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Nature of Reading

- Reading, similar to listening, speaking

and writing, is a communication skill.

- Reading, is a process because it has

series of acts proceeding from one step to
the next.
Steps Involve in Reading

Perception is the step involve in reading by

which the reader perceived the written
symbols on the text through the use of his
external senses.
Comprehension is the step involve in
reading by which the reader understands the
Reaction is the step involve in reading
wherein the reader evaluates the text which
is being read.
Psychological Reading Reading
Theory Theory Strategy
Behaviorism Bottom-Up Phonics

Cognitivism Top-Down Whole

Social Interactive KWL/SQ3R
Constructivism Compensatory
Reading Theories Reading Directions

Bottom-Up Uni-directional

Top-Down Uni-directional

Interactive Bi-directional
Reading Theorists
Kenneth Goodman = Cognitivism
Reading is a psycholinguistic guessing game.

Jean Piaget = Cognitivism

assimilation is the process by which the
readers incorporate new experience into
an already existing knowledge.

accomodation is the process by which the

readers changes ones already existing
knowledge as a result of the experiences.
Rumelhart = cognitivism
schema is the building block of cognition.

Patricia Carrell = cognitivism

Two kinds of schema
formal schema = rhetorical patterns of writing
content schema = culture of the reader

Keith Stanovich = Social Constructivism

context clues can be used to compensate for
the meaning of words which we do not know.
Characteristics of the Reading Process
Reading is a complex process
Reading is a two-way process
Reading is a largely visual process
Reading is an active process
Reading makes use of a linguistic system
which enables readers to be more effective
users of written language
Effective reading is partly dependent on the
readers prior knowledge or background
Types of Reading Materials
Developmental scientifically prepared materials
which are aimed at developing reading skills

Remedial specifically prepared to help learners

overcome reading difficulties

Recreatory provide for the development of

appreciation and enjoyment of reading material

Functional provide for the development of

comprehension and utilization of skills in areas of study
Reading Developmental Stages

1. Emergent Literacy (0-5)

2. Beginning Reading (K-Grade 1)
3. Growing Independence (Grades 2-3)
4. Reading to Learn (Grades 4-6)
5. Abstract Reading (Grades 7-above)
Levels of Reading
a. Independent reading level the child can function adequately
without teacher help. Comprehension should average 90%
and word recognition should average 99%.

b. Instructional reading level the child can function adequately

with teacher guidance and yet be challenged to stimulate his
reading growth. Comprehension should average 79%
and word recognition should average 95%.

c. Frustration reading level the child cannot function adequately.

The child often shows sights of tension and discomfort.
Vocalization is often present. Comprehension average 50%
or less and word recognition average 90% or less.