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SAGD: DRENAJE GRAVITACIONAL

ASISTIDO POR VAPOR


Recobro Trmico, UN, 2015
Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD)
Two horizontal wells
Upper injection
Lower production
Steam condenses at upper
interface
Oil and condensate drain to
well at bottom
Gravity drainage within heated
zone
Heated chamber grows
upwards and sideways
SAGD is aimed at bitumens with very high
viscosity (> 10,000 cp)
From: SM Farouq Ali, presented at 2008 SPE ATCE, 21 Sept 2008
Butler-Mokrys SAGD inflow equations
Butler-Mokrys TanDrain
solution:
1.5kgSo h
qo 2 Lw
m s

Viscosity assumed infinite at initial


temperature.
m
T T

s i ,r

Ts Ti ,r qo oil rate [m/s]
Lw well length [m]
k (vertical) permeability [m2]
g acceleration du to gravity 9.81 [m/s2]
thermal diffusivity 0.8-0.9 E-6 [m2/s]
m can be found by numerically f porosity [frac]
So=Soi-Sor saturation step [frac]
integrating
1 1 1 dT
Ts viscosity curve; it is

2.5 and 4.5


h drainage height [m]
sbetween
usually
i ,r T TR
m viscosity exponent []
m Ti ,r s kinematic oil viscosity at steam temperature [Pa.s]
T temperature [K]
Perfil de Produccin Tpico en SAGD
Have the Right Steam Quality and Well Separation
Gravity drainage relies on Circulation time increases exponentially
vapor/liquid density with inter-well (vertical) distance
differential Selection of SAGD well pair separation
based on the balance of coning control and
SAGD uses mainly the latent start-up time needed
heat to heat formation
The dryer the steam, the 1000
Reservoir Temperature: 15 C
better! Steam Temperature: 240 C
Well Diameter: 7 inches
Estimate the required
Formation Thermal Diff.: 0.054 m2/d

Day of Circulation (C)


circulation time

Mid-point temperature: 70 C
60 C
100 50 C
Given a well distance, and
a target temperature

10
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Inter-well Distance (m)
SAGD Start-Up Sequence
Circulation
Orion Typical Well Schematic (2 to 3 months - Establish thermal communication)

339 mm surface casing


245 mm Intermediate casing
178 mm slotted liner
73 mm tubing string
89 mm tubing string with fibre optic
instrument string in 50% of the producers
Start-up
(2 to 3 weeks - Establish hydraulic communication)

Semi-SAGD
(~1 month - Reduce the risk of steam breakthrough)

SAGD
Paso 1: Circulacin

Circulation
(2 to 3 months - Establish thermal communication)
Paso 2: Arranque

Start-up
(2 to 3 weeks - Establish hydraulic communication)
Paso 3: Semi-SAGD

Semi-SAGD
(~1 month - Reduce the risk of steam breakthrough)
Paso 4: SAGD

SAGD
SAGD steam trap control (SubCool)
Steam Chamber Steam Chamber Steam Chamber
Tc, Pc Tc, Pc Tc, Pc

h
h
Tp, Pp Tp, Pp Tp, Pp
Zero SubCool Ideal SubCool High SubCool
Steam is short-circuited into the A small liquid column is maintained The high BHP causes an
producer because of low BHP. above the producer. The produced accumulation of liquids
The produced fluids are very fluids are hot but contain little or no (reduced rates). The produced
hot steam fluids are warm
Tp~ Tc Tp< Tc by 40 C Tp<< Tc
Pp~ Pc Pp= Pc + ghliquid Pp= Pc + ghliquid
from Tejera-Cuesta

Subcool control is keeping the temperature in the producer


below the flash value for water
Wonderful 3D Effects ?! (Complicated)

Zero SubCool Ideal SubCool High SubCool


Steam is short-circuited into the A small liquid column is maintained The high BHP causes an
producer because of low BHP. The above the producer. The produced accumulation of liquids. The
produced fluids are very hot fluids are hot but contain little or no produced fluids are warm
T~ Tc steam T<< Tc
P~ Pc T< Tc P= Pc + ghliquid
P= Pc + ghliquid
SAGD Elements of Success
Knowledge:
Accurate reservoir description
Efficient utilization of heat injected
Understanding of displacement mechanism
Understanding geomechanics
Very high effective kv
SAGD Elements of Success
Operational:
Need good startup procedures
Optimize recovery performance (include geomechanics)
Achieve high rates (long horizontals, low skin, multilaterals)
Ensure large reserves (thick, well-connected reservoirs)
Identifying optimal implementation (well configuration, well
completions, injection/production conditions)
Need good surveillance
SAGD Screening
Tentative
Pay thickness: > 40 ft of continuous high So pay
Very high viscosity
High permeability: Darcy range
No bottom water
No gas cap
Competent cap rock
Monitoring Know Whats Going On
Surface and subsurface
monitoring
Critical to operational integrity, Surface response (InSAR)

process evaluation and optimization


4D seismic

P/T obs. wells

DTS in SAGD wells


Uso de completamientos inteligentes
(Inflow Control Valve ICV)