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Introduction
Introduction
 An adequate supply of water is a basic requirement for most building for reasons of
 An adequate supply of water is a basic
requirement for most building for reasons
of personal hygiene (sanitary), cooking,
watering, cleaning and manufacturing for
industrial processes.
Storage and Distribution of Water Gravitational Distribution  -Water from upland gathering grounds is impounded in
Storage and Distribution of Water
Gravitational Distribution
-Water from upland gathering grounds is
impounded in a reservoir.
-From this point, the water is filtered and
chlorinated before serving an inhabited
area at lower level.
-There are no pumping cost.
Cont Pumped Distribution  - The water from the river is pumped into a settlement tank.
Cont
Pumped Distribution
- The water from the river is pumped into
a settlement tank.
- From this point, the water is filtered and
chlorinated.
- It is more expensive than gravitational
distribution due to pumping.
Cont Ring Main Distribution  - The water mains supplying the town or village may be
Cont
Ring Main Distribution
- The water mains supplying the town or
village may be in the form of a grid.
- This grid provides a ring circuit and each
section can be isolated.
Cont
Cont
The water main is drilled and tapped by a  special apparatus with the water left
The water main is drilled and tapped by a
special apparatus with the water left on.
A plug valve is left on the main and a
communication pipe connected to it.
A goose neck is formed on the pipe to
release stresses on the pipe and valve.
Cont
Cont
 Many homes are connected to a metered municipal water system, which forms the entire domestic
 Many
homes
are
connected
to
a
metered
municipal water system, which forms the entire
domestic water cycle outside
Distribution system.
of
the
internal
 Homes further from cities and other populated areas must form the entire cycle independently.
Homes further from cities and other populated
areas must form the entire cycle independently.
 Whatever the supply, the water is almost always connected to the home at a single
Whatever the supply, the water is almost always
connected to the home at a single point.
Supply of Water Potable water or clean water can be  supplied by; Perbadanan Bekalan Air
Supply of Water
Potable water or clean water can be
supplied by;
Perbadanan Bekalan Air Penang
Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR)
Other Potable Water Supplier
Self own well (Individual Treatment Plant)
Method Of Supply From treatment plant;  Trunk mains (> 300 mm Φ pipes) Secondary mains
Method Of Supply
From treatment plant;
Trunk mains (> 300 mm Φ pipes)
Secondary mains (200 – 300 mm Φ)
Service Mains (100 – 200 mm Φ)
Service Pipes ( 20 – 50 mm Φ)
Distribution Pipes ( <50 mm Φ)
Types of pipes A.C  C.I  For Main Pipe HDPE  S.P  G.I 
Types of pipes
A.C
C.I
For Main Pipe
HDPE
S.P
G.I
HDPE
For Distribution Pipes
PVC
UPVC
Potable Water Potable water after entering the building  can be divided into: Cold water 
Potable Water
Potable water after entering the building
can be divided into:
Cold water
Hot Water
Cold Water
Pipes usually of G.I, HDPE or PVC.
Φ of pipes for domestic is 20 mm Φ for
main distribution with 12 mm Φ for
sanitary distribution.
Cont Consist of two system of distribution  Direct system  Indirect system 
Cont
Consist of two system of distribution
Direct system
Indirect system
 Normally for water supply system, it is consist of two, which is cold-water supply and
Normally for water supply system, it is consist
of two, which is cold-water supply and hot-
water supply. For both water supply systems it
can be install whether in direct system or
indirect system based of the capacity usage of
water.
Cold-water supply system
1.
Hot-water supply system
2.
Cold-water supply system For domestic dwelling, water supplied to kitchen  sink that used for cooking
Cold-water supply system
For domestic dwelling, water supplied to kitchen
sink that used for cooking shall be direct supply
from mains to ensure it cleanliness and high
level of freshness. For high-rise building or
building constructed on high ground where the
pressure is low, it is usually necessary to provide
pumping equipment with extra water cistern.
There are two distinct systems for cold-water
supply:-
Direct system
Indirect system
Direct system In it all sanitary fittings are supplied with cold  water direct from the
Direct system
In it all sanitary fittings are supplied with cold
water direct
from the main,
and
a
cold-water
feed cistern is required to ‘feed’ the hot water
storage cylinder.
The capacity
in
liters
of
the
feed
cistern is
required to be at least equal to the capacity in
liters of the hot-water cylinder.
Good pressure on the water main is required
Pipe work is reduced to a minimum
Drinking water is available
point
at every draw-off

