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INSPECTION OF FIRE FIGHTING

EQUIPMENT, TOOLS, DEVICES,


VEHICLES & APPARATUS
(NFPA REGULATIONS)
Introduction to Fire Hazards and Fire
Risk Assessment
Occidental's Piper Alpha platform was destroyed
by explosion and fire in 1988. 167 workers were
killed in the blaze.
A support vessel collided with Mumbai High North in
2005, rupturing a riser and causing a major fire
that destroyed the platform.
BP, Texas 2005
The April 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon blow-out
disaster
Principles of fire and explosion
The fire triangle
Stages of combustion
Classifications of dangerous substances
Flammable & Combustible Substance
Flammable liquids
Combustible liquids
Fire growth rates
Category Fire Examples
growth
rate
1 Slow Open plan office with limited combustible
materials, stored or used
2 Medium Warehouse which is likely to have stacked
cardboard boxes, wooden pallets
3 Fast Production unit/warehouse baled thermoplastic
chips for packaging, stacked plasticproducts, baled
clothing awaiting delivery
4 Ultra- Production unit/warehouse flammable liquids,
fast expanded cellular plastics and foam
Manufacturing, processing, repairing, cleaning or
otherwise treating any hazardous goods or materials
Factors affecting the growth rate
Construction and layout of the building
Ventilation into, throughout and out of the building
Use of the building (including the types of activity
being undertaken)
Fire loading within the building.
Types of fire accidents
Explosion

An abrupt oxidation, or decomposition reaction,


that produces an increase in temperature, or
pressure, or in both temperature and pressure
simultaneously.
Explosive atmosphere

flammable substances in the form of gases, vapors,


mists or dusts mixed with air under atmospheric
conditions, which, after ignition has occurred,
combustion spreads to the entire unburned mixture.
Deflagration

Combustion wave propagating from an explosion


at subsonic velocity relative to the unburnt gas
immediately ahead of the flame (flame front).
Detonation

A combustion wave propagating from an explosion


at supersonic velocity relative to the unburnt gas
immediately ahead of the flame (flame front).
BLEVE boiling liquid expanding
vapor explosion

An explosion due to the flashing of liquids when a


vessel with a high vapor pressure substance fails.
CGE confined gas explosion

Explosion within tanks, process equipment, sewage


systems, underground installations, closed rooms,
etc.
UVCE Unconfined Vapor Cloud
Explosion

A vapor/gas explosion (deflagration or


detonation) in an unconfined, unobstructed cloud.
The mechanism of explosion

A dust explosion occurs when a combustible


material is dispersed within the air forming a
flammable cloud, this allows the flame to
propagate through it.
A gas explosion follows a very similar principle
when gas and oxygen are premixed within
explosive limits
Explosive limits and the flammable/explosion
range
Deflagration, detonation and explosive
atmospheres

When a cloud is ignited the flame can propagate


in two different modes through it. These modes are:
Deflagration
Detonation.
Lower explosion limit (LEL

The minimum concentration of vapour in air below


which the propagation of flame will not occur in
the presence of an ignition source. Also referred to
as the lower flammable limit or the lower explosive
limit.
Upper explosion limit (UEL)

The maximum concentration of vapor in air above


which the propagation of flame will not occur in
the presence of an ignition source. Also referred to
as the upper flammable limit or the upper
explosive limit.
Explosive conditions

The types of materials that often cause dust


explosions include:
Coal and peat
Metals such as iron, zinc, aluminium
Natural organic materials such as grain,
linen,sugar, etc.
Processed materials such as plastics, organic
pigments (paint), pesticides, etc.
Creating an explosive atmosphere

The presence of a flammable substance


The degree of dispersion of the flammable
substance (this will vary dependent upon its state
dusts, gases, vapours and mists)
The concentration of the flammable substance in
air within the explosive range
Confined explosion within a tank
Ignition sources

Hot surfaces
Naked fl ames and other hot gases
Mechanically generated sparks
Electrical equipment
Static electricity
Lightning
Radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic waves
Ionising radiation.
unconfined vapor cloud
explosions,
Principles of explosion management

Control
Design and construction equipment, protective
systems and system components
Dilution by ventilation
Mitigation (Explosion venting)
Plant layout and classification of
zones
Plant layout and classification of
zones
Fire hazard identification

Combustion of Gases
Explosive Risk
Flammable Gas Risk
Toxic Gas Risk
Fire Explosion Mitigation
Passive fire protection (barriers and special
coatings)
Containment and spill control
- Isolation valves
- Blowdown/ Depressurization
- fire divisions
- limiting and controlling spills and releases
Water deluge and pray systems
Water monitor system
Fire Explosion Mitigation
Foam system
Dry chemicals

Water mist system

Gas dispersion with water spray

Portable firefighting equipment

- Extinguishers
- Hand hold nozzles
- Monitors/ Cameras
- breathing apparatus
Firefighting (FIFI) tugs
Alarm Levels

