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Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

(GD&T)
1. Objectives
2. What Is GD&T?
3. Background of GD&T
4. Datums and Features
5. The Order of Datums
6. The Datum Reference Frame
7. GD&T vs. Coordinate Tolerancing
8. Types of Tolerances
9. Straightness and Flatness
10.Circularity and Cylindricity
11. Profile of a Line and Surface
12. Angularity, Perpendicular, and Parallelism
13. Position
14. Concentricity and Symmetry
15. Circular and Total Runout
16. Material Condition Modifiers
17. Bonus Tolerance
18. The Feature Control Frame
19. Advantages of GD&T
20. Summary
Objectives
Convey the importance of using GD&T which
Provide you with:
an appreciation for the philosophy

a basic understanding of the language

the confidence to know when to require its usage


The Formula!
The right service or product
at
The right price
at
The right time
at
In the right quantity
Designers Responsibilities
Designers Communicate Ideas to
Manufacturing Through the use of:
Engineering Drawings Produced
with 2D and 3D Software
Manufacturing Specifications & Drawing
Standards
Good Verbal & Written Communication
Rapid Prototyping
The Need for Precise Communication

Formal
Precise - Indian Constitution

- Newspaper

- Menu

- Song Lyrics

- Casual Conversation
Vague
Information
The Need for Precise Communication
Engineering Drawings are legal documents.
Therefore, they should be treated as formal,
precise documents.
An engineering drawing should fully define the
part. Each specification should be measurable.
What is an Engineering Drawing ?
An engineering drawing is a document that communicates a
precise description of a part. This description consists of pictures,
words, numbers, & symbols. Together these elements
communicate part information to all drawing users. Engineering
drawing information includes:
Geometry (Shape, Size, & form of the part)
Critical functional relationships
Tolerance allowed for proper function
Material, heat treatment, surface coatings
Part documentation information (part number, revision level)
Consequences of Poor Drawings
Cost of a Drawing Error
When Discovered by the -
Design Model Shop Production Group Customer
Drawing errors cost the organization
in four ways :

1. Money
2. Time
3. Material
4. Unhappy customers
What is GD&T?
GD&T is a three dimensional international engineering language used
on mechanical drawings. This language consists mainly of symbols
which are clearly defined in ASME Y14.5M-1994 put out by the
American Society of Mechanical Engineers. This is the drawing
standard used in North America and recognized throughout the world.
It replaces the earlier ANSI Y14.5M-1982 standard and has been
expanded to be almost identical to its ISO counterpart. The standards
are complete in identifying ways of using the various geometric symbols
and other methods to clearly show the designer's intent.
GD&T is the most effective method of communicating:
on a part drawing
Function
Relationship
Dimension
Tolerances
What are Dimensions & Tolerances ?

A dimension is a numerical value expressed in


appropriate units of measure & used to define the
size, location, orientation, form ,or other geometric
characteristics of part.
A tolerance is the total amount that features of
the part are permitted to very from the specified
dimension. The tolerance is the difference between
the maximum & minimum limits.
Categories of Dimensioning

Dimensioning can be categorised:


general dimensioning,
geometric dimensioning, and
surface texture.
Types of Tolerances
A limit tolerance
A plus- minus tolerance
A bilateral tolerance
Equal bilateral tolerance
Unequal bilateral tolerance
Unilateral tolerance
Dimensioning Standards
ISO
ASME Y 14.5 M 1994

