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Biomass Energy

&
Presented By: Its Prospect In Bangladesh
Md. Salman Rabbi Limon
MD Sakhawat Hossain
Md. Khalid Hasan
Achintya Kumar Saha
Mohd. Mahfuzur Rahman
Sourav Barua
Md. Kamaruddin Elias
Md. Ali Azam
What is Biomass
Plant and animal
material, especially
agricultural waste
products, used as a
source of fuel are
called biomass.
Sources of Biomass
Whats Biomass Energy?
Biomass is organic
material that comes
from plants and
animals, and it is a
renewable source
of energy.
When biomass is
burned, the chemical
energy of biomass is
released as heat.
How Biomass Energy is Created?
How Biomass Energy is Created?
Photosynthesis Process:
Biomass is produced in the photosynthesis process which
converts the solar energy into biomass energy.
How Biomass Energy is Created?
Why We Use Biomass?

Net Carbon
Increment
is Zero.
Why We Use Biomass?
Tree and Plant absorb
62 billion ton of energy
per year.
We use 13.2 billion ton
of energy per year.
Biomass energy
conversion
The various process used
for coversion of biomass
into energy or bio fuels can
be classified as follows:

1) Direct combustion
2) Thermo chemical
conversion
3) Biochemical
conversion
Biomass Conversion
Direct Combustion
Combustion - direct
combustion of biomass is
the most common way of
converting biomass to
energy - both heat and
electricity. Compared to
the gasification and
pyrolysis it is the simplest
and most developed.
THERMO CHEMICAL
CONVERSION
The thermo chemical
reaction can convert the
organic biomass into more
valuable and convenient
form of products as gaseous
and liquid fuels residue and
by-products etc.
These processes can be
carried out in following
ways
Gasification
Pyrolysis
Gasification
Pyrolysis
Bio-chemical conversion
Fermentation

Fermentation is used commercially on a large scale in various countries to produce


ethanol from sugar crops (e.g. sugar cane , sugar beet) and starch crops (e.g. maize ,
wheat). The starch is converted to sugar by enzymes . After that, sugar is converted to
ethanol using yeast and ethanol is purified by distillation. In case of sugar cane , the
bagasse can be used as fuel for boilers or subsequent gasification.
Anaerobic digestion

Anaerobic digestion is the conversion of organic material directly to gas


, called biogas .Biogas is mainly composed of methane (CH4) (about50
70%)and carbon di oxide (CO2) (about3040%).
It also contains small amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S),nitrogen(N2),
hydrogen(H2), ammonia(NH3) and carbon monoxide(CO).
Biogas Plants
Biogas Generation:
Biogas contains 55-65% methane, 30-40% CO2, and the remainders are
impurities like H2S, H2, N2 gases.

Cattle dung can produce 0.037 m3 of biogas per kg of cow dung. The
calorific value of gas is 21000 to 23000 kJ/kg or about 38000 kJ/m3 of
gas. The material from which biogas is produced retains its value as
fertilizer or as animal feed which can be used after certain processing.
Biogas Plant Designs:
Most of the developing countries utilize two basic designs:
1. The fixed dome concept (Chinese)
2. The floating cover concept (Indian)
Fixed-Dom Type
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

Cost of plant is less Needs skilled labour to


compare to floating drum operate.
type plant.

Loss of heat is negligible Gas production per m3 of


since these are constructed digester volume is less.
underground.

Gas is produced at variable


No corrosion problems as pressure.
in fixed dome type.

It is maintenance free.
Floating cover type
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

It has higher cost.


High gas yield.

Heat is lost through metal gas


No problem of gas leakage. holder.

Requires painting of drums to


Works under constant avoid corrosion at least twice
pressure naturally. a year.

Requires maintenance of
No problem of mixing of pipes and joints.
biogas with external air,
thus no danger of explosion
RE scenario of Bangladesh
RE Goals for Bangladesh
Bangladesh Government has set a target to have 3,168 MW of
renewable energy capacity installed by 2021.
10% share oF RE in electricity generation by the end 2021 .
Focus on solar and wind technology
Addition of 1,740 MW of solar power by 2021
Addition 1,370 MW of wind energy capacity by 2021
The remaining balance (58 MW) to be made up of biomass-
based power generation technologies (47 MW); biogas (7 MW)
and minihydro power projects (4 MW).

