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MEX3235 Thermo-Fluids

Basic concepts of Thermodynamics


Working substance
Macroscopic and Microscopic analysis
Properties
State
Phases
Processes
System boundary and Control volume
Open system and closed system
Internal energy
Enthalpy
Heat and specific heat capacity
Thermodynamics ?
Thermodynamics where thermo means heat
and dynamics, means power is the study of
energy conversion between mechanical work
and heat, and the macroscopic variables such
as temperature, volume and pressure.

Thermodynamics is a science and, an important


engineering tool used to describe processes that
involve changes in temperature, transformation
of energy, and the relationships between heat and
work.
This
is the substance that facilitate the work
and heat transfer in a thermodynamic system
Workingsubstances are in general fluids that
are capable of changing its physical shape
Pure substance-single substance or mixture of
substances which has the same molecular
structure throughout its mass. Ex. Water or
steam
The analysis of a substance by its properties
is called macroscopic analysis
The analysis done on the behavior of the
individual atoms and molecules of a
substance is called microscopic analysis

In Engineering Thermodynamics we mainly


focus on Macroscopic Analysis
A property of a system is any quantity that
helps to define a unique position (state) of a
substance
Thermodynamic properties are classified as:
Intensive properties
Independent of the mass of the substance
Ex: pressure, temperature
Extensive properties
Dependent on the mass of the system
Ex: Volume, Enthalpy, Internal Energy
Any property that determines the transfer of
Mass, Momentum or energy is referred to as
Transport Property
Examples: thermal conductivity, viscosity
State is the condition of existence of the
substance or a system
Thermodynamic properties of a substance
defines the State
At a particular state a substance has certain
properties that are functions of that state,
and certain relations exist between the
properties.
Substances can exit in 3 phases
Solid
Liquid
Vapor or gas (Steam for water)
Thermodynamics deals with equilibrium
states.
Thermal equilibrium
Temperature is same throughout system

Phase equilibrium
No change in the amounts of different
phases
Chemical equilibrium
Chemical composition does not change
with time.
Processis an operation that changes the
state of a substance.
Constant Constant
Polytrophic
volume pressure
process
process process

Process from state 1 to state 2


The thermodynamic cycle consists of a series
of operations carried out on a substance
(fluid) after which it returns to its original
state.
A thermodynamic system is defined as a
volume in space or a well defined set of
materials.
The imaginary outer edge of the system is
called its boundary.

A system can be
the part which is
under investigation
and it is identified
by its boundary around
which are the surroundings
A system in which no
matter enters or A system in which
leaves (i.e. crosses matter crosses the
the boundary) is boundary is called
called an open system.
a closed system Mass changes in the
Mass remains process
constant in the
process
Example: Piston and cylinder - a closed system

m
Piston

Gas at pressure, p
Example: The gas turbine engine - an open system

Fuel Flow In

Combustor

Air Flow In Shaft Work Output

Compressor Work Out

Exhaust Gases Out


A volume of a system demarcated for the
purpose of study is called control volume.
Control volume
A control volume may involve fixed, moving, real, and
imaginary boundaries.

open system
closed system
Temperature
is one of the
most
intensive
properties of
a substance

A measure proportional to the kinetic


energy associated with the disordered microscopic
motion of atoms and molecules.
The store of energy which results from the
motion of atoms and molecules of a substance
is referred to as Internal Energy

Symbol U is used for internal Energy


1-5

Systems Internal Energy = Sum of Microscopic Energies


Enthalpy is a measure of the total energy of
a thermodynamic system
It includes
the internal energy (the energy required to create a
system), and
the amount of energy required to make space for it by
displacing its surrounding and establishing its volume
and pressure

H U pV
When work is done by a
thermodynamic system, it is
ususlly a gas that is doing the
work. The work done by a gas at
constant pressure is:
A pV
For non-constant pressure, the
work can be visualized as the
area under the pressure-volume
curve which represents the
process taking place. The more
general expression for work done
is: V2

A pdV
V1
Heatis the transfer of energy
between a system and its
environment because of a
temperature difference between
them

The symbol Q is used to represent


the amount of heat between a
system and its environment
A calorie is the amount of energy
necessary to raise the temperature of
1 g of water from 14.5 C to 15.5 C .

1 cal = 4.186 J
This is called the Mechanical
Equivalent of Heat

Joule found that it took approximately 4.18 J


of mechanical energy to raise the water by
1C.
The heat capacity, C, of a particular
sample is defined as the amount of
energy needed to raise the
temperature of that sample by 1oC.

Ifenergy Q produces a change of


temperature of T, then Q = C T.

Section 20.2
Every substance requires a unique
amount of energy per unit mass to
change the temperature of that
substance by 1 C
The specific heat, c, of a substance
is a measure of this amount

Q
c Q c m T
m T
SI units
J / kg C
Historical units
cal / g C

Water: c= 1 cal/(gramC)=4.186 J /(gramC)


Copper: c=0.093 cal/(gramC)
Units and measurements
1 bar = 1.01325 x 105 N/2
1MPa = 10 bar

Pressure as discussed above is called absolute


pressure.
When the local atmospheric pressure is greater than the pressure
in the system, the term vacuum pressure is used.