The ISO & the Y 14.5 M - 1994


dimensioning standards are 90%
common.
The Fundamental Dimensioning Rules (10) are a set of general rules
for dimensioning and interpreting drawings. ASME Y14.5M-1994
has defined a set of fundamental rules for this purpose. The ten rules
that apply to this text are paraphrased in the list below:
1. Each dimension shall have a tolerance, except those
dimensions specifically identified as reference, maximum,
minimum, or stock (commercial stock) size.
2. Dimensioning and tolerancing shall be complete so there is full
definition of each part feature.
3. Dimensions shall be selected and arranged to suit the function and
mating relationship of a part and shall not be subject to more
than one interpretation.
4. The drawing should define a part without specifying
manufacturing methods.
5. A 90 angle applies where centerlines and lines depicting
features are shown on a drawing at right angles, and no
dimension is shown.
6 A 90 basic angle applies where centerlines of
features in a pattern-or surfaces shown at right angles
on a drawing-are located and defined by basic
dimensions, and no angle is specified.
7. Unless otherwise specified, all dimensions are
applicable at 20 C (68 F).
8. All dimensions and tolerances apply in the free-state
condition. This principle does not apply to non-rigid
parts.
9. Unless otherwise specified, all geometric tolerances
apply to the full depth, length, and width of the feature.
10.Dimensions and tolerances apply only at the drawing
level where they are specified. A dimension specified
on a detail drawing is not mandatory for that feature on
the assembly drawing.
Datum's
UP

BACK
LEFT

6 LINEAR AND
6 ROTATIONAL
DEGREES OF
FREEDOM

FRONT RIGHT

DOWN
UNRESTRICTED FREE
MOVEMENT IN SPACE
Datum's

A theoretical feature (e.g. plane, line)

Serves as a global coordinate frame for the part


during different activities such as design,
manufacturing and inspection.

Each design must specify the datum planes


(or other datums)
Datum Reference Frame
Datum order
The actual plane on the part (imperfect)
corresponding to a (perfect) datum plane

Sequence of establishing datums :


PRIMARY (3 points) SECONDARY (2 points) TERTIARY (1 point)
Features & Features of Size (FOS)
A feature is a general term applied
to a physical portion of a part, such
as a surface ,hole, or slot.
A feature of Size is one cylindrical
or spherical surface ,or a set of
two opposed elements or opposed
parallel surface associated with
size dimension.
Front Top
Left
Side
Back

Hole Right Bottom


Surface Side
External Feature External Feature

Internal Feature

Internal Feature
The Co-ordinate Tolerancing System
Shortcomings of Co-ordinate Tolerancing
Three major shortcomings they are :
1. Square or rectangular tolerance zones
2. Fixed - size tolerance zones
3. Ambiguous instructions for inspection
Conventional (Coordinate) Tolerancing
Square or rectangular tolerance zones
8.5 +/- 0.1

Rectangular
Tolerance Zone

10.25 +/- 0.5

10.25 +/- 0.5

Coordinate Dimensioning
Co-ordinate Tolerancing uses
Fixed - size tolerance zones
8.5 +/- 0.1

Rectangular
Tolerance Zone Print specifications requires Hole position
10.25 +/- 0.5 within 0.5 mm square tolerance zone,
whether the hole is smallest size or largest
10.25 +/- 0.5
size limits. If hole function is to provide
location with proper clearance then ,if hole
size increases then it will not provide
appropriate clearance may increase (when
hole size is large ) or may decrease (when
hole size is small. )

Square & Fixed tolerance zone can cause


functional failure.
Co-ordinate Tolerancing &
Ambiguous instructions for inspection
Geometric Position Tolerancing
8.5 +/- 0.1

