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# Basic Concepts

Darcy Velocity
Cartesian Coordinates:

k p
u x 0.001127
u l

k p2 p1
u x 0.001127
u l

Ak p2 p1
Q 0.001127
u l
Darcys Law
Darcy Velocity
Cylindrical Coordinates:

k p A 2rh
u r 0.001127
u r
2rhk p
q 0.001127
u r
Integrate between r2(p2) and rw(pw)
kh p2 pw
q 0.00708
u r2
ln
rw
Darcys Law
Darcy or Superficial Velocity
- velocity or flowrate of fluid through
bulk porous medium

## Interstitial or Pore Velocity

- local velocity through pore throats and
pore bodies
pe

## Nothing changes with time

We never see this flow sate
In well testing even in real life

pwf

rw re

## Pressure profile does not change with time.

141.2qB re
p wf pe (ln 0.472 s)
kh rw
(PSS)
pe(t1)
pe(t2)
pe(t3)

## The shape of the curve never changes.

We see this state only in close systems. (circular, etc)

pwf(t1)
pwf(t2)
pwf(t3)
rw re

## Pressure profile shape does not change with time.

141.2qB re
p wf (t ) pe (t ) (ln 0.472 s)
kh rw
Flow States Transient

p(r,t1)
p(r,t2)
p(r,t3)

Most common.
Everything is changing with time
The profile overpressure is changing.
99.9% of the tests see this flow state.
pwf(t1)
pwf(t2)
pwf(t3)
rw re

## Pressure profile changes with time.

141.2qB 1 0.0002637kt
p wf pi ( ln s)
kh 2 ct rw 2
One Dimensional Flow Geometries

Linear Flow
(between parallel planes)

Spherical Flow (to a line)
(to a point)
Linear flow
Linear Flow of Incompressible Fluids, Steady-State

p1 p dp p2

A
Q

0 dx L
x
With the velocity the same at all points, meaning no flow across side boundaries
constant cross-section, and both ends entirely open to flow, the velocity is:

qB k dp
v 0.001127
Ac dx
Linear Flow
Linear Flow of Incompressible Fluids, Steady-State
p1 p dp p2

A
Q

0 x dx L
Integrating over the length of the section, we get

qB L k p2
dx 0.001127 dp
Ac 0 p1

kAc p1 p2
q 0.001127
BL
Linear Flow
Linear Flow of Incompressible Fluids, Steady-State
For a 500 md reservoir under a 100 psi pressure differential, a 1.6 cp oil, a
100 ft length, a formation volume factor of 1.486 bbl/STB, and a 200 ft2
cross-sectional area, the flow rate through the reservoir is:

kAc p1 p2
q 0.001127
BL

## 500 * 200 * 100

q 0.001127
1.486 * 1.6 * 100

## q 47.4 STB / day

Linear Flow
Linear Flow of Slightly Compressible Fluids, Steady-State
p1 p dp p2

A
Q

0 x dx L
Volume of a slightly compressible fluid increases as pressure decreases, and qR is
the flow rate at a reference pressure
qB qR 1 c pR p

qR L k p2 dp
dx 0.001127
Ac 0 p1 1 c pR p
Linear Flow
Linear Flow of Slightly Compressible Fluids, Steady-State
p1 p dp p2

A
Q

0 x dx L

0.001127kAc
qR ln 1 c p2 p1
Lc
Linear Flow
Linear Flow of Slightly Compressible Fluids, Steady-State
For a 500 md reservoir under a 100 psi pressure differential, a 1.6 cp oil, a
100 ft length, a formation volume factor of 1.486 bbl/STB, and a 200 ft2
cross-sectional area, a constant compressibility of 11.18E-6 psia-1
referenced to the upstream pressure, the flow rate through the reservoir is:

0.001127kAc
qR ln 1 c p2 p1
Lc

0.001127500200
qR
1.6 *100 *11.18E 6
ln 1 11.18E 6
100

qR 70.4 bbl/day
Linear Flow
Linear Flow of Compressible Fluids, Steady-State
p1 p dp p2

