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High Yield Microbiology and

Immunology Images
Kim Moscatello, Ph.D.
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high yield fact
High Yield
These images (and or pathogens) have
better than a 50% chance of being on step
USMLE step I
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Gram negative diplococci in PMNs

17 year old male with


painful urination and
mucoid discharge.
Giardia lamblia
Malodorous stools
with steatorrhea after
drinking untreated
stream water
Trichomonas vaginalis

Frothy green
malodorous discharge
from a patient who
complains of vaginal
itching
Gardnerella vaginalis
Clue cell

Malodorous watery
discharge
Varicella Zoster Virus
chickenpox

12 year old female


with vesicular rash.
Plasmodium falciparum
banana shaped gamete
Patient who traveled
to Africa with cyclic
fever and rigors
Histoplasma capsulatum
intracellular yeasts

Patient from Ohio


River Valley who
reports respiratory
symptoms
Cryptosporidium parvum Acid-
fast Oocyst
AIDS patient presents
with chronic watery
diarrhea
Borrelia burgdorferi
Bulls eye rash

Patient with fatigue


who was recently
hiking in northeastern
US presents with
fever, fatigue and a
rash.
Coccidiodes immitis
spherule

Patient from Nevada


with respiratory
symptoms and
erythema nodosum
Varicella Zoster Virus
Shingles

50 year old
male with
painful
vesicular rash
Blastomyces dermatitidis
broad based budding yeasts
Patient from Ohio
River valley with skin
lesions
Human Herpes virus-8
Kaposis sarcoma
30 year old male with
HIV.
Rubella
congenital rubella syndrome

Infant born with


cataracts from
immigrant mother
who had a exanthem
(rash) during
pregnancy.
Babesia microti
tetrad, Maltese cross

Co-infection with
Lyme disease
Epstein Barr Virus
atypical lymphocytes (Downey
cells)
15 year old with
lymphadenopathy,
fatigue and a positive
heterophile antibody
test
Aspergillus fumigatus
45 angle, septate hyphae

Patient with
hemoptysis, fungus
ball identified in chest
x-ray
Streptococcus pneumoniae
encapsulated diplococci
65 year old patient
with fever, shaking
chills and bloody
(rusty) sputum. Chest
x-ray revealed lobar
pneumonia.
Cytomegalovirus
Owls eye inclusion
Patient with
lymphadenopathy and
fatigue and
heterophile negative.
Cryptococcus neoformans
encapsulated, monomorphic yeast

AIDS patient with


meningitis
Human papilloma virus
koilocytes

Results from a pap


smear of sexually
active 18 year old
female.
Goodpasture
smooth ribbon like pattern
Type II HS
Kidney biopsy of
patient with nephritis
Lupus or (PSGN)
lumpy bumpy pattern
Type III HS
Kidney biopsy of
patient with nephritis
Toxoplasma gondii
ring enhancing lesions
HIV+ patient with
severe headache
Enterobius vermicularis
pinworm

Child with perianal


itching, egg found on
scotch tape
Plasmodium falciparum
multiple ring forms
Patient who traveled
to Africa with cyclic
fever and rigors
Medium yield
These images (and or pathogens) have
between a 25%-50% chance of being on
step I of COMLEX and or USMLE
Schistosoma mansoni

Patient who was in


peace corps with
hepatomegaly
Schistosoma hematobium

Male from Egypt with


hematuria, associated
with bladder cancer
Trichuris trichiura
whipworm
Child with rectal
prolapse
Ascaris lumbricoides
roundworm

Patient found large


round worm in stools
Malassezia furfur
spaghetti and meatballs on KOH

Patient with
hypopigmented spots
on trunk, does not
complain of itching.
Mucor or Rhizopus species
90 angle, ribbon like (non-
septate) hyphae
Ketoacidotic diabetic
patient with sinusitis
Pneumocystis jiroveci

AIDS patient with


pneumonia and a T
cell count of 25
Rabies virus
Negri bodies
Male bitten in the leg
by a raccoon in the
daytime.
Streptococcus pyogenes

5 year old patient with


pharyngitis.
Streptococcus pyogenes
Scarlet fever=toxin mediated
10 year old male with
recent pharyngitis and
a sandpaper rash
Actinomyces israelii
lumpy jaw
anaerobic, Gram positive branching
rod
55 year old male with
recent history of
invasive dental work.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
ecthyma gangrenosum

Patient with Gram


negative sepsis
Treponema pallidum
primary syphilis
28 year old male with
a painless ulcer on
penis
Rickettsia rickettsii
Rocky mountain spotted fever
15 year old male
hiking in North
Carolina presents
with rash that began
on wrists and ankles.
Malassezia furfur
Tinea versicolor
Male roofer presents
with hypopigmented
rash on trunk and
extremities.
Fluorescent under
woods lamp.
B19
Slapped cheek fever
3 year old female with
facial rash and fever.
Sarcoptes scabiei
Isolated from a child
with itching between
digits and in skin folds
Treponema pallidum
secondary syphilis
35 year old male with
history of recent
penile ulcer and
current alopecia and
condylomata lata.
Coxsackie A16
Hand, foot and mouth disease

5 year old female with


painful lesions on
hands, feet and in
mouth.
Streptococcus pyogenes or
Staphylococcus aureus
impetigo
6 year old male with
honey crusted lesion
on mouth.
Measles virus

2 year old male with


maculopapular rash
and koplik spots.
Phthirus pubis
Crabs

Isolated from a
patient with genital
itching.
Lymphocyte

Expect to be
increased during viral
infections
Neutrophils

1st at the site of


inflammation
Monocytes
Increased in
mononucleosis
Eosinophils

Patient with worm


infection
Basophils
Mediator of the type I
HS reaction
Low Yield
These images (and or pathogens) have
less than a 25% chance of being on step I
of COMLEX and or USMLE
Sporothrix schenckii
cigar shaped yeasts

Biopsy from skin


lesion of patient who
was stuck with a rose
bush
Yersinia pestis
plague

Blood smear of patient


from Arizona
w/conjunctivitis &
inguinal
lymphadenopathy.
Dracunculus medinensis
Guinea worm

African male presents


with ulcer and worm
emerging from ulcer.
Klebsiella granulomatis
30 year old
immigrant with
painless ulcer on
penis
Clostridium tetani
spastic paralysis=toxin mediated

8 year old male with


recent puncture
wound and
incomplete
vaccination history
Mycobacterium leprae
tuberculoid leprosy
35 year old male with
hypopigmented,
anesthetic lesions
Mycobacterium leprae
lepromatous leprosy
45 year old male from
India with anesthetic
skin nodules
Smallpox

Government worker
with vesicular rash.
Trypanosoma cruzi - Romaa Sign

Patient from South


America with fever,
anorexia,
lymphadenopathy,
and myocarditis
Entamoeba histolytica Flask-
shaped lesions
Hiker presents with
bloody diarrhea
Trichinella spiralis Encysted
larvae
Bear hunter presents
with myalgias
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
Ship Steering Wheel (budding
yeast)
Patient from South
America presents with
chronic pulmonary
disease
Taenia solium
Neurocysticercosis
Pig farmer presents
with meningitis.
Proglottids identified
in stool sample.
HSV-1 and/or HSV-2 Multinucleated
giant cell on Tzank smear
(could also be from Paramyxoviruses)
Patient presents with
vesicles on the lip and
on the genitals.
Clostridium tetani Terminal
spores on Gram-positive rods
Patient presents with
trismus