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Regimenes de flujo

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Darcy Velocity

Cartesian Coordinates:

k p

u x 0.001127

u l

k p2 p1

u x 0.001127

u l

Ak p2 p1

Q 0.001127

u l

Darcys Law

Darcy Velocity

Cylindrical Coordinates:

k p A 2rh

u r 0.001127

u r

2rhk p

q 0.001127

u r

Integrate between r2(p2) and rw(pw)

kh p2 pw

q 0.00708

u r2

ln

rw

Darcys Law

Darcy or Superficial Velocity

- velocity or flowrate of fluid through

bulk porous medium

- local velocity through pore throats and

pore bodies

Flow States Steady State

pe

We never see this flow sate

In well testing even in real life

pwf

rw re

141.2qB re

p wf pe (ln 0.472 s)

kh rw

Flow States Pseudo-Steady State

(PSS)

pe(t1)

pe(t2)

pe(t3)

We see this state only in close systems. (circular, etc)

pwf(t1)

pwf(t2)

pwf(t3)

rw re

141.2qB re

p wf (t ) pe (t ) (ln 0.472 s)

kh rw

Flow States Transient

p(r,t1)

p(r,t2)

p(r,t3)

Most common.

Everything is changing with time

The profile overpressure is changing.

99.9% of the tests see this flow state.

pwf(t1)

pwf(t2)

pwf(t3)

rw re

141.2qB 1 0.0002637kt

p wf pi ( ln s)

kh 2 ct rw 2

One Dimensional Flow Geometries

Linear Flow

(between parallel planes)

Spherical Flow (to a line)

(to a point)

Linear flow

Linear Flow of Incompressible Fluids, Steady-State

p1 p dp p2

A

Q

0 dx L

x

With the velocity the same at all points, meaning no flow across side boundaries

constant cross-section, and both ends entirely open to flow, the velocity is:

qB k dp

v 0.001127

Ac dx

Linear Flow

Linear Flow of Incompressible Fluids, Steady-State

p1 p dp p2

A

Q

0 x dx L

Integrating over the length of the section, we get

qB L k p2

dx 0.001127 dp

Ac 0 p1

kAc p1 p2

q 0.001127

BL

Linear Flow

Linear Flow of Incompressible Fluids, Steady-State

For a 500 md reservoir under a 100 psi pressure differential, a 1.6 cp oil, a

100 ft length, a formation volume factor of 1.486 bbl/STB, and a 200 ft2

cross-sectional area, the flow rate through the reservoir is:

kAc p1 p2

q 0.001127

BL

q 0.001127

1.486 * 1.6 * 100

Linear Flow

Linear Flow of Slightly Compressible Fluids, Steady-State

p1 p dp p2

A

Q

0 x dx L

Volume of a slightly compressible fluid increases as pressure decreases, and qR is

the flow rate at a reference pressure

qB qR 1 c pR p

qR L k p2 dp

dx 0.001127

Ac 0 p1 1 c pR p

Linear Flow

Linear Flow of Slightly Compressible Fluids, Steady-State

p1 p dp p2

A

Q

0 x dx L

0.001127kAc

qR ln 1 c p2 p1

Lc

Linear Flow

Linear Flow of Slightly Compressible Fluids, Steady-State

For a 500 md reservoir under a 100 psi pressure differential, a 1.6 cp oil, a

100 ft length, a formation volume factor of 1.486 bbl/STB, and a 200 ft2

cross-sectional area, a constant compressibility of 11.18E-6 psia-1

referenced to the upstream pressure, the flow rate through the reservoir is:

0.001127kAc

qR ln 1 c p2 p1

Lc

0.001127500200

qR

1.6 *100 *11.18E 6

ln 1 11.18E 6

100

qR 70.4 bbl/day

Linear Flow

Linear Flow of Compressible Fluids, Steady-State

p1 p dp p2

A

Q

0 x dx L

For compressible fluids such as gases, the velocity of the fluid at the downstream

end is higher than at the upstream end do to expansion of the gas from the drop

in pressure. The flow at any cross-section, x, with a pressure, p, and using the gas

formation volume factor Bg as follows:

qpscTz

qBg

5.615Tsc p

0.001127kAc

qR p1 p 2

Lc

Linear Flow

Linear Flow of Compressible Fluids, Steady-State

p1 p dp p2

A

Q

0 x dx L

Substituting into Darcys Law, separating variables and integrating:

