You are on page 1of 21

# CE 5502

Introduction
Department of Mechanical Engineering
University of Moratuwa

## Dr. Chathura Ranasinghe

1. INTRODUCTION
Contents
Applications
Fluid Properties and Flow Properties
Newton's Law of Viscosity
Classification of Fluids
Behavior of Real Fluids
Reynolds Number

CE5502 2
1. INTRODUCTION
Applications

CE5502 3
1. INTRODUCTION
Applications

CE5502 4
1. INTRODUCTION
Fluid Properties and Flow Properties
Fluid Properties Flow Characteristics
density linear velocity
viscocity Angular velocity
bulk modulus
Accelaration
Force
Scalars : , , &
Pressure
Vectors : , , , Tensor of order 1
Direct stress
= + +
Shear stress
Tensor : , , , Tensor of order 2
Direct strain

Shear strain

CE5502 5
1. INTRODUCTION
Fluid Properties and Flow Properties
Viscosity
Resistance to flow due to molecular friction between fluid particles
Viscosity of common fluids
( Approximate values in Pas )
Air (180 C) 1.9 x 10-5

## Molten lava 1000

dynamic viscosity

= kinematic viscosity

CE5502 6
1. INTRODUCTION
Fluid Properties and Flow Properties
Viscosity

## Dynamic Viscosity of Water

CE5502 7
1. INTRODUCTION
Fluid Properties and Flow Properties
Sutherland formula for gas viscosity

32
0 +
= 0
+ 0

0 = reference temperature, K
0 = viscosity of the gas at temperature, 0
= Sutherland's constant for the gas, K
= the temperature of the gas, K
= the viscosity of the gas at temperature, in the same units as 0 .
CE5502 8
1. INTRODUCTION
Newton's Law of Viscosity
For straight & parallel motion of a given fluid, the shear stress
between two adjacent layers is proportional to the velocity
gradient in a direction perpendicular to the layers

## Any fluid which obeys this law is referred to as a Newtonian fluid.

CE5502 9
1. INTRODUCTION
Newton's Law of Viscosity

CE5502 10
1. INTRODUCTION
Classification of Fluids
Based on Density
Compressible
o Variation of density is significant during the flow
Incompressible
o Density variation is negligible during the flow
Based on Viscosity
Invicid fluids (non-viscous, i.e. = 0 )
o An Imaginary fluid
o but some real flow cases can also be approximated
Viscous fluids (real fluids)
o Newtonian Fluids
o Non-Newtonian Fluids (Clay, Paints, Plastics)
CE5502 11
1. INTRODUCTION
Classification of Fluids
Uniform & non-uniform flows
1 , 2 & 3 dimensional flows
Internal & external flows
Laminar & turbulent flows

CE5502 12
1. INTRODUCTION
Behavior of Real Fluids
Laminar
Flow particles move on layers, without disturbing adjacent layers
No mixing between layers

Turbulent
Fluid particles move in disorderly manner with continuous
rapid mixing with adjacent fluid particles

CE5502 13
1. INTRODUCTION
Behavior of Real Fluids
Laminar Flows

## Viscosity is predominant in laminar flow to damp out any

disturbance which could cause the flow to become turbulent

## Laminar flow of Newtonian fluid is governed by Newtons law

of viscosity

CE5502 14
1. INTRODUCTION
Behavior of Real Fluids
Turbulent Flows
Influence of viscosity is not sufficient to damp out disturbances

## Turbulent flow is random in nature & can be described only in

terms of its mean properties and fluctuations of properties

energy losses

## Newtons law of viscosity is not applicable for turbulent flow

CE5502 15
1. INTRODUCTION
Reynolds Number
A quantitative index to measure how turbulent is the flow

= =

= = =

= = = 2 2
3

CE5502 16
1. INTRODUCTION
Reynolds Number

= =

= = 2 =
2

2 2
= =

CE5502 17
1. INTRODUCTION
Reynolds Number
0
Flow in a circular Pipe =

## Re < 2000 - flow is laminar

Re > 4000 - flow is turbulent
2000 < Re < 4000 - flow is transition

CE5502 18
1. INTRODUCTION
Reynolds Number
Flow in a Rectangular (Non Circular) Duct
0
=

- Hydraulic Diameter
4
=

## - cross-sectional area of the pipe

- wetted perimeter
=2 +
CE5502 19
1. INTRODUCTION
Reynolds Number
Flow over a Flat Plate

0
=

0

CE5502 20
1. INTRODUCTION
Reynolds Number
Some other cases

## Flow over a cylinder

0
=

Flow over a step
0
=

Flow in an engine

=

CE5502 21