Workers are often under risk of gas exposure in


situations where atmospheres cannot be controlled,
such as in confined space entry applications where
alarming at TWA values would be inappropriate.
Gas Detection Systems
Catalytic gas detection
Infra red gas detection
Smoke detection
Incipient fire detection
Flame detection
Gas Detection Systems
Fixed gas detectors can be positioned in strategic
zones, for example in confined spaces or hot work
areas
Most gas detectors should be calibrated every six
months to ensure optimum operation. However, a
new range of IR (infrared) detectors allow users to
extend maintenance checks to once every 12 months
Future Trends
It is likely that both portable and fixed hydrocarbon
gas detectors will use IR sensors rather than the
traditional catalytic bead (pellistor) sensors
currently used in most detectors.
Sensor technologies such as PID (photo-ionisation)
are being used more commonly as requirements for
monitoring levels of VOCs (volatile organic
compounds) in industry increase.
Future Trends
Optical sensing developments and solid-electrolyte
sensors will provide solutions in toxic gas and
oxygen sensing applications where traditional
electrochemical cells have operating limitations
Fixed detection systems will also continue to utilize a
variety of technologies (such as point-type
detectors, open-path detectors, acoustic sensors and
even gas cameras) for the most comprehensive
coverage. Wireless connectivity will replace cables
in some applications.
The five steps of Fire and Explosion
Hazard Management FEHM

Step 1: Reviewing fire and explosion scenarios that


can occur
Step 2: Reviewing different policies to reduce fire
and explosion risk
Step 3: Decide which policy is the most appropriate
Step 4: Implement and maintain policy
Step 5: Update policy according to change in
facilities or operating environment
Fire Risk Assessment Process

Look for the hazards


Decide who might be harmed and how
Evaluate the risks and decide whether the existing
precautions are adequate or whether more should
be done
Record your findings
Review your assessment and revise if necessary.
Fire Risk Assessment Process
Gaseous Extinguishing Agent Systems
Gaseous Extinguishing Agent Systems

A gas extinguishing system is a fire extinguishing


system that extinguishes fire with the help of a
gaseous extinguishing agent either through oxygen
displacement (reduction of oxygen content) or
physical effects (heat extraction).
In contrast to a sprinkler system, a gas extinguishing
system is designed to extinguish and not only
suppress fire.
AREAS OF USE
IT systems and computer rooms
Archive rooms, document safes
Emergency call centres, flight navigation and control towers,
mobile phone transmitter stations.
Art galleries, libraries, film projector rooms, museums
Medical sector: imaging systems, operating rooms, mobile
stations
Industrial facilities such as laboratories, control rooms, offshore
drilling platforms, robotic equipment
Emergency power generators, battery compartments, low-
voltage compartments, cable compartments, etc.
Flight simulators, ships, military vehicles
EXTINGUISHING AGENT
Oxygen-displacing extinguishing gases - inert gases and
carbon dioxide (CO2)
Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Argon - IG-01

Nitrogen - IG-100

Argonite - IG-55

Inergen - IG-541

Chemically-acting extinguishing gases


Novec 1230 (Keton)

FM 200 (HFC227ea)

HFC-125

FE-13
Dry Chemical Systems
NFPA 17
Introduction

Dry chemical is an excellent extinguishing agent due


to its rapid flame suppressing capability on
hydrocarbon, three-dimensional and natural gas
pressure fires.
Applications for DC Units and
Systems
Compressor Stations
Oil and Gas Well Servicing
Drilling Operations
Off-Shore Platforms
Fuel Loading Racks
Storage Tank Vents
Electrical Transformers
Chemical and Petro-Chemical Plants
Storage Facilities
Airports and Heliports
Manufacturing Facilities
DETERMINING REQUIREMENTS

The first steps in determining the requirements for a


Dry Chemical System is to identify the hazard, size
of hazard and any conditions requiring special
consideration such as wind exposure or objects
blocking discharge of agent to the hazard.
COMMON TYPES OF FIRE HAZARDS

Spill Fires
Liquid in Depth
Three Dimensional Fires
Pressure Fires
Class A Fires
TYPE OF EQUIPMENT AND
APPLICATION
The type of system required (handline application, total
flooding, manual, semi automatic or full automatic) is
normally a judgment call based on the following:
Is the facility manned full time?
Are experienced fire-fighting personnel available at all
times?
Visibility of hazard in the event of fire.
Power source available for automatic system?
Hazard to personnel that might be in area during?
Discharge of equipment?
Obstacles which would prevent extinguishment using
handlines.
When Hand line Protection is Used

The unit must have the capacity to maintain flow


through the hand lines for a minimum of 30 seconds.
A fixed system providing total flooding must
maintain flow for a minimum time of 30 seconds
Types of dry chemical powder
PK Potassium Bicarbonate Based is a premium
powder suitable for use in high-risk areas
BC Dry Chemical Powder Mixture of sodium
bicarbonate, silicates and stearates.
Data for dry chemical unit method of figuring
dry chemical agent requirements for specific
hazards
Unit Size Capacity (lbs.) BC Capacity (lbs.) Max Flow Rate Max Flow Rate (lbs./sec.) DISCHARGE
PK/ABC (lbs./sec.) BC PK/ABC OPENING Inch.

