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CLASS H

PILING WORKS

CIVIL ENGINEERING STANDARD METHOD OF MEASUREMENT (CESMM)


INTRODUCTION

The processes in piling work are:


(a) Provision of plant and
equipment.
(b) Supply of piles.
(c) Driving/ lnstallation of piles.
(d) Miscellaneous work.
(e) Pile testing.
PILING WORKS

M1 a) the toe levels


(bored piles)
Bored and driven depth
measured from the Commencing b) the bottom of
Surface to :- the casings (driven
cast in-situ piles)

c) the bottom of
the toes (other
driven piles)
PILING WORKS
Categories under First Division
Broadly, the categories under the First Division of this class are:
(a) Plant and equipment.
(b) Piles comprising:
(i) Bored piles.
(ii) Driven cast in situ concrete piles.
(iii) Caisson piles
(iv) Micropiles.
(v) Precast reinforced concrete piles.
(vi) Precast pre-stressed concrete piles.
(vii) Steel H-piles.
(viii) Steel pipe piles.
(ix)Timber piles.
(x) Precast pre-stressed concrete sheet piles.
(xi) Interlocking steel sheet piles.
(c)Miscellaneous work.
(d)Pile tests
General Measurement Rules

Measurement Rules M1
Bored & driven depth shall be measured
along the axes of piles from the
Commencing Surface :

a) To the toe level of bored piles


General Measurement Rules

Measurement Rules M1
Bored & driven depth shall be measured
along the axes of piles from the
Commencing Surface :

b) To the bottom of the casings of driven


cast in-situ piles; or
General Measurement Rules

Measurement Rules M1
Bored & driven depth shall be measured
along the axes of piles from the
Commencing Surface :

c) To the bottom of the toes of other


driven piles
General Measurement Rules

Measurement Rules M2
Each group items for piles to be driven shall comprise :

a) An item for the total supply number of piles of stated


length; and
b) An item for the total depth driven
General Measurement Rules

Measurement Rules M3
Depth driven shall be measured from the cut-off levels
to the toe levels.
For driven cast in-situ and precast piles, the driven
depths shall be measured to the underside of shoes
which are at the bottom of casings or toes.

Measurement Rules M4
Reinforcement is measured in tonne and, to allow for
measurement of less than 1 tonne, the quantity shall be
stated up to two decimal places.
PILING WORKS

C1
COVERAGE RULES Include disposal of excavated and
surplus materials

C2
Include piling records
C3
Pre-boring are deemed to include
backfilling between the pile and the bore

C4

Depth driven are deemed to include


handling, hoisting, pitching & driving
of piles
C5
Cut-off piles are deemed to include
preparing the heads where applicables
ADDITIONAL DESCRIPTION RULES

A1

Preliminary piles /raked piles are


identified and degree of inclination
stated
J1*0 1.Provision
1PLANT AND EQUIPMENT 2.Moving & Handling

Measured in SUM 3.Temporary Staging

C6
Include all necessary piling equipment, transportation,
handling, assembling and removal off the site.

C7
Moving and handling to include handling all piling plant
and equipment about the site as often and whenever
necessary
J2** 1. Bored piles
2. Driven cast in-situ
2.PILES concrete piles

1. Depth bored or driven


2. Boring through rock m
3. Permanent casings
4. Reinforcement straight
bars nom. Dia. :
n.e. 20 mm
t
5 exceeding 20 mm
6. Reinf. helical bars
7. Concreted length m
8.Cut-off piles including nr
preparing heads
Bored piles
Bored piles are commonly used as foundation to support
heavily loaded structures, such as high-rise buildings and
bridges, in view of its low noise, low vibration and
flexibility of size selection to suit different loading
conditions. This will be useful in urban areas where strict
regulations regarding noise and vibration are imposed by
the authorities. The operation is by boring through the
ground, installing the reinforcement, and concreting to
form the pile.
Bored piles basic construction sequences
Measurement of Bored Piles
a) Bored piles are measured in metre and as such, the
diameter shall be stated in the item description (Rule
A2).lf the bored piles are contiguous, it shall also be
Identified (Rule A3). Each group of bored piles shall
comprise two items, namely, an item for total depth bored
and an item for the total concreted length of the piles
(Rule M5)

