Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 36

8 Lean Systems

For Operations Management, 9e by


PowerPoint Slides
Krajewski/Ritzman/Malhotra
by Jeff Heyl 2010 Pearson Education
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 81
Lean Systems
Lean systems affect a firms internal linkages
between its core and supporting processes and
its external linkages with its customers and
suppliers.
One of the most popular systems that
incorporate the generic elements of lean
systems is the just-in-time (JIT) system.
The Japanese term for this approach is Kaizen.
The key to kaizen is the understanding that
excess capacity or inventory hides process
problems.
The goal is to eliminate the eight types of waste.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 82


Eight Wastes
TABLE 8.1 | THE EIGHT TYPES OF WASTE OR MUDA
Waste Definition
1. Overproduction Manufacturing an item before it is needed.
2. Inappropriate Using expensive high precision equipment when simpler
Processing machines would suffice.
3. Waiting Wasteful time incurred when product is not being moved or
processed.
4. Transportation Excessive movement and material handling of product between
processes.
5. Motion Unnecessary effort related to the ergonomics of bending,
stretching, reaching, lifting, and walking.
6. Inventory Excess inventory hides problems on the shop floor, consumes
space, increases lead times, and inhibits communication.
7. Defects Quality defects result in rework and scrap, and add wasteful
costs to the system in the form of lost capacity, rescheduling
effort, increased inspection, and loss of customer good will.
8. Underutilization of Failure of the firm to learn from and capitalize on its employees
Employees knowledge and creativity impedes long term efforts to eliminate
waste.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 83


Continuous Improvement

Figure 8.1 Continuous Improvement with Lean Systems


Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 84
Supply Chain Considerations
Close supplier ties
Low levels of capacity slack or inventory
Look for ways to improve efficiency and reduce
inventories throughout the supply chain
JIT II
In-plant representative
Benefits to both buyers and suppliers

Small lot sizes


Reduce the average level of inventory
Pass through system faster
Create uniform workload and prevent overproduction
Increase setup frequency

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 85


Process Considerations

Pull method of work flow


Push method
Pull method
Quality at the source
Jidoka
Poka-yoke
Andon
Uniform workstation loads
Takt time
Heijunka
Mixed-model assembly
Lot size of one

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 86


Process Considerations

Standardized components and work


methods

Flexible workforce

Automation

Five S (5S) practices

Total Preventive Maintenance (TPM)

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 87


Five S Method

TABLE 8.2 | 5S DEFINED


5S Term 5S Defined
1. Sort Separate needed from unneeded items (including tools, parts,
materials, and paperwork), and discard the unneeded.
2. Straighten Neatly arrange what is left, with a place for everything and everything
in its place. Organize the work area so that it is easy to find what is
needed.
3. Shine Clean and wash the work area and make it shine.
4. Standardize Establish schedules and methods of performing the cleaning and
sorting. Formalize the cleanliness that results from regularly doing
the first three S practices so that perpetual cleanliness and a state of
readiness are maintained.
5. Sustain Create discipline to perform the first four S practices, whereby
everyone understands, obeys, and practices the rules when in the
plant. Implement mechanisms to sustain the gains by involving
people and recognizing them via a performance measurement system.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 88


Designing Lean System Layouts

Line flows recommended


Eliminate waste

One worker, multiple machines (OWMM)


Group technology
Group parts or products with similar
characteristics into families

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 89


One Worker Multiple Machines (OWMM)

Figure 8.2 One-Worker, Multiple-Machines (OWMM) Cell


Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 10
Group Technology
Figure 8.3 Process Flows Before and After the Use of GT Cells