CDC200 230 200 7.5 6.5 1-1/2

CDC500 600 500 20 16 2

CDC1000 1200 1050 40 35 2-1/2

CDC1500 1550 1400 50 45 2-1/2

CDC2000 2100 1850 70 60 3

CDC2500 2600 2300 85 75 3

CDC3000 3000 2750 100 90 3

CDC3500 3500 3100 115 100 3

CDC4000 4000 3750 140 125 4

CDC4500 4500 4050 150 135 4

CDC5000 5000 4500 170 150 4


Dry Chemical Units System Performance On
Hydrocarbon Fires
NFPA 17 Requires minimum of discharge time
The types of hazards
Flammable or combustible liquids
Flammable or combustible gases
Combustible solids including plastics, which melt when
involved in fire
Electrical hazards such as oil-filled transformers or
circuit breakers
Textile operations subject to flash surface fires
Ordinary combustibles such as wood, paper, or cloth
Restaurant and commercial hoods, ducts, and
associated cooking appliance hazards such as deep-fat
fryers
5.1.2 Limitations
DC extinguishing systems shall not be considered satisfactory
protection for the following:
Chemicals containing their own oxygen supply, such as cellulose

nitrate
Combustible metals such as sodium, potassium, magnesium,

titanium, and zirconium


Deep-seated or burrowing fires in ordinary combustibles where

the dry chemical cannot reach the point of combustion


Delicate electrical equipment

The minimum temperature limitation shall be at most 32F (0C).

The maximum temperature limitation shall be at least 120F

(48.9C)
Multiple Systems Protecting a
Common Hazard.
two or more systems are used to protect a common
hazard, they shall be arranged for simultaneous
operation.
Operation of a single actuator shall cause all
systems to operate.
Systems Protecting Two or More
Hazards.
Where two or more hazards could be
simultaneously involved in fire by reason of their
proximity, the hazards shall be protected by either
of the following:
(1) Individual systems installed to operate
simultaneously
(2) A single system designed to protect all hazards
that could be simultaneously involved
Dry Chemical Requirements and
Distribution.
The following factors shall be considered in
determining the amount of dry chemical required:
(1) Minimum quantity of dry chemical
(2) Minimum flow rate of dry chemical
(3) Nozzle placement limitations, including spacing,
distribution, and obstructions
(4) High ventilation rates, if applicable
(5) Prevailing wind conditions, if applicable
5.5 Special Considerations
Ensuring shutoff of power and fuel valves upon
operation of the extinguishing systems.
Conveyors moving flammable or combustible materials
or commodities, shall be automatically shut off upon
operation of the extinguishing systems.
All shutoff systems shall be fail-safe.
All shutoff systems shall require manual resetting prior
to restoration of the operating conditions existing
before operation of the extinguishing systems.
All shutoff devices shall function with the system
operation
5.6* Personnel Safety
(1) Personnel training
(2) Warning signs
(3) Predischarge alarms
(4) Discharge alarms
(5) Respiratory protection
5.6.2 Electrical Clearances
The following references shall be considered as the
minimum electrical clearance requirements for the
installation of dry chemical systems:
(1) ANSI C-2, National Electrical Safety Code
(2) NFPA 70, National Electrical Code
(3) 29 CFR 1910 S
5.7* Operation and Control of
Systems
5.7.1 Methods of Actuation
Systems shall be provided with both automatic and
manual independent means of operation
All operating devices shall be designed, located,
installed, or protected so that they are not subject
to mechanical, environmental, or other conditions
that could render them inoperative
the manual actuation device shall be installed no
more than 48 in. and no less than 42 in. above the
floor.
5.7.3* Notification
An audible or visual indicator shall be provided to
show that the system has operated, that personnel
response might be needed, and that the system is in
need of recharge.
Connection to the Alarm System
The extinguishing system shall be connected to the
fire alarm system, if provided, in accordance with
the requirements of NFPA 72
Piping & Nozzles
For engineered systems, pipe sizes and nozzles shall be
selected, on the basis of calculations, to deliver the
required dry chemical flow rate at each nozzle.
For pre-engineered systems, pipe sizes and nozzles
shall be selected in accordance with the manufacturers
listed installation and maintenance manual
All discharge nozzles shall be designed and
subsequently located, installed, and protected so that
they are not subject to mechanical, environmental, or
other conditions that could render them inoperative.
Hand Hose Line Systems
Dry chemical hand hose line systems shall be
provided with turrets, skid-mounted hose reels,
remote hose reels, or combinations thereof.
If multiple cylinders are used to pressurize the dry
chemical agent containers, each cylinder shall be
provided with a pressure gauge and a manual
means of operation.
System Operational Tests
System operational tests shall be performed in
accordance with the manufacturers design,
installation, and maintenance manual and shall
include functional tests of the automatic detection
system, the manual release devices, and
shutdown devices, where provided.
The installing contractor shall complete and sign an
acceptance test report acceptable to the authority
having jurisdiction.
Inspection, Maintenance, and
Recharging

