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Introduction

LTE Air Interface Course

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Introduction

Overview
Requirements
Delay & QoS
Throughput & data rates
Spectrum
LTE/ SAE key features
Network architecture
LTE Air Interface
Specification

3 Nokia Siemens Networks


Schedule for 3GPP Releases
Focus of this course is on
Release 8 UMTS!

Specification

MBMS IMS Evolution LTE


IMS WLAN IW LTE Studies
HSDPA HSUPA iHSPA

UMTS Rel 99/4 UMTS Rel 5 UMTS Rel 6 UMTS Rel 7 UMTS Rel 8

2000 2003 2005 2007 2008 2009 year

LTE

HSUPA

Commercial IMS

HSDPA

UMTS WCDMA

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Summary of Capabilities & Benefits of LTE/EPC

Fully packet-oriented mobile Maximised exploitation of frequency


broadband network providing: Resources
Peak data rates of 150 Mbps (DL) Supports flexible frequency
bandwidths
Peak data rates of 50 Mbps (UL)
by means of OFDM, MIMO, HARQ etc.
Very low latency
an outstanding spectrum efficiency
Seamless and lossless handover can be achieved
Sophisticated QoS to support
important real time applications Extended Interworking Functionality
such as voice, video and seamless mobility with other 3GPP
interactive gaming access systems (UMTS, GPRS),
Support for terminal speeds of with 3GPP2/cdma2000
150-500 Km/h
Cell ranges of up to 100 Km. Reduced Terminal Complexity
Specific transmission schemes
Reduced cost per bit Minimize power consumption
Simplified Architecture
All IP

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LTE FDD and TDD Modes

Bandwidth Bandwidth t
t Bandwidth
up to 20MHz up to 20MHz up to 20MHz

Uplink
Uplink Downlink

Guard
Period
Downlink

f f

Duplex Frequency

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FDD and TDD modes (2/2)

FDD and TDD modes Harmonisation FDD and TDD modes


(commonalities) differences

FDD and TDD mode included FDD developed in the paired 3GPP
together in the same spectrum
specification
TDD developed in the unpaired
Same radio interface schemes 3GPP spectrum
for both uplink and downlink
Small differences in the physical
Same subframe formats channels design

Same network architecture Different frame formats

Same air interface protocols FDD mode has commonalities with


3G UMTS
Same physical channels
procedures TDD mode has commonalities with
TD-SCDMA (developed in China)

In this course both FDD and


TDD modes will be
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discussed
Introduction

Overview
Requirements
Delay & QoS
Throughput & data rates
Spectrum
LTE/ SAE key features
Network architecture
LTE Air Interface
Specification

8 Nokia Siemens Networks


Requirement Input for LTE/EPC

Requirements Input Requirements Excerpt

Demand for higher significantly increased downlink bit rates (>150


Mbps);
data rates
Demand for quality of significantly increased uplink bit rates (>50 Mbps);
service, lower delay

increased cell edge bit rates;


Expected new spectrum
allocations low delay;

Request for flexible


higher spectrum efficiency;
bandwidth usage

scalable bandwidth per cell (operator choice);

acceptable terminal complexity and costs (lower than


Demand for reduced WCDMA);
terminal complexity
optimization for low speed (0-15 km/h) but support for
high and highest speed (up to 500 km/h);

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Requirement: Latency and Signal Performance
User Plane Latency

cell IP Network
Gateway
< 5 ms (unloaded condition)

Control Plane Latency


ACTIVE
IDLE
(no resources)

Resource
No resource
Allocated

< 100 ms < 50 ms

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Requirement: Spectrum Usage
LTE/SAE Targets

UL DL

Peak Bit Rate > 50 > 150


(Mbps)
Spectral 2..3 times 3..4 times
Efficiency HSUPA HSDPA
(bps/Hz/s)

Cell Edge 2..3 times 2..3 times


Throughput HSUPA HSDPA
(bps/Hz/s)

DOWNLINK

UPLINK

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LTE UE Categories

All categories support 20 MHz


64QAM mandatory in downlink, but not in uplink (except Class 5)
2x2 MIMO mandatory in other classes except Class 1

Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Class 5

Peak rate DL/UL 10/5 Mbps 50/25 Mbps 100/50 Mbps 150/50 Mbps 300/75 Mbps

RF bandwidth 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz

Modulation DL 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM

Modulation UL 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 64QAM

Rx diversity Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

BTS Tx diversity 1-4 Tx 1-4 Tx 1-4 Tx 1-4 Tx 1-4 Tx

MIMO DL Optional 2x2 2x2 2x2 4x4

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LTE Paired Frequency Bands in 3GPP (FDD)
Total [MHz] Uplink [MHz] Downlink [MHz] Europe Japan Americas
1 2x60 1920-1980 2110-2170 UMTS core
2 2x60 1850-1910 1930-1990 US PCS
3 2x75 1710-1785 1805-1880 1800
4 2x45 1710-1755 2110-2155 US AWS
5 2x25 824-849 869-894 US 850
6 2x10 830-840 875-885 Japan 800
7 2x70 2500-2570 2620-2690 2600
8 2x35 880-915 925-960 900
9 2x35 1749.9-1784.9 1844.9-1879.9 Japan 1700
10 2x60 1710-1770 2110-2170 Extended AWS*
11 2x25 1427.9-1452.9 1475.9-1500.9 Japan 1500
12 2x18 698-716 728-746 US700
13 2x10 777-787 746-756 US700
14 2x10 788-798 758-768 US700
xx 2x30? 790-820 832-862? UHF (TV)