qpscTz

L p2

1 2

dx pdp p1 p22

5.615 0.001127 kTsc Ac 0 p1 2

q

0.003164Tsc Ac k p12 p22

pscTzL

Linear Flow

Linear Flow of Compressible Fluids, Steady-State

For a 500 md gas reservoir under a 100 psi pressure differential, from 2500

psia to 2400 psia, a 100 ft length, a z-factor of 0.92, and a 200 ft2 cross-

sectional area, a temperature of 138 oF, a gas viscosity of 0.015 cP, the

flow rate through the reservoir is:

q

0.003164Tsc Ac k p12 p22

pscTzL

q

0.00316460 460 200 500 2500 2 2400 2

14.7 460 138 0.92 * 100 * 0.015

Radial Flow

Radial Flow of Incompressible Fluids, Steady-state

pw

pe

k

h

rw

re

qB qB k dp

v 0.001127

Ac 2rh dr

Radial Flow

Radial Flow of Incompressible Fluids, Steady-state

pw

pe

k

h

rw

re

0.00708 kh pe pw

q

B ln re r

w

Radial Flow

Radial Flow of Incompressible Fluids, Steady-state

For a 500 md reservoir under a 100 psi pressure differential, a 1.6 cp oil, a

100 ft length, a formation volume factor of 1.486 bbl/STB, a wellbore

radius of 0.5 ft, an outer radius of 100 ft, and a 20 ft thick reservoir, the

flow rate through the reservoir is:

0.00708 kh pe pw

q

B ln re r

w

q

1.6 * 1.486 * ln 100

0.5

q 562 STB / day

Radial Flow

Radial Flow of Incompressible Fluids, Steady-state

For a 500 md reservoir under a 100 psi pressure differential, a 1.6 cp oil, a

100 ft length, a formation volume factor of 1.486 bbl/STB, a inner radius

of 500 ft, an outer radius of 600 ft, and a 20 ft thick reservoir, the flow rate

through the reservoir is:

0.00708 kh pe pw

q

B ln re r

w

q

1.6 * 1.486 * ln 600

500

q 16333 STB / day

Radial Flow

Radial Flow of Slightly Compressible Fluids, Steady-state

pw

qR 1 c pR p pe

qB

2rh

k

h

rw

re

ln 1 c p2 p1

0.00708kh

qR

c ln r2 r

1

Radial Flow

Radial Flow of Slightly Compressible Fluids, Steady-state

For a 500 md reservoir under a 100 psi pressure differential, a 1.6 cp oil, a

100 ft length, a formation volume factor of 1.486 bbl/STB, a wellbore

radius of 0.5 ft, an outer radius of 100 ft, a compressibility of 11.18E-6

psia-1, and a 20 ft thick reservoir, the flow rate through the reservoir is:

ln 1 c p2 p1

0.00708kh

qR

c ln r2 r

1

0.00708 * 500 * 20

ln 1 11.18E 6 100

qR

1.6 *11.18E 6 * ln 100 0.5

qR 835 bbl / day

Radial Flow

Radial Flow of Compressible Fluids, Steady-state

qpscTz pw

qBg pe

5.615Tsc p

qpscTz k dp k

0.00127 h

5.615Tsc p2rh dr

rw

Substituting into Darcys Law, separating variables and integrating:

re

qpscTz

r2 p2

dr 1 2

pdp p1 p22

5.6150.001127 2 Tsc kh r1 r p1 2

Radial Flow

Radial Flow of Compressible Fluids, Steady-state

pw

pe

k

h

rw

re

q

0.01988Tsc kh p12 p22

pscTz ln 2

r

r1

Radial Flow

Radial Flow of Compressible Fluids, Steady-state

For a 500 md gas reservoir under a 100 psi pressure differential, from 1000

psia to 900 psia, a 100 ft length, a z-factor of 0.92, a 20 ft reservoir

thickness, a temperature of 138 oF, a gas viscosity of 0.015 cP, a wellbore

radius of 0.5 ft, and an outer radius of 100 ft, the flow rate through the

reservoir is:

0.01988Tsc kh p12 p22

q

pscTz ln 2

r

r1

q

0.01988 * 560 * 500 * 20 1000 2 900 2

14.7 * 598 * 0.015 * 0.92 ln 100

0.5

q 32.9 MMscf

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