1.4 A B C

10.25
B

10.25 C

Geometric Dimensioning
+/- 0.5
1.4

+/- 0.5

Rectangular Tolerance Zone Circular Tolerance Zone

Circular Tolerance Zone


57% Larger
Tolerance Zone
Rectangular Tolerance Zone

Increased Effective Tolerance


Co-ordinate Dimension Usage
Type of Appropriate Use Poor Use
Dimension
Size X

Chamfer X

Radius X

Locating Part Feature X

Controlling Angular X
Relationship
Define the Form of X
Part Features
LOCATE THE PART PER NOTE
LOCATE THE PART PER NOTE
1.WHEN THE HOLESARE THE
SMALLEST DIAMETER, THE 1.WHEN THE HOLESARE THE
CENTER OF EACH HOLE MUST SMALLEST DIAMETER, THE
BE LOCATED WITHIN A 0.7 CENTER OF EACH HOLE MUST
DIAMATER CYLINDERICAL BE LOCATED WITHIN A 0.5
TOLERANCE ZONE. WHEN A DIAMATER CYLINDERICAL
HOLE IS LARGER THAN ITS TOLERANCE ZONE. WHEN A
MINIMUM DIAMETER, HOLE IS LARGER THAN ITS
SUBTRACT THE MINIMUM MINIMUM DIAMETER,
DIAMETER FROM THE SUBTRACT THE MINIMUM
DIAMETER FROM THE ACTUAL DIAMETER FROM THE
DIAMETER AND ADD THIS DIAMETER FROM THE ACTUAL
AMOUNT TO THE DIAMETER AND ADD THIS
CYLINDRICAL TOLERANCE AMOUNT TO THE CYLINDRICAL
ZONE. THE HOLE CENTER TOLERANCE ZONE. THE HOLE
MUST BE WITHIN THE LARGER CENTER MUST BE WITHIN THE
TOLERANCE ZONE DIAMETER. LARGER TOLERANCE ZONE
DIAMETER.

DIAMETER MARKED ARE GAUGE


DIMENSIONS FOR PART TOLERANCES
NOTE 1 SEE NOTE WHICH ARE ASSOCIATED
WITH THE PATR.
MOUNT THE PART IN A SET OF 3 MUTUALLY
PERPENDICULAR PLANES.SURFACE A CONTACTA A PLANE
SECOND & SURFACE C CONTACTS A PLANE THIRD . MAKE
ALL MEASUREMENTS PERPENDICULAR OR PARALLEL TO
THESE PLANES.
Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing System

GD&T is an international language used on drawings that describes


the size, form, orientation, and location of part features.

It is also a design-dimensioning philosophy that encourages


designers to define a part based on how it functions in the final
product or assembly. GD&T is an exact language that enables
designers to "say what they mean" on a drawing, thus improving
product designs.

Production uses the language to interpret the design intent and to


determine the best manufacturing approach, and inspection looks to
the language to determine proper set-up. By providing uniformity in
the drawing specifications and interpretation, GD&T reduces
controversy, guesswork, and assumptions throughout the design -
manufacturing - inspection process.
Summarised difference between
Co - ordinate & Geometric Tolerancing
Drawing Concept Co - ordinate Tolerancing Geometric Tolerancing
TOLERANCE CONDITION CONDITION
Square or rectangular tolerance zones for Can use diameter symbol to allow round
ZONE SHAPE hole locations tolerance zones

RESULTS RESULTS
Less tolerance available for hole 57% more tolerance for hole location
Higher manufacturing costs Lower manufacturing costs

TOLERANCE CONDITION CONDITION


Tolerance zone is fixed Use of MMC modifier allows tolerance
ZONE zone to increase under certain conditions
FLEXIBILITY RESULTS RESULTS
Functional parts scrapped Functional parts used
Higher operating costs Lower operating costs

EASE OF CONDITION CONDITION


Implied datum allows choices for set up The datum system communicates one
INSPECTION when inspecting the part set up for inspection
RESULTS RESULTS
Multiple inspectors may get different results Clear instructions for inspection
Good parts scrapped Eliminates disputes over part acceptance
Bad parts accepted
Types of Tolerances
Form
Profile
Orientation
Runout
Location
Others
Form Tolerances
A form tolerance specified how far an actual surface or feature
is permitted to deviate form the desired form specified in
drawing; includes: flatness, straightness, circularity,
cylindricity, profile of surface,& profile of a line
LINES SURFACES
CHARACTERISTIC SYMBOL CHARACTERISTIC SYMBOL

straightness flatness

circularity cylindricity
Profile Tolerances

LINES SURFACE
CHARACTERISTIC SYMBOL CHARACTERISTIC SYMBOL

profile of line profile of surface


Orientation Tolerance
An orientation specifies how far the actual
orientation between two features is permitted to
deviate from the perfect orientation given in the
drawing ; includes perpendicularity, angularity &
parallelism

CHARACTERISTIC SYMBOL

angularity

perpendicularity

parallelism
Runout Tolerances
A runout tolerance specifies how far an actual
surface or feature is permitted to deviate from the
desired form given in a drawing during full
rotation of the part on a datum axis. There are two
types of runout ; circular runout & total runout.