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

1. Clean water for drink

1. Pressurized water may be difficult during periods

  • 2. Minimum pipe work

2. Risk to the stop supply of water due to maintenance work.

  • 3. Low maintenance

 
Indirect system  In this system all the sanitary fittings, except drinking water draw-offs at sinks
Indirect system
In this system all the sanitary fittings, except
drinking water draw-offs at sinks and fountains,
are supplied indirectly from a cold-water storage
cistern.
Since the cistern supplies cold water to baths,
showers, etc and also feeds the hot-water
cylinder, its capacity in liters will be approximately
double that required for the direct system.
Requires more pipe work than the direct system
More expensive to installed
Provides a large reserve of water
 

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

1. No

risk

of stop supply water

1. Only water

supply from sink

(storage) - reserve

can be use for drinking-direct

 
  • 2. More pipe work

 
  • 3. More expensive to install

Hot-water supply system
Hot-water supply system
 Usually supply through copper or stainless conduct due to higher temperature and thus expansion valve.
 Usually supply through copper or stainless
conduct due to higher temperature and thus
expansion valve. Central boiler is used when large
quantity of hot water or area of heating is needed
for longer period. Boiler can be of gas or coal
fired to supply heated water to hot water to hot
water cylinder and heating ventilation. These are
two distinct systems for hot-water supply:-
Direct system
Indirect system
Direct system If central heating is not to be combined with the  hot-water supply, or
Direct system
If central heating is not to be combined with the
hot-water supply, or if the water is soft, the
direct system may be used providing the boiler
is rustproof.
The system is cheaper will be cheaper to install
than the indirect system and the water in the
cylinder will be heated quicker, due to direct
circulation between the boiler and cylinder.
Cont The hot water from the boiler mixes directly with  the water in the cylinder
Cont
The hot water from the boiler mixes directly with
the water in the cylinder
If used in a soft water area, the boiler must be
rusted proofed
Not suited to hard waters, typical of those
extracted from boreholes into chalk or limestone
strata. When heated the calcium precipitates to
line the boiler and primary pipe work, eventually
‘furring up’ the system to render it ineffective
and dangerous.
The storage cylinder and associated pipe work
should be well insulated to reduce energy
losses.
DIRECT HOT WATER SUPPLY
DIRECT HOT WATER
SUPPLY
Indirect system An indirect cylinder is used which has an inner  heat exchanger. The water
Indirect system
An indirect cylinder is used which has an inner
heat exchanger.
The water from the boiler circulates through this
heat exchanger
and boiler
is
not
drawn off
through the hot-water taps, lime is precipitated
only after the initial heating of the water, and
afterwards (unless the system is drained) there
is
no
further
occurrence and therefore no
scaling.
This same water also circulates through the steel
or cast iron radiators, and after heating the
water is freed from carbon dioxide which then
reduces corrosion of the radiators.
Cont
Cont
Cost more, less maintenance  Boiling temperature may be up to 70°C 
Cost more, less maintenance
Boiling temperature may be up to 70°C
INDIRECT HOT WATER SUPPLY
INDIRECT HOT WATER
SUPPLY

The complete system in a drawing. Underneath they documented the complete process, this is also an example of how we documented this property.

