in all climate conditions over the world
Performance seriously affected by climate fluctuations that
sometimes are hard to predict
Increasingly sophisticated RWH systems (ASR) necessarily
increases complexities in cost, design, operation,
maintenance, size and regulatory permitting
Collected rainwater can be degraded with the inclusion of storm
water runoff
Collected water quality might be affected by external factors
Collection systems require monitoring and continuous
maintenance and improvement to maintain desired water
quality characteristics for water end-use
Certain areas will have high initial capital cost with low ROI

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Condensation

Lets take a look at


Precipitation The Water Cycle
Evapotranspiration

Evaporation

Infiltration
Surface Runoff

Consumption Surface Water

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Condensation
Rainfall Definitions

Intensity Quantity per time of


Precipitation the rainfall event (mm/hour)
Duration period of time for the
precipitation event
Average Annual and Monthly
Precipitation Average rainfall
over one year period and
monthly intervals and usually
based on 30 or more years of
Consumption
data

Surface Water
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Rain Water as Source Water
Design Considerations

1
2
Typical Diagram Recomendation

4
3
5

6
Raw water
tank or
Aquifer

7
1 Roof 4 Pre-filter
2 Screen 5 Storage tank
3 Discharge of water 6 Flow meter
7 Storm water discharge

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Ground Water Recharge

Under natural conditions it may take days to centuries to recharge ground water
by rain water. As we need to replenish the pumped water, Artificial Recharge of
Ground water is required at some locations. .ppt (9)
Appropriate Water conservation
and groundwater
Technology recharge techniques

Water harvesting
cum supplementary
irrigation
techniques in
Jhabua
Ground catchments systems channel water from a prepared catchment
area into storage. Generally they are only considered in areas where
rainwater is very scarce and other sources of water are not available.
They are more suited to small communities than individual families. If
properly designed, ground catchment systems can collect large
quantities of rainwater.

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Storage
Storage devices may be either above or below ground
Different types include
Storage Tanks
Water Containers
Lagoons or Lined Ponds
Infiltration Ponds
Size based on rainfall pattern, demand, budget and area

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Percolation Pit
To divert rainwater into an
aquifer,

The percolation pit is covered


with a perforated concrete slab

The pit is filled with gravel/


pebbles followed by river sand
for better percolation.

The top layer of sand must be


cleaned and replaced at least
once in two years to remove
settled silt for improving the
percolation

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RWH Methodologies

Roof Rain Water Harvesting


Land based Rain Water Harvesting
Watershed based Rain Water harvesting
For Urban & Industrial Environment
Roof & Land based RWH
Public, Private, Office & Industrial buildings
Pavements, Lawns, Gardens & other open
spaces
Recharge Wells

The runoff water from rooftops or


other catchments can be
channelized into an existing /new
well via sand filter to filter turbidity
and other pollutants

Abandoned wells can also be used

Cost-effective process, which not only


conserves rainwater for immediate
use but also helps to enhance the
local ground water situation

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Quality Issues
Roofs contain: bird droppings, atmospheric dust, industrial and
urban air pollution

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Operational Procedures and Design Considerations
Storage tank dark materials to exclude light and algae
formation

Corrosion resistant materials

Tank in protected shaded area lower temperature

For multiple storage tanks design for frequent turnover

Regional wind direction and industrial activity Lead,


Mercury, other heavy metals

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RAIN WATER HARVESTING FOR OFFICES Developing a GREEN BUILDING
in Nairobi, Kenya
RAIN WATER ACCUMULATION IN LIEU OF STORM WATER ATTENUATION POND

GREEN ROOF

GREEN ROOF

MANICURED
LAWN GARDEN
POROUS PARKING

OZONATION
FILTRATION OVERFLOW
BACKUP MUNICIPAL SUPPLY
Concept & Design Principles GROUND WATER
REPLENISHING
WELLS

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PRINCIPLES OF A GREEN BUILDING - WATER

SYSTEM OF RAIN WATER HARVESTING AND GREY WATER ARE


COMBINED TO ACHIEVE THE FOLLOWING:

25% OF POTABLE WATER CONSUMPTION REDUCTION

100% OF POTABLE WATER PROVIDED BY RAIN

50% REDUCTION OF SEWER QUANTITIES

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