Storage shall be in a constantly dry area, and the


dry chemical shall be contained in metal drums .
A service technician who performs maintenance on
an extinguishing system shall be certified after
passing a written test.
A service technician shall service the dry chemical
fire-extinguishing system at intervals no more than 6
months apart
Recharge Agents
Dry chemical provided for the system shall be
listed for the system.
Expellant gas for stored pressure cylinders shall be
standard industrial-grade nitrogen with a dew point
of 60F (51C) or lower (CGA nitrogen
specification G10.1).
Where carbon dioxide or nitrogen is used as the
expellant gas, it shall be of good commercial grade
and free of water and other contaminants that
might cause container corrosion.
Owners Inspection
On a monthly basis, inspection shall be conducted in
accordance with the manufacturers design, installation,
and maintenance manual or the owners manual.
As a minimum, inspection shall include verification of the
following:
(1) The extinguishing system is in its proper location. (2)
The manual actuators are unobstructed.
(3) The tamper indicators and seals are intact.
(4) The maintenance tag or certificate is in place.
(5) The system shows no physical damage or condition
that might prevent operation.
Owners Inspection
(6) The pressure gauge(s), if provided, is inspected
physically or electrically to ensure it is in the operable
range.
(7) The nozzle blowoff caps, where provided, are intact and
undamaged.
(8) Neither the protected equipment nor the hazard has
been replaced, modified, or relocated.
Personnel making inspections shall keep records for those
extinguishing systems that were found to require corrective
actions.
The records shall be retained until the next semiannual
maintenance.
Maintenance
At least semiannually and after any system activation, maintenance
shall be conducted in accordance with the manufacturers design,
installation, and maintenance manual.
As a minimum, such maintenance shall include thefollowing:
(1) A check to see that the hazard has not changed
(2) An examination of all detectors, expellant gas container( s),
agent container(s), releasing devices, piping, hose assemblies,
nozzles, signals, and all auxiliary equipment
(3)*Verification that the agent distribution piping is not obstructed
(4) Examination of the dry chemical (If there is evidence of caking,
the dry chemical shall be discarded and the system shall be
recharged in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.)
Maintenance
Dry chemical in stored pressure systems shall not require
semiannual examination but shall be examined at least
every 6 years.
Dry chemical containers that pass the applicable 6-year
requirement of 11.3.1.2 shall have the maintenance
information recorded on a durable weatherproof label that
is a minimum size of 2 in. 312 in. (51 mm 89 mm)
The label shall include the following information:
(1) Month and year the maintenance was performed,
indicated by a perforation such as done by a hand punch
(2) Name or initials of the person performing the
maintenance and the name of the agency performing the
maintenance
Maintenance
Each system container that has undergone maintenance
that includes internal examination or has been
recharged shall have a verification-of-service collar
located around the neck of the container.
The collar shall include the following information:
(1) Month and year the service was performed,
indicated by a perforation such as done by a hand
punch
(2) Name of the agency performing the maintenance or
recharge
Maintenance
Where maintenance of any dry chemical containers
or any system components reveals conditions such
as, but not limited to, corrosion or pitting in excess
of the manufacturers limits; structural damage; fire
damage; or repairs by soldering, welding, or
brazing, the affected container shall be replaced or
hydrostatically
Until such repairs are accomplished, the system(s)
shall be tagged as noncompliant, and after repair
parties shall be informed.
Maintenance
Pressure regulators shall be operationally checked at
least annually.
Defective regulator(s) shall not be adjusted but shall be
replaced
The maintenance report, including any
recommendations, shall be filed with the owner or with
the owners representative.
The owner or owners representative shall retain all
maintenance reports for a period of 1 year after the
next maintenance of that type required by this
standard.
Maintenance
Fixed temperature-sensing elements of the fusible
metal alloy type shall be replaced at least
semiannually from the date of installation.
Heat detectors other than metal alloytype fusible
links shall be permitted to remain continuously in
service, provided they are inspected, cleaned, and
tested,
Recharging
All extinguishing systems shall be recharged after use
or as indicated by an inspection or a maintenance check
in accordance with the manufacturers design,
installation, and maintenance manual.
The following parts of dry chemical extinguishing
systems shall be subjected to a hydrostatic pressure test
at intervals not exceeding 12 years:
(1) Dry chemical containers
(2) Auxiliary pressure containers
(3) Hose assemblies
Recharging
No leakage, rupture, or movement of hose couplings
shall be permitted.
The pressure in a hydrostatic test of a cylinder shall
be maintained for a minimum of 30 seconds but for
no less time than is required for complete expansion
of the cylinder and to complete the visual
examination of the cylinder.
Firewater Systems
General Requirements

The building owner shall ensure that all areas of the


building containing water-filled piping shall be
maintained at a minimum temperature of 40F (4.4C)
and not exposed to freezing conditions.
Inspection, testing, and maintenance shall be performed
by personnel who have developed competence through
training and experience.
Accessibility..
Notification of System Shutdown.
Changes in Occupancy, Use, Process, or Materials.
Re-evaluation
(1) Occupancy changes such as converting office or
production space into warehousing
(2) Process or material changes such as metal
stamping to molded plastics
(3) Building revisions such as relocated walls, added
mezzanines, and ceilings added below sprinklers
(4) Removal of heating systems in spaces with
piping subject to freezing
Addressing Changes in Hazard
In case of any change, the owner or his
representative shall promptly take steps to evaluate
the adequacy of the installed system in order to
protect the building or hazard in question.
Corrections shall be approved
Valve Location.
The location of shutoff valves shall be identified.
Information Sign.

The sign shall indicate at least the following


information:
(1) Location of the area served by the system
(2) Location of auxiliary drains and low-point drains
for dry pipe and preaction systems
(3) The presence and location of antifreeze or other
auxiliary systems
(4) The presence and location(s) of heat tape
Records
Records shall indicate the procedure performed
(e.g., inspection, test, or maintenance), the
organization that performed the work, the results,
and the date.
Records shall be maintained by the property owner.
Testing
All components and systems shall be tested to verify
that they function as intended.
Test results shall be compared with those of the
original acceptance test (if available) and with the
most recent test results.
Foam System
System Components and System
Types
All components shall be listed for their intended use.
Water Supplies
Quality & Quantity
Pressure.(the minimum pressure for which the
system has been designed)
Temperature (water at temperatures between 4C
(40F) and 37.8C (100F).
Design. The water system shall be designed and
installed in accordance with NFPA 24.
Storage Water supply or premixed solution shall be
protected against freezing
Water and Foam Concentrate Pumps.