The 5,000 litre water tank The water supply comes from the main road to the tank.
The 5,000 litre water tank
The water supply comes
from the main road to the tank.
From the tank to the garage
are two water lines and one
electricity line.
The water meter and the lines going into the garage. The water tank with connected floater
The water meter and the
lines going into the garage.
The water tank with connected
floater and the copper filter
(at the start of taking water
into the system).
The water tank is completely embedded into concrete to protect it form collapsing from ground pressure.
The water tank is completely embedded into concrete to protect it form collapsing from ground pressure.
The water tank is completely
embedded into concrete to
protect it form collapsing
from ground pressure.
The tank and lines to and from the garage are under the gravel. The tank has
The tank and lines to and from
the garage are under the gravel.
The tank has a wooden cover
which can be taken
off for maintenance purposes
(i.e. cleaning the filter).
The water tank is completely embedded into concrete to protect it form collapsing from ground pressure.
The black line is an air slot to protect the tank from under or over pressure
The black line is an air
slot to protect the tank
from under or over pressure by
air- or water pressure
The water pump will
keep the system's pressure
up to 4 atmosphere
The anti-calcium machine will keep the water soft and all water devices will last longer. For
The anti-calcium machine will keep the water soft and all water devices will last longer. For
The anti-calcium machine will keep
the water soft and all water devices
will last longer. For proper operation
This device preferably get water
Pressure at 4 atmosphere.
SANITARY SYSTEM
SANITARY SYSTEM
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
Wide range of sanitary system is being in use to  get an immaculate and precision
Wide range of sanitary system is being in use to
get an immaculate and precision surrounding in
bathrooms.
They range to disposal systems, waste &  drainage systems, waste water treatment systems, central sewage
They range to disposal systems, waste &
drainage systems, waste water treatment
systems, central sewage systems, and
incineration systems etc.
Plumbing and drainage are the systems of  getting water into the building, then removing it
Plumbing and drainage are the systems of
getting water into the building, then removing it
and other fluids and fluid wastes after it has been
used.
 Plumbing incorporates services such as sanitary plumbing, cold and hot water services, flusherette systems, gas
Plumbing incorporates services such as sanitary
plumbing, cold and hot water services, flusherette
systems, gas supplies, fire prevention services,
roof work, down pipes and the installation of
sanitary fixtures, taps and outlets.
A sanitary plumbing system refers to the pipes,  fittings, and appliances used to collect and
A sanitary plumbing system refers to the pipes,
fittings, and appliances used to collect and
convey sewerage to a sanitary drainage system,
the indoor water and fluid removal services.
Sanitary drainage systems such as pipe and  fitting and appliance collect and convey sewerage from
Sanitary drainage systems such as pipe and
fitting and appliance collect and convey sewerage
from the sanitary plumbing systems directly
connected through the drain to the sewer. They
usually fitted below ground level.
SANITARY APLLIANCES Sanitary appliances are required in building to  fulfill variety of specialized functions.
SANITARY APLLIANCES
Sanitary appliances are required in building to
fulfill variety of specialized functions.
 Supplied with water either directly from the main or from hot or cold storage vessels.
Supplied with water either directly from the main
or from hot or cold storage vessels.
 Taps are designed to prevent the risk of back siphonage of the foul water into
Taps are designed to prevent the risk of back
siphonage of the foul water into the supply pipe.
Designed with minimum fouling area. 
Designed with minimum fouling area.
SANITARY FITMENTS & APPLIANCES Flushing cisterns  Usual capacity is 9 litre  Several types of
SANITARY FITMENTS &
APPLIANCES
Flushing cisterns
Usual capacity is 9 litre
Several types of flushing cisterns which are:
Bell-type flushing cistern
Disc/Piston type
Bidet Classifies as waste  fitting  Used for perineal washing and footbath  Hot and
Bidet Classifies as waste  fitting 
Bidet
Classifies as waste
fitting

