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ENVIRONMENTAL

CHEMISTRY

BY ABHIJEET SINGH
ENVIRONMENTAL
CHEMISTRY
DEFINTION

Environmental Chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical


and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places.
Environmental chemistry is an interdisciplinary science that
includes atmospheric, aquatic and soil chemistry, as well as
heavily relying on analytical chemistry and being related to
environmental and other areas of science.
Environmental chemistry involves first understanding how the
uncontaminated environment works, which chemicals in what
concentrations are present naturally, and with what effects.
Without this it would be impossible to accurately study the
effects humans have on the environment through the release of
chemicals.
Environmental pollution

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a


natural environment that causes instability, disorder,
harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical
systems or living organisms. Pollution can take the
form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise,
heat or light.
Tropospheric air pollution has impacts on scales
ranging from local to global. Reactive intermediates in
the oxidation of mixtures of volatile organic
compounds (VOCs) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) play
central roles.
Atmospheric pollution
(The atmosphere is divided into five layers)

The Troposphere (up to 10 km) It's the atmosphere that surrounds us.
The Stratosphere(10-50 km) Very little oxygen or water vapor. Aircraft
fly in the lower stratosphere. This is also where the ozone layer exists.
The Mesosphere(50-80 km) This is where most meteors burn up, because
the density is higher than the outer layers.
The Thermosphere(80-650 km) Practically a vacuum. Includes the
ionosphere (auroras) as well as space station orbits.
The Exosphere(500-2000 km ) The farthest any of Earth's atmosphere
exists.
Troposphere is a turbulent, dusty zone containing air, much water vapour
and clouds. This is a region of strong air movement and cloud formation.
The stratosphere, on the other hand, contains dinitrogen, dioxygen, ozone
and little water vapour.
The presence of ozone in the stratosphere prevents about 99.5per cent of
the suns harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiations from reaching the earths
surface and thereby protecting humans and other animals from its effect.
Acid rain
We are aware that normally rain water has a pH of 5.6 due to the presence of H+
ions formed by the reaction of rain water with carbon dioxide present in the
atmosphere.
H2O (l) + CO2 (g) =H2CO3 (aq)
H2CO3 (aq) = H+ (aq) + HCO3- (aq)
When the H of the rain water drops below 5.6, it is called acid rain.
acid rain refers to the ways in which acid from the atmosphere is deposited on the
earths surface. Oxides of nitrogen and sulphur which are acidic in nature can be
blown by wind along with solid particles in the atmosphere and finally settle down
either on the ground as ground deposition or in water, fog and snow as wet
deposition.
acid rain is a byproduct of a variety of human activities that emit the oxides of
sulphur and nitrogen in the atmosphere.
SO2 and NO2 after oxidation and reaction with water are major contributors to
acid rain, because polluted air usually contains particulate matter that catalyse the
oxidation.
acid rain is harmful for agriculture, trees and plants as it dissolves and washes
away nutrients needed for their growth. It causes respiratory ailments in human
beings and animals. it affects plants and animal life in aquatic ecosystem. It
corrodes water pipes resulting in the leaching of heavy metals such as iron, lead and
copper into the drinking water. Acid rain damages buildings and other structures
made of stone or metals. The Tajmahal in India has been affected by acid rain.