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Introduction

Department of Mechanical Engineering

University of Moratuwa

1. INTRODUCTION

Contents

Applications

Fluid Properties and Flow Properties

Newton's Law of Viscosity

Classification of Fluids

Behavior of Real Fluids

Reynolds Number

CE5502 2

1. INTRODUCTION

Applications

CE5502 3

1. INTRODUCTION

Applications

CE5502 4

1. INTRODUCTION

Fluid Properties and Flow Properties

Fluid Properties Flow Characteristics

density linear velocity

viscocity Angular velocity

bulk modulus

Accelaration

Force

Scalars : , , &

Pressure

Vectors : , , , Tensor of order 1

Direct stress

= + +

Shear stress

Tensor : , , , Tensor of order 2

Direct strain

Shear strain

CE5502 5

1. INTRODUCTION

Fluid Properties and Flow Properties

Viscosity

Resistance to flow due to molecular friction between fluid particles

Viscosity of common fluids

( Approximate values in Pas )

Air (180 C) 1.9 x 10-5

dynamic viscosity

= kinematic viscosity

CE5502 6

1. INTRODUCTION

Fluid Properties and Flow Properties

Viscosity

CE5502 7

1. INTRODUCTION

Fluid Properties and Flow Properties

Sutherland formula for gas viscosity

32

0 +

= 0

+ 0

0 = reference temperature, K

0 = viscosity of the gas at temperature, 0

= Sutherland's constant for the gas, K

= the temperature of the gas, K

= the viscosity of the gas at temperature, in the same units as 0 .

CE5502 8

1. INTRODUCTION

Newton's Law of Viscosity

For straight & parallel motion of a given fluid, the shear stress

between two adjacent layers is proportional to the velocity

gradient in a direction perpendicular to the layers

CE5502 9

1. INTRODUCTION

Newton's Law of Viscosity

CE5502 10

1. INTRODUCTION

Classification of Fluids

Based on Density

Compressible

o Variation of density is significant during the flow

Incompressible

o Density variation is negligible during the flow

Based on Viscosity

Invicid fluids (non-viscous, i.e. = 0 )

o An Imaginary fluid

o but some real flow cases can also be approximated

Viscous fluids (real fluids)

o Newtonian Fluids

o Non-Newtonian Fluids (Clay, Paints, Plastics)

CE5502 11

1. INTRODUCTION

Classification of Fluids

Steady & unsteady flows

Uniform & non-uniform flows

1 , 2 & 3 dimensional flows

Internal & external flows

Laminar & turbulent flows

CE5502 12

1. INTRODUCTION

Behavior of Real Fluids

Laminar

Flow particles move on layers, without disturbing adjacent layers

No mixing between layers

Turbulent

Fluid particles move in disorderly manner with continuous

rapid mixing with adjacent fluid particles

CE5502 13

1. INTRODUCTION

Behavior of Real Fluids

Laminar Flows

disturbance which could cause the flow to become turbulent

of viscosity

CE5502 14

1. INTRODUCTION

Behavior of Real Fluids

Turbulent Flows

Influence of viscosity is not sufficient to damp out disturbances

terms of its mean properties and fluctuations of properties

energy losses

CE5502 15

1. INTRODUCTION

Reynolds Number

A quantitative index to measure how turbulent is the flow

= =

= = =

= = = 2 2

3

CE5502 16

1. INTRODUCTION

Reynolds Number

= =

= = 2 =

2

2 2

= =

CE5502 17

1. INTRODUCTION

Reynolds Number

0

Flow in a circular Pipe =

Re > 4000 - flow is turbulent

2000 < Re < 4000 - flow is transition

CE5502 18

1. INTRODUCTION

Reynolds Number

Flow in a Rectangular (Non Circular) Duct

0

=

- Hydraulic Diameter

4

=

- wetted perimeter

=2 +

CE5502 19

1. INTRODUCTION

Reynolds Number

Flow over a Flat Plate

0

=

0

CE5502 20

1. INTRODUCTION

Reynolds Number

Some other cases

0

=

Flow over a step

0

=

Flow in an engine

=

CE5502 21

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