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Organizational Behavior

NIU College of Business April 1, 2013

This class will be on 2 days, covering
several topics
Todays topics:
Personality, perception and attribution
Attitudes, values and ethics
Jobs and the design of work
Before we begin, lets meet each other
Instructor background
Background of students
What do students want from this topic?
Personality, Perception and
There is nothing unique about managing a
business organization, a government organization,
a hospital, a university or any other type of
organization- they all have common characteristics

Example: Hierarchical structure

Universal characteristics of
Complex because they involve people
They all produce a product or service
They have rules and regulations
Limited alternatives or resources
Specific goals
Community pressures
Efficient and Effective
Status / Formal Structure
Management and Organizations
Critical forces influencing organizations and the
practice of management
Social Forces
Political Forces
Historical Forces
Social Forces
Social Forces are cultural aspects guiding and
influencing relationships among people

These differ in each organization and definitely in

different countries
Political Forces
Political forces influence political and legal
institutions; we must respect them but we dont
have to like them

Example- government regulators

Scarce resources available in a society

We must make decisions about how to allocate

resources including materials and people
Historical forces
Lessons learned from the past

Things that went wrong
Variables influencing individual behavior
The person The environment

Skills and abilities Organization

Personality Work group
Perceptions Job
Attitudes Personal life
Definition of personality
Personality is a relatively stable set of
characteristics that influences an individuals
behavior; typically made up of five traits:
Emotional Stability
Openness to experience
Extraversion / Agreeableness
Extraversion Agreeableness

Gregarious Cooperative
Assertive Warm
Sociable Agreeable
Conscientiousness / Emotional Stability
Conscientiousness Emotional Stability

Hard working Calm

Organized Self confident
Dependable Cool

Avoid arrogance
Openness to experience
Locus of Control
Internal External

I control what happens to People and circumstances

me control my fate
Self Efficacy
DEFINITION: Feelings of self worth
Beliefs and expectations
about ones ability to Success increases it
accomplish a specific task
Failure decreases it
Self Monitoring
High Self Monitors Low Self Monitors

Flexible- adjust their Act from internal states

behavior based on the rather than situational
situation clues

Can appear unpredictable Act consistently

and inconsistent
Personality Tests
Projective Tests Myers Briggs Type
Behavioral Measures Indicator
Self Report
Questionnaire http://
Impression Management
Defined as the process by which individuals try to
control the impression others have of them

Name dropping
Lets take a 10 minute break
Attitude is defined as a psychological tendency
expressed by evaluating an entity with some
degree of favor or disfavor
ABC Model of an attitude
Cognitive Dissonance
A state of tension that is produced when an
individual experiences conflict between attitudes
and behavior

I wish to do the right thing, but I dont

Examples: Smoking cigarettes

Two influences on attitude formation
Direct Experience Modeling / Social Learning

We form an attitude 1. Learner has to focus

based on things we have attention on the model
directly seen, heard or 2. Learner retains what
experienced was learned
3. Learner practices new
4. Learner must be
Work Attitudes / Job satisfaction
Job satisfaction Organizational Citizenship
A pleasurable or positive
emotional state resulting Behavior that is above
form the appraisal of and beyond expectation
ones job or job
experience Results from job
Cognitive routes to persuasion
Instrumental Terminal

Values that represent the Values that represent the

acceptable behaviors to goals to be achieved or
be used in achieving the end state of existence
some end state
Work values
Achievement leads to career advancement
Concern for others- compassionate behavior
The process of arousing and sustaining
goal-directed behavior
Motivational Theories
Internal / Intrinsic External / Extrinsic

Behaviors within the Outside factors motivate

individual give rise to the employee, such as
motivation and behavior, money
such as work ethic
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

Motivation-Hygiene Theory of
Expectancy Model of Motivation
Three causes of Motivational

Belief that effort will not result in performance

Belief that performance will not result in rewards
The value a person places on, or the preference a
person has for certain rewards
Jobs and the design of work
Job defined: a set of specific work and task
activities that engage an individual in an

Work: Mental or physical activity that has

productive results

Meaning of work: The way a person interprets and

understands the value of work as part of life
Scientific Management
Emphasizes work simplification

Production efficiency
Undervalues the human capacity
Job enlargement / Job enrichment
Various Job Design Approaches
Any questions
about what we
discussed today?