Lathing Milling Drilling

L L M M D D

D D
L L M M

Grinding

L L M M
G G

L L Assembly
G G
A A

Receiving and A A G G
shipping

(a) Jumbled flows in a job shop without GT cells

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 11


Group Technology
Figure 8.3 Process Flows Before and After the Use of GT Cells

L L M D G Assembly
area
Cell 1 Cell 2 A A

Receiving L M G G

Cell 3

L M D
Shipping

(b) Line flows in a job shop with three GT cells

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 12


The Kanban System

Receiving post
Kanban card for Storage
product 1 area
Kanban card for
product 2

Empty containers

Assembly line 1

O2

Fabrication
cell
O1 O3
Assembly line 2

Full containers
O2

Figure 8.4 Single-Card Kanban System

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 13


The Kanban System

Receiving post
Kanban card for Storage
product 1 area
Kanban card for
product 2

Empty containers

Assembly line 1

O2

Fabrication
cell
O1 O3
Assembly line 2

Full containers
O2

Figure 8.4 Single-Card Kanban System

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 14


The Kanban System

Receiving post
Kanban card for Storage
product 1 area
Kanban card for
product 2

Empty containers

Assembly line 1

O2

Fabrication
cell
O1 O3
Assembly line 2

Full containers
O2

Figure 8.4 Single-Card Kanban System

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 15


The Kanban System

Receiving post
Kanban card for Storage
product 1 area
Kanban card for
product 2

Empty containers

Assembly line 1

O2

Fabrication
cell
O1 O3
Assembly line 2

Full containers
O2

Figure 8.4 Single-Card Kanban System

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 16


The Kanban System

Receiving post
Kanban card for Storage
product 1 area
Kanban card for
product 2

Empty containers

Assembly line 1

O2

Fabrication
cell
O1 O3
Assembly line 2

Full containers
O2

Figure 8.4 Single-Card Kanban System

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 17


The Kanban System

Receiving post
Kanban card for Storage
product 1 area
Kanban card for
product 2

Empty containers

Assembly line 1

O2

Fabrication
cell
O1 O3
Assembly line 2

Full containers
O2

Figure 8.4 Single-Card Kanban System

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 18


The Kanban System

Receiving post
Kanban card for Storage
product 1 area
Kanban card for
product 2

Empty containers

Assembly line 1

O2

Fabrication
cell
O1 O3
Assembly line 2

Full containers
O2

Figure 8.4 Single-Card Kanban System

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 19


The Kanban System

1. Each container must have a card

Customer:

Supplier:

Lot Quantity:

Location:

Part Number:
2. Assembly always withdraws from
fabrication (pull system)

KANBAN
3. Containers cannot be moved without a
kanban
4. Containers should contain the same
number of parts
WS 116

WS 83

Bin 47
Aisle 5

1234567Z
5. Only good parts are passed along
6. Production should not exceed
authorization
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 20
Number of Containers

Two determinations
Number of units to be held by each container
Determines lot size
Number of containers
Estimate the average lead time needed to produce a
container of parts
Littles law
Average work-in-process inventory equals the average
demand rate multiplied by the average time a unit spends
in the manufacturing process

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 21


Number of Containers
WIP = (average demand rate)
(average time a container spends in the manufacturing process)
+ safety stock

WIP = kc

kc = d (w + p )(1 + )

d (w + p )(1 + )
k= c
where
k= number of containers
d= expected daily demand for the part
w= average waiting time
p= average processing time
c= number of units in each container
= policy variable
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 22
Nmero de contenedores

Frmula para el nmero de contenedores

Demanda promedio durante el plazo de ejecucin + Stock de seguridad


k= Nmero de unidades por envase

WIP = (Tasa de demanda promedio) (tiempo promedio que en un contenedor


pasa en su proceso de fabrication) + Stock de seguridad

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 23


Determinar el nmero
adecuado de envases
EJEMPLO 8.1
La compaia de autopartes de Westerville produce conjuntos
de brazos oscilantes.
Un contenedor de piezas demora 0,02 das en su
procesamiento y de 0,08 das en la manipulacin de materiales
y tiempo de espera.
La demanda diaria para las partes es de 2.000 unidades
Stock de seguridad equivalente del 10 por ciento del
inventario
a. Si cada recipiente contiene 22 partes, cuntos recipientes
deben ser autorizados?
b. Supongamos que una propuesta para revisar la distribucin
de la planta seria cortar la manipulacin de materiales y el
tiempo de espera por contenedor a 0,06 das.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 24


Determinar el nmero
adecuado de envases
SOLUCION
a. Si d = 2,000 unidades/dia , b. Figura 8.5 desde el OM
p= 0.02 dias, Explorer ,muestra que el
= 0.10, nmero de contenedores
w= 0.08 dia, y desciende a 8.
c= 22 unidades

