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CE 5502

Introduction
Department of Mechanical Engineering
University of Moratuwa

Dr. Chathura Ranasinghe


1. INTRODUCTION
Contents
Applications
Fluid Properties and Flow Properties
Newton's Law of Viscosity
Classification of Fluids
Behavior of Real Fluids
Reynolds Number

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1. INTRODUCTION
Applications

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1. INTRODUCTION
Applications

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1. INTRODUCTION
Fluid Properties and Flow Properties
Fluid Properties Flow Characteristics
density linear velocity
viscocity Angular velocity
bulk modulus
Accelaration
Force
Scalars : , , &
Pressure
Vectors : , , , Tensor of order 1
Direct stress
= + +
Shear stress
Tensor : , , , Tensor of order 2
Direct strain

Shear strain

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1. INTRODUCTION
Fluid Properties and Flow Properties
Viscosity
Resistance to flow due to molecular friction between fluid particles
Viscosity of common fluids
( Approximate values in Pas )
Air (180 C) 1.9 x 10-5

Water (200 C) 0.001

Blood (370 C) 0.005

Canola oil (200 C) 0.01

Motor Oil (200 C) 1

Molten lava 1000


dynamic viscosity

= kinematic viscosity

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1. INTRODUCTION
Fluid Properties and Flow Properties
Viscosity

Dynamic Viscosity of Water

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1. INTRODUCTION
Fluid Properties and Flow Properties
Sutherland formula for gas viscosity

32
0 +
= 0
+ 0

0 = reference temperature, K
0 = viscosity of the gas at temperature, 0
= Sutherland's constant for the gas, K
= the temperature of the gas, K
= the viscosity of the gas at temperature, in the same units as 0 .
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1. INTRODUCTION
Newton's Law of Viscosity
For straight & parallel motion of a given fluid, the shear stress
between two adjacent layers is proportional to the velocity
gradient in a direction perpendicular to the layers

Any fluid which obeys this law is referred to as a Newtonian fluid.

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1. INTRODUCTION
Newton's Law of Viscosity

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1. INTRODUCTION
Classification of Fluids
Based on Density
Compressible
o Variation of density is significant during the flow
Incompressible
o Density variation is negligible during the flow
Based on Viscosity
Invicid fluids (non-viscous, i.e. = 0 )
o An Imaginary fluid
o but some real flow cases can also be approximated
Viscous fluids (real fluids)
o Newtonian Fluids
o Non-Newtonian Fluids (Clay, Paints, Plastics)
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1. INTRODUCTION
Classification of Fluids
Steady & unsteady flows
Uniform & non-uniform flows
1 , 2 & 3 dimensional flows
Internal & external flows
Laminar & turbulent flows

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1. INTRODUCTION
Behavior of Real Fluids
Laminar
Flow particles move on layers, without disturbing adjacent layers
No mixing between layers

Turbulent
Fluid particles move in disorderly manner with continuous
rapid mixing with adjacent fluid particles

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1. INTRODUCTION
Behavior of Real Fluids
Laminar Flows

Laminar flow is deterministic in nature

Viscosity is predominant in laminar flow to damp out any


disturbance which could cause the flow to become turbulent

Laminar flow of Newtonian fluid is governed by Newtons law


of viscosity

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1. INTRODUCTION
Behavior of Real Fluids
Turbulent Flows
Influence of viscosity is not sufficient to damp out disturbances

Turbulent flow is random in nature & can be described only in


terms of its mean properties and fluctuations of properties

Turbulent set up much greater shear stresses causing higher


energy losses

Newtons law of viscosity is not applicable for turbulent flow

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1. INTRODUCTION
Reynolds Number
A quantitative index to measure how turbulent is the flow


= =


= = =


= = = 2 2
3

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1. INTRODUCTION
Reynolds Number

= =


= = 2 =
2

2 2
= =

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1. INTRODUCTION
Reynolds Number
0
Flow in a circular Pipe =

Re < 2000 - flow is laminar


Re > 4000 - flow is turbulent
2000 < Re < 4000 - flow is transition

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1. INTRODUCTION
Reynolds Number
Flow in a Rectangular (Non Circular) Duct
0
=

- Hydraulic Diameter
4
=

- cross-sectional area of the pipe


- wetted perimeter
=2 +
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1. INTRODUCTION
Reynolds Number
Flow over a Flat Plate

0
=

0

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1. INTRODUCTION
Reynolds Number
Some other cases

Flow over a cylinder


0
=

Flow over a step
0
=

Flow in an engine

=

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