When water or foam concentrate pumps are


required for automatic foam system operation, they
shall be designed and installed in accordance with
NFPA 20.
Controllers in accordance with NFPA 20 shall not be
required for manual systems.
Foam Concentrates
Foam concentrate shall be listed and be one of the
following types:
1. Protein
2. Fluoroprotein
3. Aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF)
4. Film-forming fluoroprotein (FFFP)
5. Alcohol-resistant
6. High-expansion
7. Medium-expansion
8. Others listed for this purpose
Concentrate Storage.
shall be stored in a location not exposed to the
hazard they protect and in a noncombustible
structure.
Bulk liquid storage tanks shall be fabricated from or
be lined with materials compatible with the
concentrate.
The storage tank shall be designed to minimize
evaporation of foam concentrate.
Foam Proportioning
The method of foam proportioning shall conform to one
of the following:
1. Self-educting nozzle
2. In-line eductor
3. Pressure proportioners (with or without bladder)
4. Around-the-pump proportioners
5. Direct injection variable output foam pump system
6. Coupled-water motor pump
7. Balanced pressure pump-type proportioners
Foam Concentrate Pumps.
The design and materials of construction for foam
concentrate pumps shall be in accordance with
NFPA 20.
Piping.
Pipe Materials. Pipe within the hazard area shall be of
steel or other alloy rated for the pressure and
temperature involved.
Shall conform to one of the following standards:
1. ASTM (American Society for Testing Matwerial) A
135
2. ASTM A 53
3. ASTM A 795
Galvanized pipe shall be used for noncorrosive
atmospheres.
Fittings.

All pipe fittings shall be in accordance with one of the


following:
(1) ANSI B16.1
(2) ANSI B16.3
(3) ANSI B16.4
(4) ANSI B16.5
(5) ANSI B16.9
(6) ANSI B16.11
(7) ANSI B16.25
(8) ASTM A 234
Valves.
All valves shall be of the indicator type, such as OS&Y
or post indicator.
Inside the hazard or diked area, automatic control
valves and shutoff valves shall be of steel or other alloy
capable of withstanding exposure to fire temperatures.
All valves required for automatic foam systems shall be
supervised in their normal operating position by one of
the following methods:
(1) Electrical, in accordance with NFPA 72
(2) Locked
(3) Sealed
System Types
The following four types of systems shall be
permitted:
(1) Fixed
(2) Semifixed
(3) Mobile
(4) Portable
Operation and Control of Systems
Systems shall be permitted to be actuated
automatically or manually.
All systems shall have provisions for manual
actuation.
Low-Expansion System Design

Types of Hazards. (protect outdoor storage tanks,


interior flammable liquid hazards, loading racks,
diked areas, and nondiked spill areas)
Outdoor Fixed Roof (Cone) Tanks.
The following methods for protecting exterior fixed-
roof tanks shall be included within this section:
(1) Foam monitors and handlines
(2) Surface application with fixed foam discharge
outlets
(3) Subsurface application
(4) Semisubsurface injection methods
Foam Handline and Monitor Protection for
Fixed-Roof Storage Tanks Containing
Hydrocarbons
Number of Fixed Foam Discharge Outlets for
Fixed-Roof Tanks Containing Hydrocarbons or
Flammable and Combustible Liquids Requiring
Alcohol-Resistant Foams
Minimum Discharge Times and Application
Rate for Type I and Type II Fixed Foam
Discharge Outlets on Fixed-Roof (Cone)
Storage Tanks Containing Hydrocarbons
Application Rate and Discharge Times for
Fixed-Roof (Cone) Tanks Containing
Flammable and Combustible Liquids Requiring
Alcohol-Resistant Foams
Minimum Number of Subsurface Foam
Discharge Outlets for Fixed-Roof
Minimum Discharge Times and Application
Rates for Subsurface Application on Fixed-
Roof Storage Tanks
Medium- and High-Expansion
Systems
Hazards Protected
(1) Ordinary combustibles
(2) Flammable and combustible liquids
(3) Combinations of (1) and (2)
(4) Liquefied natural gas (high-expansion foam
only)
Medium- and high-expansion foam
systems
Medium- and high-expansion foam systems shall not be used
on fires in the following hazards:
(1) Chemicals, such as cellulose nitrate, that release sufficient
oxygen or other oxidizing agents to sustain combustion
(2) Energized unenclosed electrical equipment
(3) Water-reactive metals such as sodium, potassium, and
NaK (sodium-potassium alloys)
(4) Hazardous water-reactive materials, such as triethyl
aluminum and phosphorus pentoxide
(5) Liquefied flammable gas
(6) Hazards listed in (1)(5) where competent evaluation,
including tests, indicates acceptability
Types of Systems
(1) Total flooding systems
(2) Local application systems
(3) Portable foam-generating devices
Electrical Clearances.
Operation and Control of Systems
Detection of Fires
Supervision
Alarms (operation failure )
Operating Devices (power - foam generators, valves,
proportioners, eductors, discharge controls, and shutdown
equipment)
window closers, vent openers, and electrical equipment
shutdown devices shall be considered integral parts of the
system and shall function simultaneously with the system
operation.
All manual operating devices shall be identified with signs
as to the hazards they protect.
Foam-Generating Apparatus Location