2,000(0.08 + 0.02)(1.10)
k=
22
220
k = = 10 contenedores
22

Figure 8.5 Solucionador OM Explorer para


determinar el Numero de
contenedores

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 25


Aplicacion 8.1

Artculo B52R tiene una demanda diaria promedio de 1000


unidades. El tiempo promedio de espera por contenedor de
piezas (el cual contiene 100 unidades) es 0.5 dias.
El tiempo de procesamiento por contenedor es 0.1 dias .
Si la variable de poltica se establece en un 10 % ,
cuntos contenedores se requieren?

d (w + p )(1 + )
k=
c
1,000(0.5 + 0.1)(1 + 0.1)
k=
100

= 6.6 o 7 contenedores

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 26


Otras seales Kanban

Las tarjetas no son la nica forma de


sealar la necesidad.

Sistema de contenedores.

Sistema sin contenedores

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 27


Mapeo del Flujo de valor (VSM)

Producto
El mapeo del Flujo de familiar
valor es una herramienta
lean cualitativa para la Dibujo del
eliminacin de residuos. estado actual

Crea un "mapa" visual de Dibujo de su


cada proceso estado futuro

involucrado en el flujo de
materiales e informacin Plan de trabajo e
en la cadena de valor de implementacion

un producto Figure 8.6 Pasos del Mapeo del Flujo


de valor

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 28


Mapeo del Flujo de valor (VSM)
Iconos del flujo de materiales
Caja de Proveedor Cuadro de Inventario
proceso /Cliente datos
(fuentes
externas)

Envo del Movimiento de Productos


camin material por terminados
empuje para el cliente

Iconos del flujo de informacin Iconos generales

Flujo de Flujo de Operador


Informacin Informacin
Manual electrnica

Figure 8.7 Conjunto seleccionado de iconos del Mapeo del Flujo de valor

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 29


Mapeo del Flujo de valor (VSM)

Figure 8.8 Un representativo mapa del estado actual para una familia de retenedores
en una empresa de fabricacin de rodamientos
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 30
Casa de Toyota

Un desafo clave es traer la filosofa


subyacente de lean a los empleados de
una manera fcil de entender
La casa transmite estabilidad.

El techo representa los objetivos


principales de: alta calidad, bajo costo,
eliminacin de residuos y plazos de
entrega cortos.

Los pilares gemelos , los cuales sostienen


el techo, representan JIT y Jidoka.
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 31
Casa de Toyota

Mxima calidad, coste mas bajo,


plazo de entrega ms corto eliminando
tiempo perdido y actividad

Jidoka
Justo a Tiempo
Cultura Parada de linea
(JIT) manual o automatica
de Mejora
Continua Operaciones
Takt time separadas del
operador y de la
Flujo de una pieza
mquina
Pull system Error-proofing
Control visual

Estabilidad operacional

Heijunka Standard Work (trabajo estandar) TPM Supply Chain (Cadena de suministro )

Figure 8.9 Casa de Toyota


Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 32
Operational Benefits and
Implementation Issues
Organizational considerations
Human costs of lean systems
Cooperation and trust
Reward systems and labor classifications

Process considerations

Inventory and scheduling


Schedule stability
Setups

Purchasing and logistics

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 33


Solved Problem
A company using a kanban system has an inefficient machine
group. For example, the daily demand for part L105A is 3,000
units. The average waiting time for a container of parts is 0.8
day. The processing time for a container of L105A is 0.2 day,
and a container holds 270 units. Currently, 20 containers are
used for this item.

a. What is the value of the policy variable, ?


b. What is the total planned inventory (work-in-process and
finished goods) for item L105A?
c. Suppose that the policy variable, , was 0. How many
containers would be needed now? What is the effect of the
policy variable in this example?

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 34


Solved Problem
SOLUTION
a. We use the equation for the number of containers and then
solve for :

d (w + p )(1 + )
k= c

3,000(0.8 + 0.2)(1 + )
=
270
so
20(27)
(1 + ) = = 1.8
3,000(0.8 + 0.2)

= 1.8 1 = 0.8

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 35


Solved Problem
b. With 20 containers in the system and each container holding
270 units, the total planned inventory is 20(270) = 5,400 units

c. If = 0
3,000(0.8 + 0.2)(1 + 0)
k=
270

= 11.11, or 12 containers

The policy variable adjusts the number of containers. In this


case, the difference is quite dramatic because w + p is fairly
large and the number of units per container is small relative to
daily demand.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 36