Used for perineal washing and footbath

 Hot and cold water supply are mixed to the required temperature for the ascending spray
Hot and cold water
supply are mixed to
the required
temperature for the
ascending spray
Water Closet  Economic, simple and efficient Designed to maintain  50 mm minimum water seal
Water Closet
Economic, simple and
efficient
Designed to maintain
50 mm minimum
water seal
Higher cistern level
provides more
affective flush
Siphonic water closets
are more silent and
positive in action than
the wash down type.
Can be used in all
types of building with
colour variation
Urinals  Used in all buildings and public lavatories containing common facilities for male conveniences Reduce
Urinals
Used in all buildings and public lavatories containing common
facilities for male conveniences
Reduce the need for a large number of WC’s
There are three types of urinals :
Bowl
Flat slab
Stall
Basin 
Basin
THEORY
THEORY
There are many designs, ranging from  surgeon’s basin to small hand rinse basins
There are many designs, ranging from
surgeon’s basin to small hand rinse basins
Can be obtained to fit into a corner of the room  and supported on brackets,
Can be obtained to fit into a corner of the room
and supported on brackets, a pedestal or by a
‘built in’ corbel.
 Standard basin for domestic consists of a bowl, soap, trap weir overflow and holes for
Standard basin for domestic consists of a bowl,
soap, trap weir overflow and holes for tap and
outlet.
 Made from color ceramic ware or glazed fireclay
Made from color ceramic ware or glazed
fireclay
Sink  Designed for culinary and other domestic uses A sink is a bowl-shaped fixture that
Sink
Designed for culinary and other domestic uses
A sink is a bowl-shaped fixture that is used for
washing hands or small objects.
Many modern sinks are made of stainless steel
Sinks generally have faucets (taps) that supply
hot and cold water and may include a spray
feature to be used for faster rinsing.
Sinks generally include a drain to remove used
water; this drain may itself include a strainer
and/or shut-off device and an overflow-
prevention device.
Sinks may also have an integrated soap
dispenser.
CASE STUDY
CASE STUDY
MEGAMALL PENANG (PUBLIC TOILET)
MEGAMALL PENANG
(PUBLIC TOILET)
 Material – coloured ceramic ware Combined basins (four  basins)  Have a lower level
Material – coloured
ceramic ware
Combined basins (four
basins)
Have a lower level of
basin compared to
others basins
 Material – coloured ceramic ware Combined basins (four  basins)  Have a lower level
Shape of bowl – oval   Consists of a bowl, holes for tap and outlet
Shape of bowl – oval   Consists of a bowl, holes for tap and outlet
Shape of bowl – oval
Consists of a bowl,
holes for tap and
outlet and soap but no
trap weir overflow in
this basin
MEGAMALL PENANG (FOOD COURT)
MEGAMALL PENANG
(FOOD COURT)
Material – glazed fireclay.   Combined basins (two basins).  The finishing is made by
Material – glazed fireclay.
Combined basins (two
basins).
The finishing is made by
wood.
Material – glazed fireclay.   Combined basins (two basins).  The finishing is made by
Shape of bowl – oval.   Consists of a bowl, soap, and holes for tap
Shape of bowl – oval.
Consists of a bowl, soap, and
holes for tap and outlet.
Such as the basins in the
public toilet before, this basin
also not have trap weir
overflow.
Material – glazed fireclay.   Combined basins (two basins).  The finishing is made by
GURNEY PLAZA (PUBLIC TOILET)
GURNEY PLAZA
(PUBLIC TOILET)
The basins system at public toilet in Gurney Plaza is quite same as at public toilet
The basins system at public toilet in Gurney Plaza is quite same as at public toilet
The basins system at public toilet in Gurney
The basins system at
public toilet in Gurney
Plaza is quite same as at public toilet in Megamall Penang. The similarity between these two
Plaza is quite same as at
public toilet in Megamall
Penang. The similarity
between these two
toilets are:
Combined basins (four
basins).
Have a lower level of
basin compared to
others basins.
Consists of a bowl, holes

for tap and outlet and soap but no trap weir overflow in this basin.