Foam generating apparatus shall be located and


arranged so that inspection, testing, recharging, and
other maintenance is facilitated and interruption of
protection is held to a minimum.
Ducts.
Ducts shall be protected from undue mechanical,
chemical, or other damage.
Total Flooding Systems General
Information
A total flooding system shall consist of fixed foam-
generating apparatus complete with a piped
supply of foam concentrate and water, arranged to
discharge into an enclosed space or enclosure
around the hazard
Inspection and Visual Examination

Foam systems shall be examined visually to


determine that they have been properly installed.
Foam systems shall be inspected for such items as
conformity with installation plans; continuity of
piping; removal of temporary blinds; accessibility
of valves, controls, and gauges; and proper
installation of vapor seals, where applicable.
Flushing after Installation
The water supply mains shall be flushed thoroughly
at the maximum practicable rate of flow before
connection is made to system piping.
Pressure Tests
All piping shall be subjected to a 2-hour hydrostatic
pressure gauge test at 1379 kPa (200 psi) or 345
kPa (50 psi) in excess of the maximum pressure
anticipated, whichever is greater, in accordance
with NFPA 13.
Operating Tests
Tests for total flooding systems shall establish that
all automatic closing devices for doors, windows,
and conveyor openings, and automatic equipment
interlocks, as well as automatic opening of heat and
smoke vents or ventilators, will function upon system
operation.
Discharge Tests
The following data shall be required:
(1) Static water pressure
(2) Residual water pressure at the control valve and at
a remote reference point in the system
(3) Actual discharge rate
(4) Consumption rate of foam-producing material
(5) Concentration of the foam solution
(6) Foam quality (expansion and one-quarter drain
time) or foam discharge shall be conducted, or the foam
discharge shall be visually inspected to ensure that it is
satisfactory for the purpose intended.
Periodic Inspection
At least annually, all foam systems shall be
thoroughly inspected and checked for correct
operation.
inspection report, with recommendations, shall be
filed with the owner.
Water Spray Fixed Systems
NFPA 25
This chapter shall provide the minimum requirements
for the routine inspection, testing, and maintenance
of water spray protection from fixed nozzle systems
only.
Summary of Water Spray Fixed System
Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
Summary of Water Spray Fixed System
Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
Summary of Water Spray Fixed System
Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
Inspection and Maintenance
Procedures
Items in areas that are inaccessible for safety
considerations due to factors such as continuous process
operations and energized electrical equipment shall be
inspected during each scheduled shutdown but not more
than every 18 months.
Nozzle strainers shall be removed, inspected, and
cleaned during the flushing procedure for the mainline
strainer.
Mainline strainers shall be removed and inspected
every 5 years for damaged and corroded parts.
Automatic Detection Equipment
Automatic detection equipment shall be inspected,
tested, and maintained in accordance with NFPA
72, National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code.
System Components
System piping, fittings, hangers, and supports shall
be inspected and maintained to ensure continuity of
water delivery to the spray nozzles at full
waterflow and design pressure.
Piping and Fittings
System piping and fittings shall be inspected for the
following:
(1) Mechanical damage (e.g., broken piping or
cracked fittings)
(2) External conditions (e.g., missing or damaged
paint or coatings, rust, and corrosion)
(3) Misalignment or trapped sections
(4) Low-point drains (automatic or manual)
(5) Location of rubber-gasketed fittings
Hangers and Supports
Hangers and supports shall be inspected for the
following and repaired or replaced as necessary:
(1) Condition (e.g., missing or damaged paint or
coating, rust, and corrosion)
(2) Secure attachment to structural supports and
piping
(3) Damaged or missing hangers
Water Spray Nozzles
Water spray nozzles shall be inspected and
maintained to ensure that they are in place, continue
to be aimed or pointed in the direction intended in
the system design, and are free from external
loading and corrosion.
Water Supply
The dependability of the water supply shall be
ensured by regular inspection and maintenance,
whether furnished by a municipal source, on-site
storage tanks, a fire pump, or private underground
piping systems.
Water supply piping shall be maintained free of
internal obstructions.
Strainers
Mainline strainers (basket or screen) shall be flushed
until clear after each operation or flow test.
Individual water spray nozzle strainers shall be
removed, cleaned, and inspected after each
operation or flow test.
Damaged or corroded parts shall be replaced or
repaired
Drainage
The area beneath and surrounding a water spray
fixed system shall be inspected visually on a
quarterly basis to ensure that drainage facilities,
such as trap sumps and drainage trenches, are not
blocked and retention embankments or dikes are in
good repair.
Test Preparation
Precautions shall be taken to prevent damage to
property during the test.
Operational tests shall be conducted to ensure that the
water spray fixed systems respond as designed, both
automatically and manually.
Under test conditions, the heat detection systems, where
exposed to a heat test source, shall operate within 40
seconds.
These response times shall be recorded
The time lapse between operation of detection systems
and water delivery time to the protected area shall be
recorded.
Pressure Readings
Pressure readings shall be recorded at the
hydraulically most remote nozzle to ensure the
water flow has not been impeded by partially
closed valves or by plugged strainers or piping.
Multiple Systems
The maximum number of systems expected to
operate in case of fire shall be tested
simultaneously to check the adequacy of the water
supply.
After the full flow test, the water spray system shall
be maintained and returned to service
Main Drain Tests
Main drain tests shall be conducted at the main riser
to determine whether there has been any change in
the condition of the water supply piping and
controlling valves.
Static and residual water pressures shall be
recorded respectively before, during, and after the
operation of the fully opened drain valve.
Ultra-High-Speed Water Spray System
(UHSWSS) Operational Tests.
full operational test, including measurements of
response time, shall be conducted at intervals not
exceeding 1 year.
Systems out of service shall be tested before being
placed back in service.
Summary of Component
Replacement Action Requirements
Sprinkler Systems
Summary of Sprinkler System
Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
Inspection, Sprinklers
Any sprinkler that shows signs of any of the following shall
be replaced:
(1) Leakage
(2) Corrosion
(3) Physical damage
(4) Loss of fluid in the glass bulb heat responsive element
(5)*Loading
(6) Painting unless painted by the sprinkler manufacturer
Sprinklers installed in areas that are inaccessible for safety
considerations due to process operations shall be inspected
during each scheduled shutdown.
Pipe and Fittings
Sprinkler pipe and fittings shall be inspected
annually from the floor level.
Pipe and fittings shall be in good condition and free
of mechanical damage, leakage, and corrosion.
Sprinkler pipe hangers and seismic braces shall be
inspected annually from the floor level
Gauges
Gauges on wet pipe sprinkler systems shall be inspected monthly to
ensure that they are in good condition and that normal water supply
pressure is being maintained.
Gauges on dry, preaction, and deluge systems shall be inspected
weekly to ensure that normal air and water pressures are being
maintained.
Where air pressure supervision is connected to a constantly
attended location, gauges shall be inspected monthly.
For dry pipe or preaction systems protecting freezers with two air
pressure gauges on the air line(s) between the compressor and the
dry pipe or preaction valve, the air pressure gauge near the
compressor shall be compared weekly to the pressure gauge above
the dry pipe or preaction valve.
Water flow Alarm and Supervisory
Devices
Water flow alarm and supervisory alarm devices
shall be inspected quarterly to verify that they are
free of physical damage.
Hydraulic Design Information Sign

