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2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.

McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright 2014 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Chapter 2
Financial Statements and
Accounting Concepts/Principles
PowerPoint Authors:
Susan Coomer Galbreath, Ph.D., CPA
Charles W. Caldwell, D.B.A., CMA
Jon A. Booker, Ph.D., CPA, CIA
Cynthia J. Rooney, Ph.D., CPA

McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright 2014 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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LO 1 Financial Statements
Transactions
Procedures for sorting, classifying,
and presenting (bookkeeping)
Selection of alternative methods of
reflecting the effects of certain
transactions (accounting)

Financial
Statements
An entitys financial statements are the
end product of a process that starts with
transactions between the entity and other
organizations and individuals. 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
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LO 1 Accounts
Transactions are
summarized in accounts.
Cash
Accounts are used to
Accounts organize like-kind
Receivable transactions.

Accounts Account balances are then


Payable used in the preparation of
financial statements.

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LO 2 Financial Statements
Financial Statement that
Required Disclosure
Satisfies Requirement
Financial position at the end of
Balance Sheet
the period
Earnings for the period Income Statement
Cash flows during the period Statement of Cash Flows
Investments by and
Statement of Changes in
distributions to owners during
Stockholders' Equity
the period

In addition to the financial statements, the annual report will


probably include several accompanying notes or
explanations of the accounting policies used and detailed
information about many of the amounts and captions shown
in the financial statements.
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LO 3 Balance SheetElements
Assets represent the amount of resources
owned by the entity.
Liabilities are
amounts owed
to other entities.

Equity is the
ownership right
of the owner(s) of
the entity in the
assets that
remain after
deducting the
liabilities.
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LO 3 Balance Sheet

Assets = Liabilities + Equity

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LO 4 Balance Sheet
Current assets are those assets that are likely to be
converted into cash or used to benefit the entity within
one year.

Plant and
equipment
includes long-
term assets that
will benefit the
entity over
several years.

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LO 4 Balance Sheet
Long-term liabilities are those liabilities that will not be
repaid within one year of the balance sheet date.

Current
liabilities
are
those
liabilities
that are
to be
paid
within
one year.
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LO 4 Income Statement
The income statement shows the profit (or loss) for the
period of time under consideration.
Revenues result from the Costs and expenses
entitys operating are incurred in generating
activities (e.g., selling revenues and operating
merchandise). the entity.

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LO 4 Income Statement
The income statement shows the profit (or loss) for the
period of time under consideration.

Gains and losses are also reported on the income statement and result
from non-operating activities, rather than from the day-to-day operating
activities that generate revenues and expenses.

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LO 4
Statement of Changes
in Stockholders' Equity

This financial statement shows the detail of stockholders'


equity and explains the changes that occurred in the
components of stockholders' equity during the year.
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LO 4 Statement of Cash Flows


The purpose of this financial statement is to identify the
sources and uses of cash during the year.

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LO 4 Time-Line Model

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LO 4
Financial Statement
Relationships

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LO 4 Balance Sheet
Account Definition
Cash Cash on hand and in the bank
Accounts receivable Amounts due from customers
Merchandise inventory Cost of merchandise acquired and not yet sold
Equipment Cost of equipment purchased and used in business
Accumulated depreciation Portion of the cost of equipment that is estimated to have
been used up in the process of operating the business
Short-term debt Amounts borrowed that will be repaid within one year of the
balance sheet date
Accounts payable Amounts due to suppliers
Other accrued liabilities Amounts owed to various creditors
Long-term debt Amounts borrowed from banks or other creditors that will
not be repaid within one year from the balance sheet date
Stockholders' equity Residual claim of owners, computed as "assets minus
liabilities"

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LO 4 Income Statement
Captions Explanation
Net sales Amount of sales of merchandise to customers, less the
amount of customer returns of merchandise
Cost of goods sold Represents the total cost of merchandise removed from
inventory and delivered to customers as a result of sales
Gross profit Difference between net sales and cost of goods sold;
Represents the seller's maximum amount of "cushion"
from which all other expenses of the business must be
deducted before it is possible to have net income
Selling, general, and Represents the operating expenses of the entity
administrative expenses
Income from operations Represents one of the most important measures of the
firm's activities
Interest expense Represents the cost of using borrowed funds
Income taxes Shown after all of the other income statement items have
been reported because income taxes are a function of the
firm's income before taxes
Net income per share of A significant item in evaluating the market value of a share
common stock of common stock; Often referred to as "earnings per
outstanding share" or EPS
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LO 4
Statement of Changes
in Stockholders' Equity
Captions Explanation
Paid-in capital Represents the total amount invested in the entity by the
stockholders
Common stock Reflects the number of shares authorized by the corporation's
charter, the number of shares issued to stockholders, and the
number of shares still held by the stockholders

Additional paid-in capital Difference between the total amount invested by the
stockholders and the par value or stated value of the stock
Retained earnings Represents the cumulative net income of the entity that has
been retained for use in the business
Dividends
Distributions of earnings to the stockholders

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LO 4 Statement of Cash Flows


Captions Explanation
Cash flows from operating Shown first; Net income is the starting point for this
activities measure of cash generation
Depreciation expense Added back to net income because it is subtracted to
arrive at net income, but does not require the use of cash
Increase in accounts Deducted because it reflects sales revenues, included in
receivable net income, but not yet received in cash
Increase in merchandise Deducted because cash was spent to acquire the
inventory increase in inventory
Increase in current Added because cash has not yet been paid for the
liabilities products and services that have been received during the
current fiscal period
Cash flows from investing Shows the cash sources and uses related to long-lived
activities assets
Cash flows from financing Shows the cash sources and uses related to transactions
activities with creditors and stockholders
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LO 5
Accounting Concepts and
Principles

Now Future
Accounting Entity Going Concern Concept
Every economic entity can be The presumption that the entity
separately identified and will continue to operate in the
accounted for. futureits not being liquidated.

Unit of Measurement Cost Principle


Only transactions denominated Transactions are recorded at
in dollars (currency) are recorded their original cost to the entity as
in the accounting records. measured in dollars.
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LO 5
Accounting Concepts and
Principles

Objectivity Accounting Period


The accountants desire to have a The period of time selected for
given transaction recorded in the reporting results of operations
same way in all situations. and changes in financial position.

Matching Concept Accrual Accounting


All expenses incurred to generate Recognize revenue at the point of
sale and recognize expenses
that periods revenues be
deducted from revenues earned. when incurred, even though the
cash receipt or payment may
occur at another time.
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LO 5
Accounting Concepts and
Principles
Full Disclosure
Consistency Circumstances and events that
Provides meaningful trend make a difference to financial
comparisons over several years. statement users should be
disclosed.

Materiality Conservatism
The benefit of increased accuracy When in doubt, make judgments
should outweigh the cost of and estimates that result in lower
achieving the increased accuracy. profits and asset valuations.

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LO 6
Accrual Accounting Vs. Cash
Flows
Revenue Recognition -Timing is the Key
Accrual accounting Cash flow
recognizes: recognizes:

Revenue Revenue
when revenue is earned, when payment is received
at the point of sale of for services rendered
services or products. or products sold.

Expenses Expenses
when they are incurred. when they are paid.
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LO 8
The Corporations Annual
Report
The annual report is
distributed to
shareholders (and others).
It contains the financial
statements, together with
the report of the external
auditors examination of
the financial statements.
It also contains
Managements Discussion
and Analysis (MD&A).

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End of Chapter 2

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