The basins system at public toilet in Gurney Plaza is quite same as at public toilet
The differences between these two toilets are:  Material – glazed fireclay.  Shape of bowl
The differences
between these two
toilets are:
Material – glazed
fireclay.
Shape of bowl –
square.
The differences between these two toilets are:  Material – glazed fireclay.  Shape of bowl
CARREFOUR SEBERANG JAYA (PUBLIC TOILET)
CARREFOUR SEBERANG
JAYA
(PUBLIC TOILET)
Material – glazed fireclay.  Combined basins (four  basins). Shape of bowl – oval. 
Material – glazed fireclay.  Combined basins (four  basins). Shape of bowl – oval. 
Material – glazed fireclay.  Combined basins (four  basins).
Material – glazed fireclay.
Combined basins (four
basins).
Shape of bowl – oval.   Consists of a bowl, soap, and holes for tap
Shape of bowl – oval.
Consists of a bowl, soap,
and holes for tap and
outlet.
This basin also not have
the trap weir overflow.
PANGSAPURI IDAMAN (TOILET)
PANGSAPURI IDAMAN
(TOILET)
 Material – glazed fireclay. Single basin.   Shape of bowl – oval.  Consists
Material – glazed
fireclay.
Single basin.
Shape of bowl –
oval.
Consists of a bowl,
soap, holes for tap
and outlet.
This basin quite
difference compared
to the basins at
shopping mall
because it have trap
weir overflow.
 Material – glazed fireclay. Single basin.   Shape of bowl – oval.  Consists
TRAPS Traps are vital components of the drainage  system
TRAPS
Traps are vital components of the drainage
system
Water flows from the basin with enough force to  go through the trap and out
Water flows from the basin with enough force to
go through the trap and out through the
drainpipe, but enough water stays in the trap
afterward to form a seal that prevents sewer gas
from backing up
GURNEY PLAZA
GURNEY PLAZA
GURNEY PLAZA
GURNEY PLAZA
MEGAMALL
MEGAMALL
MEGAMALL
MEGAMALL
FOODCOURT MEGAMALL
FOODCOURT MEGAMALL
FOODCOURT MEGAMALL
CARREFOUR
CARREFOUR
CARREFOUR
CARREFOUR
PIPE SYSTEM The single stack  system The two pipe system 
PIPE SYSTEM
PIPE SYSTEM
The single stack  system The two pipe system 
The single stack
system
The two pipe system
the two pipe system (MEGAMALL, CARREFOUR AND GURNEY PLAZA)
the two pipe system
(MEGAMALL, CARREFOUR AND GURNEY PLAZA)
the two pipe system (MEGAMALL, CARREFOUR AND GURNEY PLAZA)
the two pipe system (MEGAMALL, CARREFOUR AND GURNEY PLAZA)
In this system the  waste stack is connected to the horizontal drain by rest bend
In this system the  waste stack is connected to the horizontal drain by rest bend
In this system the
waste stack is
connected to the
horizontal drain by
rest bend or black
inlet gully.
The basin are
connected to a waste
stack and soil
appliances.
the single stack system (HOUSING AREA IN PESONA AND IDAMAN)
the single stack system
(HOUSING AREA IN PESONA AND IDAMAN)
the single stack system (HOUSING AREA IN PESONA AND IDAMAN)
the single stack system (HOUSING AREA IN PESONA AND IDAMAN)
The sanitary plumbing  systems will directly connected through the drain to the sewer that usually
The sanitary plumbing  systems will directly connected through the drain to the sewer that usually
The sanitary plumbing
systems will directly
connected through
the drain to the sewer
that usually fitted
below ground level.
The vertical stack
must be straight
below the highest
sanitary appliances.
Conclusion
Conclusion
Sanitary System
Sanitary System
Toilet  A toilet is a plumbing fixture and a disposal system primarily intended for the
Toilet
A toilet is a plumbing fixture and a disposal
system primarily intended for the disposal of the
bodily wastes; urine, fecal matter, vomit and
menses.
 Toilets appeared as early as 2500 BCE. The people of the Harappan civilization in Pakistan
Toilets appeared as early as 2500 BCE. The people
of the Harappan civilization in Pakistan and
north-western India had water borne toilets in
each house that were linked with drains covered
with burnt clay bricks.
Toilets can be connected into a septic tank and/or  a city sewer depending upon the
Toilets can be connected into a septic tank and/or