The hydraulic design information sign for


hydraulically designed systems shall be inspected
quarterly to verify that it is attached securely to the
sprinkler riser and is legible.
Testing, sprinklers
Where required by this section, sample sprinklers (not
less than four sprinklers )shall be submitted to a
recognized testing laboratory acceptable to the
authority having jurisdiction for field service testing.
Where sprinklers have been in service for 50 years,
they shall be replaced or representative samples from
one or more sample areas shall be tested.
Test procedures shall be repeated at 10-year intervals.
Sprinklers manufactured prior to 1920 shall be
replaced.
Testing, sprinklers
Sprinklers manufactured using fast-response
elements that have been in service for 20 years
shall be replaced, or representative samples shall
be tested and then retested at 10-year intervals.
Representative samples of solder-type sprinklers
with a temperature classification of extra high
[325F (163C)] or greater that are exposed to
semi-continuous to continuous maximum allowable
ambient temperature conditions shall be tested at
5-year intervals.
Testing, sprinklers
Dry sprinklers that have been in service for 10
years shall be replaced or representative samples
shall be tested and then retested at 10-year
intervals.
Where sprinklers are subjected to harsh
environments, including corrosive atmospheres and
corrosive water supplies, on a 5-year basis, either
sprinklers shall be replaced or representative
sprinkler samples shall be tested.
Testing, gauges
Gauges shall be replaced every 5 years or tested
every 5 years by comparison with a calibrated
gauge.
Gauges not accurate to within 3 percent of the full
scale shall be recalibrated or replaced.
Water flow Alarm Devices
Mechanical water-flow alarm devices including, but
not limited to, water motor gongs, shall be tested
quarterly.

Vane-type and pressure switchtype water flow


alarm devices shall be tested semiannually.
Testing water flow alarm devices on dry pipe,
preaction, or deluge systems shall be accomplished
by using the bypass connection.
Maintenance, sprinklers
Replacement sprinklers shall have the proper
characteristics for the application intended, which
include the following:
(1) Style
(2) Orifice size and K-factor
(3) Temperature rating
(4) Coating, if any
(5) Deflector type (e.g., upright, pendent, sidewall)
(6) Design requirements
Maintenance, sprinklers
A supply of spare sprinklers (never fewer than six)
shall be maintained on the premises so that any
sprinklers that have operated or been damaged in
any way can be promptly replaced.
The sprinklers shall be kept in a cabinet located
where the temperature in which they are subjected
will at no time exceed 100F (38C).
Antifreeze Solutions to Be Used If Non-potable
Water Is Connected to Sprinklers
Antifreeze Solutions to Be Used If Potable
Water Is Connected to Sprinklers
Summary of Component
Replacement Action Requirements
Standpipe and Hose Systems
Minimum Requirements
inspection, testing, and maintenance of all classes of
standpipe and hose systems shall follow Table
6.1.1.2
Obstruction Investigations
Notification to Supervisory Service
Inspection.

Components of standpipe and hose systems shall be


visually inspected annually or as specified in Table
6.1.1.2.
Summary of Standpipe and Hose Systems
Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
Standpipe and Hose Systems
Standpipe and Hose Systems
Gauges
1 Gauges on automatic standpipe systems shall
be inspected monthly to ensure that they are in
good condition and that normal water supply
pressure is being maintained.
Gauges on dry, preaction, and deluge valves shall
be inspected weekly to ensure that normal air and
water pressure are being maintained.
Where air pressure supervision is connected to a
constantly attended location, gauges shall be
inspected monthly.
Hydraulic Design Information Sign.