13 Nokia Siemens Networks *AWS = Advanced Wireless Spectrum , in Canada


LTE Unpaired Frequency Bands in 3GPP (TDD)

Uplink and
Total downlink
Band [MHz] [MHz] 3GPP Name

33 1x20 1900-1920 UMTS TDD1


34 1x15 2010-2025 UMTS TDD2
35 1x60 1850-1910 US 1900 UL
36 1x60 1930-1960 US 1900 DL
37 1x20 1910-1930 US 1900
38 1x50 2570-2620 2600
39 1x40 1880-1920 UMTS TDD
40 1x100 2300-2400 2300

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Frequency Deployment Possible Scenarios

Urban
2.6 GHz LTE
2.1 GHz UMTS
or
2.6 GHz LTE
LTE
2.1 GHz UMTS

2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020

Rural
900 MHz GSM UMTS
LTE
or

900 MHz GSM LTE

2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020

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Introduction

Overview
Requirements
Delay & QoS
Throughput & data rates
Spectrum
LTE/ SAE key features
Network architecture
LTE Air Interface
Specification

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LTE/EPC Key Features
EPS ( Evolved Packet System ) /
SAE ( System Architecture Evolution ) /
LTE ( Long Term Evolution )
EUTRAN IP Network
( Evolved UTRAN )
EPC ( Evolved Packet Core )
IP Network

IP Network

OFDMA/SC-FDMA
MIMO ( beam-forming/ Evolved Node B / PS Domain only,
spatial multiplexing) No RNC No CS Domain
HARQ IP Transport Layer IP Transport Layer
Scalable bandwidth UL/DL resource QoS Aware
(1.4, 2.5, 5, 10, .. 20 MHz) scheduling 3GPP (GTP) or
QoS Aware IETF (MIPv6)
Self Configuration Prepared for
Non-3GPP Access
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Introduction

Overview
Requirements
Delay & QoS
Throughput & data rates
Spectrum
LTE/ SAE key features
Network architecture
LTE Air Interface
Specification

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Network Architecture Evolution
HSPA Direct tunnel I-HSPA LTE
HSPA R6 HSPA R7 HSPA R7 LTE R8

GGSN GGSN GGSN SAE GW

SGSN SGSN SGSN MME/SGSN

RNC RNC

Evolved
Node B (NB) Node B +
Node B (NB) Node B
RNC (eNB)
Functionality

Flat architecture: single network element in user plane in User plane


radio network and core network Control Plane

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Evolved Packet System (EPS) Architecture -
Subsystems
The EPS architecture goal is to optimize the system for packet data transfer.
There are no circuit switched components. The EPS architecture is made up of:
EPC: Evolved Packet Core, also referred as SAE FDD and TDD Architecture
eUTRAN: Radio Access Network, also referred as LTE Harmonisation:
No difference between FDD
and TDD mode regarding the
EPS Architecture network architecture!
LTE or eUTRAN SAE or EPC

EPC provides access to


external packet IP networks
and performs a number of
CN related functions (e.g.
QoS, security, mobility and
terminal context
management) for idle and
active terminals
eUTRAN performs all radio
interface related functions

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LTE/SAE Network Elements
Main references to architecture in 3GPP specs.: TS23.401,TS23.402,TS36.300

Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN)

HSS
eNB
Mobility
Management Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
Entity
S6a Policy & Charging
Rule Function
MME S10
X2
S7 Rx+
PCRF
S11

S1-U S5/S8 SGi


PDN
LTE-Uu Serving PDN
Evolved Node B
Gateway Gateway
(eNB)
LTE-UE
SAE
Gateway
NOTE: Interface names are from draft specification and may not be the final interface names.

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Introduction

Overview
Requirements
Delay & QoS
Throughput & data rates
Spectrum
LTE/ SAE key features
Network architecture
LTE Air Interface
Specification

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LTE Air Interface Key Features

TX RX
Fast Link Adaptation 64QAM MIMO Advanced Scheduling
due to channel behaviour Modulation Tx Channel Rx Time & Freq.

scalable Short TTI = 1 ms


Transmission
time interval
ARQ Automatic
Repeat Request
DL: OFDMA
UL: SC-FDMA

OFDM is the state-of-the-art and most efficient and robust air


interface and could be used for both FDD and TDD modes
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Introduction

Overview
Requirements
Delay & QoS
Throughput & data rates
Spectrum
LTE/ SAE key features
Network architecture
LTE Air Interface
Specification

24 Nokia Siemens Networks


3GPP List of
Specification Series

FDD and TDD Specification


Harmonisation:
The TDD mode is included
together with the FDD mode
in the same set of
specifications !

36 Series contains most


part of LTE related
specifications for Radio

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LTE Air Interface Specifications

The LTE radio interface is standardised in the 36-series of 3GPP


Release 8. The detailed physical layer structure is described in five
physical layer specifications.

LTE is standardised in the 36-series of 3GPP Release 8:


TS 36.1xx Equipment requirements (terminals, eNodeB)
TS 36.2xx Layer 1 (physical layer) specifications
TS 36.3xx Layer 2 and 3 specifications
TS 36.4xx Network signalling specifications
TS 36.5xx User equipment conformance testing

Physical layer specifications:


SC-FDMA
OFDMA
TS 36.201 Physical layer; General description
TS 36.211 Physical channels and modulation
Subcarriers TS 36.212 Multiplexing and channel coding
eNodeB
TS 36.213 Physical layer procedures
TS 36.214 Physical layer; Measurements
Frequency

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