a city sewer depending upon the nature of the
residence.
Sink
Sink
Sink In plumbing, a sink or basin is a bowl-  shaped fixture that is used
Sink In plumbing, a sink or basin is a bowl-  shaped fixture that is used
In plumbing, a sink or basin is a bowl-  shaped fixture that is used for
In plumbing, a sink or basin is a bowl-
shaped fixture that is used for
washing hands or small objects
Water for baths, sinks and basins can
be provided by separate hot and cold
taps
Garbage disposal shreds or trap food
waste into very small pieces so that
they can be passed through the
plumbing without clogging.
Sewer
Sewer
 Sewers transport wastewater from buildings to treatment facilities. Sewers are pipelines that connect buildings to
Sewers transport wastewater from buildings to
treatment facilities. Sewers are pipelines that
connect buildings to horizontal 'mains'. The sewer
mains often connect to larger mains, and then to
the wastewater treatment site. Vertical pipes,
called manholes, connect the mains to the
surface. Sewers are generally gravity powered,
though pumps may be used if necessary.
The earliest covered sewers uncovered by
archeologists are in the regularly planned cities of
the Indus Valley Civilization.
Where all this waste go?
Where all this waste go?
 Sewage is the liquid waste from toilets, baths, showers, kitchens, etc. that is disposed of
Sewage is the liquid waste from toilets, baths,
showers, kitchens, etc. that is disposed of via
sewers.
Sewerage systems that transport liquid waste
discharges to a common treatment facility are
called combined sewer systems.
Sewage (or domestic wastewater) treatment is
the process of removing contaminants from
sewage. It includes physical, chemical and
biological processes to remove physical, chemical
and biological contaminants.
And Finally…
And Finally…
The objective of waste treatment is to  produce a waste stream (or treated effluent) and
The objective of waste treatment is to
produce a waste stream (or treated
effluent) and a solid waste or sludge also
suitable for discharge or reuse back into
the environment.
It is important to have e proper sanitary  system from the beginning till the end.
It is important to have e proper sanitary
system from the beginning till the end.
KEEP OUR PUBLIC TOILET CLEAN
KEEP OUR PUBLIC TOILET CLEAN
KEEP OUR PUBLIC TOILET CLEAN
KEEP OUR PUBLIC TOILET CLEAN
SANITARY SYSTEM
SANITARY SYSTEM
Materials for sanitary appliances
Materials for sanitary
appliances
 dependent upon the type of fitment and the use of the building into which it
dependent upon the type of fitment and the use
of the building into which it is to be installed.
 the materials must be non-corroding, non- absorbent and easily cleaned.
the materials must be non-corroding, non-
absorbent and easily cleaned.
Vitreous-enameled pressed steel
Vitreous-enameled pressed steel
 Used for the manufacture of baths and sink units.
Used for the manufacture of baths and sink
units.
Cheaper material. 
Cheaper material.
Did not have the long-lasting qualities of cast  iron.
Did not have the long-lasting qualities of cast
iron.
Stainless steel
Stainless steel
 Used for WCs, sink units, urinal stalls and wash- hand basins. Clean, pleasant appearance. 
Used for WCs, sink units, urinal stalls and wash-
hand basins.
Clean, pleasant appearance.
Non-corrosive.
Hard wearing.
Has no vitreous-enameled surface.
Easily cleaned.
Very resistant to damage in industrial and public
toilet situations.
Ceramic
Ceramic
 Popular material for such appliances as WCs, wash-hand basins, urinals, sinks and shower trays. Made
Popular material for such appliances as WCs,
wash-hand basins, urinals, sinks and shower
trays.
Made by firing clay and includes various forms of
pottery such as fireclay, stoneware and vitreous
china.
Strong and heavy.
High firing temperatures.
Plastic  Two types - thermosetting and thermoplastic materials.  Thermosetting plastics are generally harder and
Plastic
Two types - thermosetting and
thermoplastic materials.
Thermosetting plastics are generally harder and