When provided, the hydraulic design information


sign for standpipe systems shall be inspected
annually to verify that it is attached securely and is
legible.
Testing
A flow test shall be conducted every 5 years at the
hydraulically most remote hose connections of each
zone of an automatic standpipe system to verify the
water supply still provides the design pressure at
the required flow.
All systems shall be flow tested and pressure tested
at the requirements for the design criteria in effect
at the time of the installation.
Hydrostatic Tests.
Hydrostatic tests of not less than 200 psi (13.8 bar)
pressure for 2 hours, or at 50 psi (3.4 bar) in excess
of the maximum pressure, where maximum pressure
is in excess of 150 psi (10.3 bar), shall be
conducted every 5 years on manual standpipe
systems and semi-automatic dry standpipe systems,
including piping in the fire department connection.
Gauges.

Gauges shall be replaced every 5 years or tested


every 5 years by comparison with a calibrated
gauge.
Gauges not accurate to within 3 percent of the full
scale shall be recalibrated or replaced.
Maintenance
Maintenance and repairs shall be in accordance
with 6.1.3 and Table 6.1.2.
Equipment that does not pass the inspection or
testing requirements shall be repaired and tested
again or replaced.
Summary of Component
Replacement Action Requirements
Foam-Water Sprinkler Systems
Summary of Foam-Water Sprinkler System
Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
Summary of Foam-Water Sprinkler System
Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
Summary of Foam-Water Sprinkler System
Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
Summary of Component
Replacement Action Requirements
Summary of Component
Replacement Action Requirements
Water Mist Systems
Maintenance of Water Mist Systems
Maintenance of Water Mist Systems
Maintenance of Water Mist Systems
Maintenance of Water Mist Systems
Maintenance of Water Mist Systems
High Pressure Cylinders
High pressure cylinders used in water mist systems
shall not be recharged without a hydrostatic test
(and remarking) if more than 5 years have elapsed
from the date of the last test.
Cylinders that have been in continuous service
without discharging shall be permitted to be
retained in service for a maximum of 12 years,
after which they shall be discharged and retested
before being returned to service.
Maintenance
Mechanical waterflow devices, including but not
limited to water motor gongs, shall be tested
quarterly.
Vane-type and pressure switchtype waterflow
devices shall be tested semiannually.
Preventive maintenance includes, but is not limited
to, lubricating control valve stems, adjusting packing
glands on valves and pumps, bleeding moisture and
condensation from air compressors and air lines,
and cleaning strainers.
Maintenance Frequencies

Item Activity Frequency


Water tank Drain and refill Annually
system Flushing Annually
Strainers and Clean or replace After system
filters as required operation
Maintenance
Spare components shall be accessible and shall be
stored in a manner to prevent damage or
contamination.
After each system operation, a representative
sample of operated water mist nozzles in the
activated zone shall be inspected. [750:13.3.10]
After each system operation due to fire, the system
filters and strainers shall be cleaned or replaced.
Training.

All persons who might be expected to inspect, test,


maintain, or operate water mist systems shall be
trained thoroughly in the functions they are
expected to perform.
Refresher training shall be provided as
recommended by the manufacturer or by the
authority having jurisdiction.
Fire Pump Systems
Alternative Fire Pump Inspection,
Testing, and Maintenance Procedures
Auxiliary Equipment
The pump assembly auxiliary equipment shall include the following:
(1) Pump accessories as follows:
(a) Pump shaft coupling
(b) Automatic air release valve
(c) Pressure gauges
(d) Circulation relief valve (not used in conjunction with diesel engine drive with
heat exchanger)
(2) Pump test device(s)
(3) Pump relief valve and piping (where maximum pump discharge pressure
exceeds the rating of the system components or the driver is of variable
speed)
(4) Alarm sensors and indicators
(5) Right-angle gear sets (for engine-driven vertical shaft turbine pumps)
(6) Pressure maintenance (jockey) pump and accessories
Auxiliary Equipment
Summary of Fire Pump Inspection,
Testing, and Maintenance
Inspection
The purpose of inspection shall be to verify that the
pump assembly appears to be in operating
condition and is free from physical damage.
The pertinent visual observations specified in the
following checklists shall be performed weekly
(page 127)
Testing
Diesel enginedriven fire pumps shall be operated
weekly.
Electric motordriven fire pumps shall be operated
monthly.
Testing, No-Flow Condition
A test of fire pump assemblies shall be conducted without
flowing water.
The test shall be conducted by starting the pump
automatically.
The electric pump shall run a minimum of 10 minutes.
The diesel pump shall run a minimum of 30 minutes.
A valve installed to open as a safety feature shall be
permitted to discharge water.
An automatic timer shall be permitted to be substituted for
the starting procedure.
Qualified operating personnel shall be in attendance
whenever the pump is in operation.
The pertinent visual observations or
adjustments checklist
Page 128
Annual Flow Testing
An annual test of each pump assembly shall be
conducted by qualified personnel under minimum,
rated, and peak flows of the fire pump by
controlling the quantity of water discharged through
approved test devices.
If available suction supplies do not allow flowing of
150 percent of the rated pump
Use of Pump Discharge via Bypass Flowmeter
to Pump Suction (Closed-Loop Metering).

Pump suction and discharge pressures and the flow


meter measurements shall determine the total pump
output.
The pertinent visual observations, measurements,
and adjustments specified in the following checklists
shall be conducted annually while the pump is
running and flowing water under the specified
output condition: Page 129
Summary of Component
Replacement Testing Requirements
Summary of Component
Replacement Testing Requirements
Summary of Component
Replacement Testing Requirements
Summary of Component
Replacement Testing Requirements

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