b) ltems for bored piles shall be deemed to include temporary


casings, stabilising agents such as bentonite, and enlarged
bases (Rule Cg). No special provision has been made for
boring in natural and hard artificial material, as the rate
for boring in rock is applicable to both (Rule C9).
Measurement of Bored Piles (contd)

c) Where permanent casing is required, the materials,


thickness, and details of treatments and coating (to
prevent corrosion) shall be stated in item description for
permanent casings (Rule A4). ltems for permanent casing
shall be deemed to include the supply and jointing of
casings, driving heads, and shoes, where applicable (Rule
CIO), and the length measured from the cut-off level to
the bottom of the casings (Rule M6) (see Figure H2).
Measurement of Bored Piles (contd)

d) The grade of concrete shall be stated in the item


description for the concreted length (Rule A5), and if the
concrete is required to be placed by a particular method,
poured at a stated speed, compacted or cured in a
particular way, it shall be described in the item description
(Rule A6).
The concreted length of bored piles shall be measured
from the cut-off levels to the toe levels (Rule M8). This
rule means that the pile lengths cast above the cut-off
level, and subsequently removed, are not measured. The
toe of the bored piles shall be the bottom of the bore with
no allowance for enlarged bases (Rule C8). See figure
below
J2** Bored piles & Driven cast in-situ concrete piles & Caisson
piles

M5 : To measure :
Total depth bored /driven/excavated
and state total no of pile points
An item for the total concreted length
of pile
MEASUREMENT
RULES M6 : Length of permanent casings:
bored pile (cut-off bottom of
casing)
driven cast in-situ (cut-off level
toe levels)

M7 : Length of permanent casing for


caisson piles (top of the casings
bottom of casings)
J2** Bored piles & Driven cast in-situ concrete piles & Caisson
piles

M8 : Concrete length of bored piles :


cut-off level toe level

M9 : Concrete length of caisson piles


top of the casings bottom of
the casings
MEASUREMENT
RULES
M10 : Mass of steel reinft 0.785kg/m per
100mm2 of cross section (7.85
t/m3)

M11 : Mass measured for reinft shall


include the mass of reinft.
Expressly required in laps
Driven Cast in-situ Concrete Piles

Piles consisting of driven permanent steel casing, which


is filled with concrete, shall be classified as driven cast in
situ concrete piles where the piles are designed for the
load to be carried on the concrete (Rule Dl). This
category is similar to bored piles, and the measurement
rules, coverage rules, and additional description rules for
bored piles are also applicable where. Where pre-boring
is required, it shall be deemed to be included in the rate
for boring or boring in rock (Rule C12).
CAISSON PILES

Caisson piles are similar to bored


piles, except that the diameter is
much larger, and the material within
the caisson (or steel casing) are
normally excavated by hand or a
mini excavator
CAISSON PILES
Piles comprising placement of permanent steel casing, where
the material within the casing is excavated and filled with
concrete, shall be classified as caisson piles when the piles are
a designed for the load to be carried on the concrete (Rule D3).

Caisson piles are measured in metre and as such, the diameter


shall be stated in the item description (Rule A2). Each group of
caisson piles shall comprise two items, namely, an item for

b total depth bored and an item for the total concreted length of
piles (Rule M5).

No special provision has been made for excavation in natural


and hard artificial material, as the rate for excavation through

c rock is applicable to both (Rule C9).


CAISSON PILES (contd)
Where permanent casing is required, the materials, thickness,
and details of treatments and coating (to prevent corrosion)
shall be stated in item description for permanent casings (Rule
A4). ltems for permanent casing shall be deemed to include the
d supply and jointing of casings (Rule ClO), and the length
measured from the top of the casing to the bottom of the
casings (Rule M7).

