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CAMEL in GPRS prepaid service

ghlee@alumni.csie.nctu.edu.tw

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Outline
Evolution of IN
GPRS overview
CAMEL in GPRS
Discussion

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Plain Old Telephone Service
Service logic were hardwired in switching systems.
Network operators discuss services customers
required with switch vendors. (no standard)
Once services were implemented, they were not
easily modified.

service logic
hardwired

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Stored Program Control

In the mid-1960s, stored program control


(SPC) switching systems were introduced.

As a result, it was easier to introduce new


services.

Service logic was not modular.

service logic
programmable

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Common Channel
Signaling

In the mid-1970s, common channel signaling network


(CCSN) was introduced.
Signaling system number 7 (SS7) is the protocol that
runs over the CCSN.

SS7 network separates the call setup information and


talk path from the common trunk that runs between
switching systems.

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SS7 network components

signal switching points (SSPs)SSPs are telephone


switches equipped with SS7-capable software and
terminating signaling links. They generally originate,
terminate, or switch calls.

signal transfer points (STPs)STPs are the packet


switches of the SS7 network. They receive and route
incoming signaling messages to destination.

signal control points (SCPs)SCPs are databases


providing information necessary for advanced call-
processing capabilities

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SS7 network

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The Introduction of IN

During the mid-1980s, Telcordia Technologies


responded to RBOCss request and developed
the concept of Intelligent Network 1 (IN/1).

Service logic splits from switching system,


now resides in service control points (SCP).

service logic
now here

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Call Model

PICs represent switching system states that a call goes


through from origination to termination.

SSPs check TDPs to see if there are any active triggers.

If an active trigger is detected, normal switching system


call processing is suspended until the SSP and SCP
complete communications.

SSP suspended,and
ask SCP what to do
in next step 9
GPRS logical architecture
SMS-GMSC
SM-SC
SMS-IWMSC

E C CAMEL GSM-
Gd SCF

MSC/VLR HLR
D Ge
Gs
A Iu Gc
Gr
R Uu Iu Gi
TE MT UTRAN SGSN GGSN PDN TE
Gn
Ga
Gb Ga
TE MT BSS Gp
Gn Billing
R Um CGF
System
GGSN
SGSN Gf EIR
Other PLMN

Signalling Interface
Signalling and Data Transfer Interface
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Transmission plane in 2.5G
Application
IP IP
Relay
SNDCP SNDCP GTP-U GTP-U
Multiplexing layer
Radio LLC LLC
indep UDP UDP
Relay
RLC RLC BSSGP BSSGP
IP IP
Radio
dep MAC MAC Network Network L2 L2
Service Service
GSM RF GSM RF L1bis L1bis L1 L1
Um Gb Gn Gi
MS BSS SGSN GGSN

Frame relay

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Signaling plane in 2.5G

GMM/SM GMM/SM
LLC LLC
Relay
RLC RLC BSSGP BSSGP

MAC MAC Network Network


Service Service
GSM RF GSM RF L1bis L1bis
Um Gb
MS BSS 2G-SGSN

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Multiplexing of network
protocols
IP/X.25
Packet Data
Signalling SMS Protocol

Transmission plane
N-PDU
Signaling plane
NSAPI
SNDCP
SNDC Header
NSAPI + Control Data
SAPI
LLC
LLC Header LLC Information
TLLI Control Data

RLC or BSSGP

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User plane in 3G
Application

E.g., IP, E.g., IP,


PPP PPP

Relay Relay

PDCP PDCP GTP-U GTP-U GTP-U GTP-U

RLC RLC UDP/IP UDP/IP UDP/IP UDP/IP


MAC MAC AAL5 AAL5 L2 L2
L1 L1 ATM ATM L1 L1
Uu Iu-PS Gn Gi
MS UTRAN 3G-SGSN 3G-GGSN

ATM
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Control plane in 3G
GMM / GMM /
SM / SMS SM / SMS
Relay
RRC RRC RANAP RANAP
RLC RLC SCCP SCCP
MAC MAC Signalling Signalling
Bearer Bearer
AAL5 AAL5
L1 L1
ATM ATM
Uu Iu-Ps
MS RNS 3G SGSN
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CAMEL architecture
Home Network
HLR gsmSCF
MAP
CAP

gprsSSF

SGSN MS

Interrogating Network Visiting Network

Home/Interrogating/Visiting Network 16
MAP/CAP protocol stack
CAP has the same underlying protocol stack as MAP.
Ge interface is first defined in 3G, but didnt appear
in 2.5G.