CHARACTERISTIC SYMBOL

circular runout

total runout
Location Tolerances
A location tolerance specifies how far an actual
feature is permitted to deviate from the perfect
location given in a drawing as related to datums or
other features; includes position, concentricity &
symmetry.

CHARACTERISTIC SYMBOL

position

Concentricity (coaxiality)

symmetry
What is a good level of tolerance?

Designer:

tight tolerance is better


(less vibration, less wear, less noise)

Machinist:

large tolerances is better


(easier to machine, faster to produce,
easier to assemble)
variations
Material Conditions

Maximum Material Condition ( MMC )

Least Material Condition ( LMC )


Material Conditions (MMC)
Maximum Material Condition ( MMC )
The maximum material condition of an external
feature of size ( i.e. Shaft) is its largest size limit.
The maximum material condition of an internal
feature of size (i.e. Hole) is its smallest size limit.
Permits greater possible tolerance as the part
feature sizes vary from their calculated MMC
Ensures interchangeability
Used
With interrelated features with respect to location
Size, such as, hole, slot, pin, etc.
Material Conditions (LMC)

Least Material Condition ( LMC )


The least material condition of an external
feature of size ( i.e. Shaft) is its smallest
size limit.
The least material condition of an internal
feature of size (i.e. Hole) is its largest size
limit.
MMC vs. LMC

Maximum Material Condition Least Material Condition


Regardless of Feature Size ( RFS )

Regardless of feature size is the term that


indicates a geometric tolerance applies at any
increment of size of the feature within its size
tolerance.
An other way to visualize RFS is that the
geometric tolerance applies at what ever size
the part is produced.
Example to added Explaning
MMC, LMC,RFS.
Material Condition Usage
Each material condition is used for different
functional reasons.
Geometrical tolerances are often specified to
apply at MMC when the function of a FOS is
assembly.
Geometrical tolerances are often specified to
apply at LMC to insure a minimum distance on a
part.
Geometrical tolerances are often specified to
apply at RFS to insure symmetrical
relationships.
Modifiers
Modifiers communicate additional information about
the drawing or tolerancing of a part.
TERM ABBREVIATION SYMBOL
MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION MMC M
LEAST MATERIAL CONDITION LMC L
PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE - P
TARGET PLANE - T
DIAMETER DIA

RADIUS - R
CONTROLLED RADIUS - CR

REFERANCE - ( )
Bonus Tolerance
Here is the beauty of the system! The
specified tolerance was:

This means that the tolerance is .10 if


the hole size is the MMC size, or 25.00
If the hole is bigger, we get a bonus
tolerance equal to the difference
between the MMC size and the actual
size.
This means that the tolerance
is .010 if the hole size is the
MMC size, or .497. If the hole
is bigger, we get a bonus
tolerance equal to the
difference between the MMC
size and the actual size.

Actual Hole Size Bonus Tol. of Tol. Zone


.497 (MMC) 0 .010
.002 (.010 + .002 =
.499 (.499 - .497 = .002) .012
.012)
.003 (.010 + .003 =
.500 (.500 - .497 = .003) .013
.013)
.502 .005 .015
.503 (LMC) .006 .016
.504 ? ?
!
This system makes sense the larger the hole is, the more it can
deviate from true position and still fit in the mating condition
.497 = BONUS 0
TOL ZONE .010
.499 - .497 = BONUS .002
BONUS + TOL. ZONE = .012
.501 - .497 = BONUS .004
BONUS + TOL. ZONE = .014
.503 - .497 = BONUS .006
BONUS + TOL. ZONE = .016
TYPE OF TYPE OF
CHARACTERISTIC SYMBOL
FEATURE TOLERANCE

FLATNESS
GEOMETRIC
CHARACTERISTICS
INDIVIDUAL STRAIGHTNESS
(No Datum
SYMBOLS
FORM
Reference) CIRCULARITY

CYLINDRICITY

INDIVIDUAL LINE PROFILE


or RELATED PROFILE
FEATURES SURFACE PROFILE

PERPENDICULARITY

ORIENTATION ANGULARITY

PARALLELISM
RELATED
FEATURES CIRCULAR RUNOUT
(Datum RUNOUT
Reference TOTAL RUNOUT
Required)
CONCENTRICITY