have a greater degree of rigidity than
thermoplastics.
Thermoplastic is the most common materials
used for the manufacture of baths and shower
trays for domestic use.
Most of the discharge pipe work used for
sanitation is made of thermoplastics.
Heat capacity of plastics is lower than metals,
so less heat is absorbed from the hot water.
Sink
Sink
 Design for culinary and other domestic uses. The most popular materials for  construction of
Design for culinary and other
domestic uses.
The most popular materials for
construction of sink are
stainless steel, glazed fireclay,
glass fiber reinforced polyester
and vitreous-enameled steel.
Sink  Design for culinary and other domestic uses. The most popular materials for  construction
Baths
Baths
made of cast iron, steel or acrylic 
made of cast iron, steel or acrylic
Wash basins Used for ablutionary  purposes or for hand washing.  Made of glazed fireclay,
Wash basins
Used for ablutionary
purposes or for hand washing.
Made of glazed fireclay,
colored ceramic and vitrified
china.
When they are required to be particularly strong,
durable and vandal-proof, stainless steel or cast
iron are use.
Standard basin for domestic consist of bowl,
soap, trap weir overflow and holes for tap and
outlet.
Water closet
Water closet
Has a 'S’ trap or ‘P’ trap or side outlet using a  bent WC connector.
Has a 'S’ trap or ‘P’ trap or side outlet using a
bent WC connector.
Economic, simple and efficient.
Can be used in all type
of building.
Made from vitreous china,
glazed fireclay, and
stoneware.
Bidets An ablutionary fitting designed for cleansing the  excretory organs, or for use as a
Bidets
An ablutionary fitting designed for cleansing the
excretory organs, or for use as a foot bath.
It is equipped with pillar taps and a normal
waste fitting, the same in fact as those used for
wash basins.
Fitted with a mixing tap set, pop-up waste and
spray jet.
The mixing valve is constructed so that a mixed
supply of hot and cold water can be delivered
through the rim.
Flushing cisterns
Flushing cisterns
To flush automatically the contents of a WC.  Used in building such as factory or
To flush automatically the contents of a WC.
Used in building such as factory or schools
where at peak periods the appliance may be in
almost continuous use.
A normal flushing cistern
should be refilled in 2 minutes.
Made from galvanized steel
or a suitable thermosetting
plastic.
Urinals
Urinals
Can use in all building.  Can reduce the use of water closet.  Made of
Can use in all building.
Can reduce the use of water closet.
Made of glazed clayware, stainless steel or
vitrified china.
There are four type
-
bowl
-
flat slab
-
stall
-
trough
Stall urinals  - the original form of earthenware urinal and still use in older public
Stall urinals
-
the original form of earthenware urinal and still use
in older public building.
-
very heavy and expensive.
Slab urinals
-
is built up of rectangular slabs of glazed clayware
which
are bedded on to a separate channel.
-
provide some privacy for the user.
-
much cheaper than stall urinals.
-
many joints required in their construction.
Bowl urinals
-
the main objection to bowl urinals is the possibility of
fouling the floor.
Showers
Showers
They occupy less floor space.   More hygienic because it washing the body with running
They occupy less floor space.
More hygienic because it washing the body with
running water.
Very economical
SANITARY PIPING SYSTEM
SANITARY PIPING
SYSTEM
One Pipes system Two Pipes System
One Pipes system
Two Pipes System
ONE PIPE SYSTEM
ONE PIPE SYSTEM
The one-pipe system, was an early attempt to  economies in the labour and materials. 
The one-pipe system, was an early attempt to
economies in the labour and materials.
Less in amount of pipes work and cheaper to
install
Although this was a big advantage economically,
it was not accepted by all local authorities for
many years.
Used successfully for multi-storey buildings such
as blocks of flats
It is recommended that discharge pipes are fitted
inside the building for refurbishment work.