A
Q

0 x dx L
For compressible fluids such as gases, the velocity of the fluid at the downstream
end is higher than at the upstream end do to expansion of the gas from the drop
in pressure. The flow at any cross-section, x, with a pressure, p, and using the gas
formation volume factor Bg as follows:
qpscTz
qBg
5.615Tsc p
0.001127kAc
qR p1 p 2
Lc
Linear Flow
Linear Flow of Compressible Fluids, Steady-State
p1 p dp p2

A
Q

0 x dx L
Substituting into Darcys Law, separating variables and integrating:
qpscTz

L p2
1 2
dx pdp p1 p22

5.615 0.001127 kTsc Ac 0 p1 2

q

0.003164Tsc Ac k p12 p22
pscTzL
Linear Flow
Linear Flow of Compressible Fluids, Steady-State
For a 500 md gas reservoir under a 100 psi pressure differential, from 2500
psia to 2400 psia, a 100 ft length, a z-factor of 0.92, and a 200 ft2 cross-
sectional area, a temperature of 138 oF, a gas viscosity of 0.015 cP, the
flow rate through the reservoir is:

q

0.003164Tsc Ac k p12 p22
pscTzL

q

0.00316460 460 200 500 2500 2 2400 2
14.7 460 138 0.92 * 100 * 0.015

## q 6.65 MMscf / day

pw
pe

k
h

rw
re
qB qB k dp
v 0.001127
Ac 2rh dr

pw
pe

k
h

rw
re
0.00708 kh pe pw
q
B ln re r
w

For a 500 md reservoir under a 100 psi pressure differential, a 1.6 cp oil, a
100 ft length, a formation volume factor of 1.486 bbl/STB, a wellbore
radius of 0.5 ft, an outer radius of 100 ft, and a 20 ft thick reservoir, the
flow rate through the reservoir is:

0.00708 kh pe pw
q
B ln re r
w

## 0.00708 * 500 * 20100

q
1.6 * 1.486 * ln 100
0.5

q 562 STB / day

For a 500 md reservoir under a 100 psi pressure differential, a 1.6 cp oil, a
100 ft length, a formation volume factor of 1.486 bbl/STB, a inner radius
of 500 ft, an outer radius of 600 ft, and a 20 ft thick reservoir, the flow rate
through the reservoir is:
0.00708 kh pe pw
q
B ln re r
w

## 0.00708 * 500 * 20100

q
1.6 * 1.486 * ln 600
500

q 16333 STB / day

pw
qR 1 c pR p pe
qB
2rh
k
h

rw
re

ln 1 c p2 p1
0.00708kh
qR
c ln r2 r
1

For a 500 md reservoir under a 100 psi pressure differential, a 1.6 cp oil, a
100 ft length, a formation volume factor of 1.486 bbl/STB, a wellbore
radius of 0.5 ft, an outer radius of 100 ft, a compressibility of 11.18E-6
psia-1, and a 20 ft thick reservoir, the flow rate through the reservoir is:

ln 1 c p2 p1
0.00708kh
qR
c ln r2 r
1
0.00708 * 500 * 20

ln 1 11.18E 6 100
qR
1.6 *11.18E 6 * ln 100 0.5

qR 835 bbl / day

qpscTz pw
qBg pe
5.615Tsc p

qpscTz k dp k
0.00127 h
5.615Tsc p2rh dr
rw
Substituting into Darcys Law, separating variables and integrating:
re

qpscTz

r2 p2
dr 1 2
pdp p1 p22
5.6150.001127 2 Tsc kh r1 r p1 2

pw
pe

k
h

rw
re

q

0.01988Tsc kh p12 p22
pscTz ln 2
r
r1
For a 500 md gas reservoir under a 100 psi pressure differential, from 1000
psia to 900 psia, a 100 ft length, a z-factor of 0.92, a 20 ft reservoir
thickness, a temperature of 138 oF, a gas viscosity of 0.015 cP, a wellbore
radius of 0.5 ft, and an outer radius of 100 ft, the flow rate through the

reservoir is:
0.01988Tsc kh p12 p22
q
pscTz ln 2
r
r1

q

0.01988 * 560 * 500 * 20 1000 2 900 2
14.7 * 598 * 0.015 * 0.92 ln 100
0.5

q 32.9 MMscf