MAP MAP CAP CAP

TCAP TCAP TCAP TCAP

SCCP SCCP SCCP SCCP

MTP3 MTP3 MTP3 MTP3

MTP2 MTP2 MTP2 MTP2

L1 L1 L1 L1

SGSN Gr HLR gprsSSF Ge gsmSCF

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Overall CAMEL Architecture
gsmSCF

CAP Interface
GPRS
Dialogue
Handler

Internal CAP Interface

gprsSSF

Internal Interface

GTP
MobileStation SGSN GGSN

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Detection Points (DPs)
GPRS events maybe made visible to gsmSCF.
DPs are points at which these events are
detected.
DPs can be armed to notify gsmSCF GPRS
event was encountered, and to allow gsmSCF
to influence subsequent handling of GPRS
session/PDP Context.
If DP isnt armed, processing entity continues
processing without gsmSCF involvement at
the DP.
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Detection Points (DPs)
3 different types of DP:
Trigger Detection Point-Request (TDP-R)
Event Detection Point-Request (EDP-R)
Event Detection Point-Notification (EDP-N)

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Detection Points (DPs)
TDP-R
Statically armed, initiate a CAMEL control relationship

When GPRS event is encountered, processing is suspended

EDP-R
Dynamically armed within CAMEL control relationship

When GPRS event is encountered, processing is suspended


and gprsSSF waits for inst from gsmSCF
EDP-N
Dynamically armed within CAMEL control relationship

When GPRS event is encountered, processing is not


suspended.

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GPRS Attach/Detach State
Model
3 DPs are defined: Detached

DP Attach
DP Change of Position Attach request

GPRS session Detach AD_Exception

DP Detach Attach
User- or network initiated
detach
Attached

Intra SGSN Routeing


area update Inter SGSNRouteing area
update

Change of Position GPRS Session

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GPRS PDP Context State
Model
Idle

4 DPs are defined: PDP Context


Setup Req
DP PDP Context PDP Context Est.

Establishment PDP Context


Disconnection
PDP_Context_
Setup
C_Exception

DP PDP Context PDP Context


Setup Ack.
Establishment Ack PDP Context Est. Ack.

DP PDP Context
User or network PDP_Context_
initiated disc. Established
Disconnection Routeing area update

DP Change of Change of Position Context

Position Context Routeing area update


Change of
Position context

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GPRS CAMEL Scenarios
2 scenarios for CAMEL control of GPRS
Scenario 1
Allows CAMEL control of GPRS session and of multiple
PDP contexts within 1 GPRS dialogue
Scenario 2
Allows CAMEL control of a single PDP contexts
Multiple PDP contexts are controlled via multiple GPRS
dialogues.
Scenario 1 and scenario 2 are mutually
exclusive.

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GPRS CAMEL Scenario 1
Involves Attach/Detach state model
Uses less resource (tcap dialogue)
More complicated when implementation
SGSN / SSP SCP
GPRS Dialogue
A/D
SM Information flow related to
the Session
PDP#1
SM Information flow related to
PDP Context #1
PDP#2
SM Information flow related to
PDP Context #2

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GPRS CAMEL Scenario 2
Doesnt involves Attach/Detach state model
Uses more resource (tcap dialogue)
Simpler when implementation
SGSN / SSP SCP
GPRS Dialogue #1

PDP#1
SM Information flow related to
PDP context #1

PDP#2
SM Information flow related to
PDP context #2

GPRS Dialogue #2

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GPRS Attach
The message sequence chart is too large to fit in this
slide. Please see the supplementary document from
3GPP 23060 spec.
Notice the Insert subscriber data procedure, GPRS-
CSI (CAMEL Subscription Information) is sent from
HLR to SGSN.
2.5G HLR does not keep GPRS-CSI, nor does it send
GPRS-CSI to SGSN.
3G HLR could keep GPRS-CSI, also it sends GPRS-CSI
when doing Insert subscriber data procedure.

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GPRS-CSI
GPRS-CSI contains following information
gsmSCF Address
Service Key
Default GPRS Handling
TDP List
CAMEL Capability Handling
CSI state
Notification flag
gsmSCF address list for CSI

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PDP Context Activation in 2.5G
C1 :DP for CAMEL_GPRS_PDP_Context_Establishment
C2 :DP for CAMEL_GPRS_PDP_Context_Establishment_Acknowledgement
MS BSS 2G-SGSN 2G-GGSN

1. Activate PDP Context Request

C1
2. Security Functions

3. Invoke Trace
4. Create PDP Context Request

4. Create PDP Context Response

7. BSS Packet Flow Context Procedures

C2
9. Activate PDP Context Accept

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PDP Context Activation in 3G
C1 :DP for CAMEL_GPRS_PDP_Context_Establishment.
C2 :DP for CAMEL_GPRS_PDP_Context_Establishment_Acknowledgement
MS UTRAN 3G-SGSN 3G-GGSN

1. Activate PDP Context Request

C1

4. Create PDP Context Request

4. Create PDP Context Response


5. Radio Access Bearer Setup

6. Invoke Trace

8. Update PDP Context Request

8. Update PDP Context Response

C2
9. Activate PDP Context Accept
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CAMEL procedures for
charging activities

Procedure ssf -> scf scf ->ssf


ApplyChargingGPRS -
ApplyChargingReportGPRS -
InitialDPGPRS -
ContinueGPRS -
EventReportGPRS -
RequestReportGPRSEvent -

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Discussion

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