Grade of concrete & placing method shall stated in item


description (Rule A5 & A6). Concreted length as per Rule M9
e

Reinforcement should be measured as per Rule A7, Rule A8, Rule


C11, Rule D2, Rule M10, Rule M11
f
J24*

2.PILES 4. Micropiles

1 Depth bored - m
2 Boring through rock - m
3 Steel pipe as reinft - m
4 Reinft straight bars n.e 20mm dia - t
5 Reinft straight bars ex 20mm dia - t
6 Reinft helical bars - t
7 Grouting m3
8 Cut-off piles - nr
C13 : Boring through rock incl. artificial hard material
A9 : State diameter
A10 : Material, grade & size of reinft stated
A11 : Grouting state grout design mix and/or strength
J25* &J26* 5.Precast reinforced concrete piles

2.PILES 6.Precast prestressed concrete piles

1. Supply - nr
2. Depth driven - m
3. Pre-boring - m
4. Jointing - nr
5. Filling hollow pipes
with concrete - m
6. Cut-off piles including
preparing heads - nr

D4 Supply length total number of piles of stated


length
A12 Supply cross sectional type & dimensions/
diameter, length & working load
A13 State initial (type of shoe) & extension piles
J24* & J25* Precast reinforced concrete & Precast prestressed
concrete

C14 : Filling hollow piles with


COVERAGE RULES concrete to include
removal of materials
from within the piles
before concreting
J25* & J26* Precast reinforced concrete & Precast prestressed
concrete

ADDITIONAL DESCRIPTION RULES

A12 : Supply of pile to state , cross-sectional type and cross-


sectional dimensions of diameter, length and working load are stated

A13 : Piles to state Initial/extension piles . Initial piles to state type of shoe

A14 : Depth driven state jack-in method

A15 : Filling hollow piles to state concrete specification

A16 : Jointing to state materials used


J27* & J28*
7. H steel pile
2.PILES 8. Steel pipe pile

1.Supply
nr
2.Depth driven m
3. Jointing nr
4.Cut-off piles - nr

D5 : Supply length total no. of piles of stated length

A17 : Supply state mass per metre, cross sectional dimension &
grade of steel
A18 : Details of treatment, coatings and cathodics protection stated
A19 : Type of jointing stated
A20 : Jack-in method stated if required
J31*
1.Timber piles
3.PILES
2. Depth driven m
1. Supply
3. Jointing
nr
4. Cut-off pile

D6 The length of timber piles are the total number of piles of stated
lengths

A21 : Supply grade of timber, cross-sectional dimensions, length &


any pressure treatment required
A22 : Jointing method stated
J32*

3.PILES 2.Precast prestressed concrete sheet

1. Supply. (nr) nr
2. Depth driven m2
m
3.Cut-off piles

M12 : Areas = horizontal length of pile walls X average depths


from cut-off levels

A23 : Supply of pile to state thickness, length and width


J32*
3.Interlocking steel
3.PILES sheet pile
1.Supply - m
2.Driven m2
3.Special piles - m
4.Cut-off piles - m
5. Waling - m
6. Ground anchorage - nr

M13 : Areas = horizontal length of pile walls X average depths from


cut-off levels to the toe levels

M14 : Items of special piles is only for supply


J33*

D7 : DEFINITION RULES
Special piles are interlocking steel corner, junction, closure and taper piles

C15 : COVERAGE RULES


Item for waling shall include supply and install

ADDITIONAL DESCRIPTION RULES


A24 : Must state section reference or mass per metre and section
modulus.

A25 : Details of treatment, coatings and cathodic protection for


supply of pile

A26 : The composition and working load must be stated in item


descriptions for ground anchorages
1. Obstructions
J411

4.Miscellaneous 1. Excavation through obstructions


work Measured in m

M15 : Only for breaking out obstruction or artificial hard material


encountered above the founding stratum

A27 : Item description must stated the cross-sectional dimension or


diameters of the excavation
J5*0 1.Static load tests
5.PILES TESTS
2.Dynamic pile testing
2nd DIVISION
3.Sonic logging test
4.Lateral Test
Measured in nr
5.Statnamic test

A28 : Item description for pile test must be stated the test loads.
Where the load is applied to raking piles item descriptions for
load tests also must be stated

A29 : Item descriptions for pile test must identify


those which are to preliminary piles
THANK YOU

sh_Piling Works