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CENTRAL POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE

Seminar
On
Valvetronic Engine Technology

SUBMITTED BY
SUNANDAN K B
REG NO. 13025405
DEPT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Content

INTRODUCTION
VALVETRONIC
WORKING OF VALVETRONIC ENGINE
ENGINE DESIGN ASPECTS
ADVANTAGES AND BENEFITS
DISADVANTAGES
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
INTRODUCTION

The automobile has been providing individual mobility for


more than 100 years.
This mobility is made possible first and foremost by
combustion engines drawing their power from fossil energy
carriers, which, even today, provide the foundation in
generating mechanical drive power in the automobile.
What Is Valvetronic?

The Valvetronic engine is the world's first engine without a


throttle butterfly.
Valvetronic allows the engine to run without a throttle
butterfly, the cylinder charge being determined under part load
as a function of the valve-opening period.
The intake and outlet camshafts are driven by variable cam
adjustment, BMWs Vanos technology.
Concept

Taking nature as the role model: human beings also apply the
Valvetronic principle.
A comparison with the human being clearly explains how
Valvetronic works: Whenever we are required to make a great
effort, we human beings breathe in a deep and long process of
ventilation.
Whenever we need less air, we do not throttle the supply of air
by, say, closing our nose or our mouth, but simply breathe in a
shorter, flatter process of ventilation.
Principle

The principle of the Valvetronic Technology can be summed up


as follows.

With its large valve lift (= deep, long ventilation) at higher


rpm and short valve lift (= flat, short process of ventilation) at
lower rpm, Valvetronic, is able to breathe in the same way as
nature always in line with current requirements, without
any kind of throttling effect and therefore with maximum
efficiency.
Valvetronic Technology uses a combination of hardware and
software to eliminate the need for a conventional throttle
mechanism.
The entire Valvetronic system is pre-assembled and inserted
as a module into its position in the cylinder head
Principle

Valvetronic engines use


a combination of
hardware and
software to eliminate
the need for a
conventional throttle
mechanism
Valvetronic Technology

Accordingly, the Valvetronic engine no longer requires a


throttle butterfly, which has quite literally restricted the
free ventilation of the internal combustion engine ever
since its invention.
Now Valvetronic replaces this conventional function by
infinitely variable intake valve lift, offering a quantum
leap in technology quite comparable to the changeover
from the carburetor to fuel injection.
WORKING OF VALVETRONIC ENGINE

Working Of Ordinary Engine


In engines without valvetronic technology fuel injection
systems monitor the volume of air passing through the throttle
butterfly and determine the corresponding amount of fuel
required by the engine. The larger the throttle butterfly
opening, the more air enters the combustion chamber.
Working Of Ordinary Engine
Working Of Valvetronic Engine

Compared with conventional twin-cam engines with


finger followers, Valvetronic employs an additional
eccentric shaft, an electric motor and several
intermediate rocker arms, which in turn activates the
opening and closing of valves.
If the rocker arms push deeper, the intake valves will
have a higher lift, and vice-versa.
Working Of Valvetronic Engine

The Valvetronic System


Operating Parameters

Valve lift is variable between 0 and 9.7 mm.


Adjustment of the worm gear from one extreme to the
other takes 300 milliseconds.
Combined with double-vanos valve timing technology,
the camshaft angle relative to the crankshaft can be
adjusted by up to 60.
The intermediate arm is finished to a tolerance of 0.008
mm.
WORKING OF DIGITAL MOTOR ELECTRONICS

The two main tasks DME has to perform are (1) injecting
the right amount of fuel and (2) providing a spark at the
correct time. In order to do this, the system needs to
know things about the engine's current state. DME can
track dozens of different sensors, but every system needs
to know three basic things:

How much air is coming in


The position of the throttle, and
How fast the engine is running.
WORKING OF DIGITAL MOTOR ELECTRONICS

Using the information about how much air is flowing


through the engine and how fast it's turning, DME uses a
fuel map to determine how long each injector should
stay open each cycle to inject the right amount of fuel.
During part-throttle operation, the injector pulse-width
is also modified by the readings from the oxygen sensor,
a device that sits in the exhaust collector and determines
how much oxygen is left over in the exhaust.
Each cylinder is constantly adjusted to maximum
operating efficiency under virtually all conditions.
WORKING OF DIGITAL MOTOR ELECTRONICS

In the event of an electrical fault, DME can reconfigure itself


to bypass the problem, and DME can diagnose itself for quick
and efficient trouble-shooting.
The core of a DME application is microprocessors.
Microprocessors work at astonishing speeds.
The core of central engine management in the current M3
executes nearly twenty million instructions per second (20
MIPS).
Microprocessors also have a reputation for being extremely
reliable.
They are designed for a lifespan of at least 150,000 active
hours. A car by comparison, is expected to survive 4,000
hours of use
ENGINE DESIGN ASPECTS

Basic engine design completely revised


Throttle plate is not removed
Advantages

Anti-knock control for running on all fuel grades between 87


and 99 octane.
Maintenance-free ignition system with individual coils.
A Service Interval Indicator to keep the cost of service to a
minimum.
A two-mass flywheel for maximum running smoothness.
Advanced catalysts near the engine in special manifold design
for minimum emissions.
Disadvantages

Facing such a high standard of software and hardware


complexity, a manufacturer obviously also runs a greater
risk of making mistakes.
It is essential to acquire a sufficient stock of data under
all kinds of operating conditions in order to understand
how such a new system behaves.
However, such data cannot be provided by the usual
sequential test runs.
BASIC ENGINE DESIGN COMPLETELY REVISED
BMWs new four-cylinder furthermore comes with all modern engine technologies such
as:

Anti-knock control for running on all fuel grades between 87 and 99 octane.

Maintenance-free ignition system with individual coils.

Maintenance-free valve drive with hydraulic valve play compensation.

A Service Interval Indicator to keep the cost of service to a minimum

A two-mass flywheel for maximum running smoothness

Valve drive with

roller bearings throughout in the interest of minimum friction and fuel

consumption.

Advanced catalysts near the engine in special manifold design for minimum

emissions.
AN EXAMPLE OF A VALVETRONIC ENGINE
BMW 3 Compact 4 Cylinder Engine

BMW's Valvetronic engine is the world's first engine getting rid of throttle butterfly.
What's the advantage ? BMW claimed it saves around 10% fuel compare with
conventional engines.
CONCLUSION

The Valvetronic system is the first variable valve


timing system to offer continuously variable timing (on
both intake and exhaust camshafts) along with
continuously variable intake valve lift, from ~0 to 10mm,
on the intake camshaft only.
Valvetronic-equipped engines are unique in that they
rely on the amount of valve lift to throttle the engine
rather than a butterfly valve in the intake tract.
In other words, in normal driving, the "gas pedal"
controls the Valvetronic hardware rather than the
throttle plate.
CONCLUSION

In summary, these innovative developments provide a


combination of product features thus far inconceivable with a
spark-ignition engine.
The introduction of the worlds first intake manifold providing
infinite variation in manifold length serves to improve the
torque level, which is already very good to begin with.
Thanks