LOCATION POSITION

SYMMETRY
Other symbols
CHARACTERISTIC SYMBOL

maximum material condition (MMC) M

least material condition (LMC) L

datum feature A

basic dimension X.XXX


Application
Feature
FEATUREControl Frame
CONTROL FRAME

GEOMETRIC SYMBOL
TOLERANCE INFORMATION
DATUM REFERENCES
COMPARTMENT VARIABLES
THE

RELATIVE TO
OF THE FEATURE
MUST BE WITHIN
CONNECTING WORDS
Placement of Feature Control Frames
May be attached a side, end or corner of the
symbol box to an extension line.

Applied to surface.

Applied to axis
May be below or closely adjacent to the
dimension or note pertaining to that
feature.

.500.005
This is specified on drawing
Will the drawing below produce a part that most resembles
Figure A or Figure B?
The correct answer is "B

Datum A removes one translation and two rotations from the mobility of the part.

Datum axis B removes the last two translational degrees of freedom of the part
relative to the datum reference framework.

Datum C is the axis of datum feature C. This axis is perfectly oriented to the datum
reference framework by the basic dimensions. The only purpose of datum C is to
remove the last rotational degree of freedom of the part relative to the datum
reference framework.
The figure illustrates the datum reference frame associated with the part. This
framework made up of three mutually perpendicular planes could have been
drawn at the angle shown so that one of the planes passes through the axis of
datum feature C without changing the meaning. The hole in the top of the part
is shown perpendicular to vertical and horizontal centerlines on the drawing.
These centerlines represent the datum reference frame illustrated. There is an
implied 90 basic angle between the hole and one of the planes of the datum
reference frame.
Tolerance Analysis
100 +/- 0.1 (C)
Given component
49.9 +/-0.1 49.9 +/-0.1
tolerances,
? +/- ?
(A) (B) determine the limits
(X) of the measured
dimension (the gap
between the blocks
and the base).

First find the dimension chain


(or path equation):

X=C-A-B
Worst Case Analysis
Find the extreme limits of the dimension of interest
100 +/- 0.1 (C)

49.9 +/-0.1 49.9 +/-0.1 (X) ? +/- ?


(A) (B)

X=C-A-B

x (100 0.1) (49.9 0.1) (49.9 0.1) 0.1


x (100 0.1) (49.9 0.1) (49.9 0.1) 0.5
Statistical Analysis
Assuming statistical independence, treat dimensions as variables of
normal distributions with means at nominal dimensions and standard
deviations as 1/6 of the tolerance, i.e., 6 = tol. (tol. is the size of the
tolerance zone)
X C A B
Xnominal= 100-49.9-49.9=0.2

Var ( X ) Var (C ) Var ( A) Var ( B)

Var ( X ) X
2

tol X 6 C2 A2 B2
0.2 2
6 3 ( ) 0.346
6
0 . 346/2
Final dimension: 0.2 +/-0.173
GD&T Benefits
Improves Communication
GD&T can provide uniformity in drawing specifications and interpretation,
thereby reducing controversy, guesswork and assumptions. Design,
production, and inspection all work in the same language.
Provides Better Product Design
The use of GD&T can improve your product designs by providing designers
with the tools to "say what they mean," and by following the functional
dimensioning philosophy.
Increases Production Tolerances
There are two ways tolerances are increased through the use of GD&T. First,
under certain conditions, GD&T provides "bonus"- or extra-tolerance for
manufacturing. This additional tolerance can make a significant savings in
production costs. Second, by the use of functional dimensioning, the
tolerances are assigned to the part based upon its functional requirements.
This often results in a larger tolerance for manufacturing. It eliminates the
problems that result when designers copy existing tolerances, or assign tight
tolerances, because they don't know how to determine a reasonable
(functional) tolerance.
Advantages of GD&T
Saves money
For example, if large number of parts are being made GD&T
can reduce or eliminate inspection of some features.
Provides bonus tolerance
Ensures design, dimension, and tolerance requirements as
they relate to the actual function
Ensures interchangeability of mating parts at the assembly
Provides uniformity
It is a universal understanding of the symbols instead of
words
What GD&T Does Well
Tolerancing for assembly
Properly used GD&T can ensure assimilability
Interference avoidance
GD&T controls the extreme points in features
Enable tolerance stack up calculations
By capturing geometrical relationships
What GD&T does not do well
Sealing interfaces
Interference fits
Adaptable (non-stiff) parts
Hydrodynamic interfaces
Roller bearings
When to use geometric tolerancing
Not needed
if dimensional tolerances & the manufacturing
process provide adequate control