About 1,055 MW will be added through state-owned


companies. The remaining 2113 MW will be installed by private
sector companies.
Prospect of Biomass Energy in
Bangladesh
Different government, semi-government and NGOs such as
BCSIR
LGED
EPCD
DANIDA
BSCIC
BRAC
Grameen Shakti (GS)
Infrastructure Development Company Limited (IDCOL)
some NGOs
department of Youth & Sports etc. are involved in disseminating the
biogas technology throughout the country.
Prospect of Biomass Energy in
Bangladesh

Figure : Year-wise installations by IDCOL

Figure : Year-wise installations by Grameen Shakti


Prospect of Biomass Energy in
Bangladesh
Overall Progress:
Organization-wise Installations: (upto 31 December 2012)

*This figure does not include BCSIRs latest ongoing project; **Approximate figure
Prospect of Biomass Energy in
Bangladesh
Attractive Packages, subsidy,loan for installing Biogas Plant

Source : http://www.gshakti.org
First Ever Biomass Power Plant in
Bangladesh
The facility, located in an
unelectrified town named
Kapashia
(Gazipur district).
The green power plant,
the first ever its kind in
Bangladesh, is a 250 kW
biomass gasification
facility that generates
renewable electricity
from abundant
agricultural residues such
as rice husks.
Cogeneration in sugar mills using
sugarcane bagasse as fuel

Using bagasse, the


14 sugar-mill based
cogeneration
power plants have
already been
installed with total
generation capacity
of 37.6 MW

Source: Biomass energy in Bangladesh: Current status and prospects


by A.S.N Huda , Saad Mekhilef and Amimul Ahsan
POTENTIAL OF BIOGAS IN
BANGLADESH
Bangladesh is predominantly an agrarian economy .
Plenty of renewable sources of energy.
Huge potentials for utilizing biogas technologies.
During winter seasons, huge amounts of vegetables are
cultivated in our country.
Again huge amounts of vegetables are wasted, which may be a
source of biogas.
According to FAOSTAT (2011),
it is estimated that there are 23 million cattle in Bangladesh
which produce 230 million Kg of cow dung each day.
approximately 234.7 million chickens and 44.12 million ducks
together produces a total poultry litter of 27.8 million Kg/day.
http://faostat.fao.org/site/573/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=573#ancor(retrieved on October 10, 2013 )
POTENTIAL OF BIOGAS IN
BANGLADESH
An estimate of the total biogas potential in the country is presented below .
A. Cattle Dung
1) Total cattle population of Bangladesh = 23 million
2) Dung available = 230 million Kg/day
3) Gas that may be obtained = 3106 million m3 (Mm3)/year
4) (1 kg of dung yields = 0.037 m3 gas, each cow yields= 10 Kg dung/day)
B. Poultry Litter
1) Total poultry population (Chickens+ Ducks) of Bangladesh, (234+44) =278
million
2) Total poultry litter that may be obtained = 27.8 million Kg/day
3) Gas that may be obtained = 750 Mm3/year
4) (1 kg litter yields = 0.074 m3 gas, each bird yields = 0.1 Kg litter/day)
Source: PRESENT SCENARIO OF BIOGAS TECHNOLOGY IN BANGLADESH-PROSPECTS, POTENTIALS AND BARRIERS
by Shahinur Rahaman and Abu Yousuf
Area of Future Improvement of
Biogas Plant
Portable Biogas Plant:
India and Israel have already developed portable biogas plant.

Benefits:
Requires small space
It is portable
Runs on kitchen waste
Produces fertilizer
Highly efficient
Area of Future Improvement of
Biogas Plant
Conclusion:
Energy recovery from available biomass materials through biogas
production can be a strong alternative option to supplement rural
energy demand, which can consequently alleviate poverty , reduce
higher level of deforestation, net greenhouse gas emissions as well as
use of fossil fuels.
The government should be more conscientious for overcoming
technical and commercial barriers, monitoring and fast
implementation of projects, providing funds, reducing cost, raising
mass awareness and research activities.
Thank You