Is needed
When part features are critical to function or interchangeability
When errors of shape & form must be held within tighter limits than
normally expected from the manufacturing process
When datum references are required to ensure consistency between design,
manufacture & verification operations
When computerization techniques in design & manufacture are used
WHEN TO USE GD&T
When part features are critical to a function or
interchangeability
When functional gauging is desirable
When datum references are desirable to insure
consistency between design
When standard interpretation or tolerance is not
already implied
When it allows a better choice of machining
processes to be made for production of a part
GD&T Rules
Rule 1:-
When only a tolerance of size is specified, the
limit of size of an individual feature prescribe the
extent to which variations in its form - as well as
in its size are allowed.

In industry, Rule 1 is often paraphrased as


perfect form at MMC or the envelop rule.
GD&T Rules
Rule 2:-
RFS applies, with respect to the individual
tolerance, datum reference, or both, where no
modifying symbol is specified. MMC or LMC
must be specified on the drawing where
required.
In industry, Rule 2 called the all applicable
geometric tolerance rule
Typical ISO Tolerances for Processes
Process Tolerance Grade
IT 4 IT 5 IT 6 IT 7 IT 8 IT 9 IT 10 IT 11
Lapping & Honing
Cylindrical Grinding
Surface Grinding
Diamond Turning & Boring
Broaching
Powder Metal (Sized)
Reaming
Turning and boring
Powder Metal (Sintered)
Milling
Planing & Shaping
Drilling
Punching
Die Casting
ISO Standard Roughness Grades
N Ra N Ra N Ra
value (mm) value (mm) value (mm)
1 0.025 5 0.4 9 6.3
2 0.05 6 0.8 10 12.5
3 0.1 7 1.6 11 25
4 0.2 8 3.2 12 50
Fundamental Rules
As the purpose of GD&T is to describe the engineering intent of the item, there are some fundamental rules that need
to be applied:
All dimensions must have a tolerance. Nothing can be made to perfection; therefore, an appropriate tolerance
must be available. Tolerances may come in the form of limits of size applied to basic dimensions, with +-
style tolerance applied directly to dimensions as a tolerance block or a general note. The only exception is
when a dimension is marked as minimum, maximum, stock or reference.
All dimensions necessary to exactly reproduce the shown geometry must by present. Measurement and
scaling should not be required.
In order to avoid ambiguities, only the minimum dimensions required should be present. If additional
dimensions would be helpful but not required, they should be marked as reference.
Dimension should be applied to features and arranged in such a way as to represent the function of the
individual features.
Descriptions of manufacturing methods should be avoided. The geometry should be described without
explicitly defining the method of manufacture.
If certain sizes are required during the processing, but are not required in the final geometry (due to shrinkage
or other causes) they should be marked as NON-MANDATORY.
All symbols should be arranged for maximum readability. They should be applied to visible lines in true
profiles whenever possible.
When geometry is normally controlled by gage sizes or by code, the dimensions should still be included but
should with the gauge or code number in parentheses following or below the dimension.
Angles of 90 degrees are assumed when basic dimensions or centrelines are used but no angular dimension is
explicitly shown.
Dimensions and tolerances are valid at 20 degrees Celsius unless stated otherwise.
Unless explicitly stated, all dimensions and tolerances are valid when the item is in a free, unconstrained state.
Dimensions and tolerances apply to the full length, width, and depth of a feature.
Dimensions only apply at the level of the drawing where they are placed. If the intention is for them to apply
at multiple levels, this must be stated.