Figure of one pipe system

Trap ventilating pipe for basin and bath To sewer Back inlet gulley
Trap ventilating pipe for basin and bath
To sewer
Back
inlet
gulley

Entry of WC discharges into main stack is so

arranged as to avoid siphoning WC trap

One-pipe system (note:  this is almost identical in design to the modern fully ventilated system).
One-pipe system (note:
this is almost identical in
design to the modern
fully ventilated system).
With this system both soil
and waste discharges are
connected to a common
discharge pipe. All traps
subject to risk of
siphonage are fully
ventilated
TWO PIPES SYSTEM
TWO PIPES SYSTEM
 The most expensive of the soil and waste disposal system Only be used in circumstances
The most expensive of the soil and waste disposal
system
Only be used in circumstances
Need to connect the appliances to the a separate waste
stack
Waste stack connected to the horizontal drain either via
a rest bend or a back inlet gully
Waste appliances are connected such as basin, sink,
bidets, and showers connected to awaste stack and soil
appliances as WCS are connected to the soil stack.

TWO PIPES SYSTEM

Obsolete two-pipe system

Offensive smells from hopper head and gulley gain entry into building via open windows or Untrapped
Offensive smells from
hopper head and gulley
gain entry into building
via
open windows or
Untrapped wastes
Basin waste pipe
Bath waste pipe
Usually
unjointed RWP
Soil pipe

Foul water seeps into

footing and ground via

cracks in the gully surround

To sewer

TWO PIPES SYSTEM
TWO PIPES SYSTEM

Vent pipe obviates siphonage of WC trap

Trap ventilating pipework to obviate

siphonage of traps

TWO PIPES SYSTEM Vent pipe obviates siphonage of WC trap Trap ventilating pipework to obviate siphonage

Soil and waste water are separated above ground level but discharge into

same underground

drainage system.

Soil pipe

To sewer

VENTILATION OF SANITARY PIPE Defined as a pipe connected to a discharge pipe at one end,
VENTILATION OF SANITARY
PIPE
Defined as a pipe connected to a
discharge pipe at one end, the
other being open to the atmosphere
TYPE OF VENTILATING SYSTEM
TYPE OF VENTILATING SYSTEM
Primary ventilated stack system Secondary ventilated stack system
Primary ventilated stack system
Secondary ventilated stack system
PRIMARY VENTILATED STACK SYSTEM
PRIMARY VENTILATED STACK
SYSTEM
 Branch vent pipes are not required but the length and falls of the waste pipes
Branch vent pipes are not required but the length and falls of
the waste pipes must be carefully governed to prevent loss of
trap water seal
The trap waters seal on the waste traps must be 76mm deep.
The slope of the pipes are:
Sink and bath
18 to 19mm/m
Basin
20 to 120mm/m
WC
18 mm/m
The vertical stack must be straight below the highest sanitary
appliances
The branch bath waste must be connected to the stack 200mm
below the center of the WC branch connection.
Use of S traps type WC lowers the connection of WC branch
pipe into the stack and the 50mm bore parallel pipe may be
omitted.
Primary ventilated stack system
Primary ventilated stack
system

Primary ventilated stack system (Single stack

system) in a three-storey

building. The recommendations for sink discharge pipes also apply to bath wastes.

SECONDARY VENTILATED STACK SYSTEM The main feature of this system is the cross-venting of  groups
SECONDARY VENTILATED
STACK SYSTEM
The main feature of this system is the cross-venting of
groups of appliances, either from the WC branch or from
the main discharge pipe adjacent to the appliances.
This type of system is normally employed for high-rise  housing of more than five floors.
This type of system is normally employed for high-rise
housing of more than five floors.
 Compression is the main cause of seal loss, especially when appliances on the upper floors
Compression is the main cause of seal loss, especially
when appliances on the upper floors are discharged.
 The use of the ventilating pipe permits the relief of any pressure build-up in the
The use of the ventilating pipe permits the relief of any
pressure build-up in the stack caused by a falling body of
water.

SECONDARY OF VENTILATED

SYSTEM
SYSTEM
Cross connection below WC branch as an alternative to WC ventilation
Cross connection
below WC branch
as an alternative
to WC ventilation
WATER SEAL LOSS Self siphonage -Cause are a waste pipe  is too long, too steep,
WATER SEAL LOSS
Self siphonage -Cause are a waste pipe
is too long, too steep, or to small, will
create a vacum to draw out the seals.
Figure 10.18 shows what is probably the
most common cause of seal loss
Air pressure reduced below atmospheric pressure, i.e. negative pressure
Air pressure reduced below
atmospheric pressure, i.e.
negative pressure
Induced siphonage- The discharge from one  appliance draw out the seal in the trap of
Induced siphonage- The discharge from one
appliance draw out the seal in the trap of an
adjacent appliance by creating a vacum in that
appliance’s branch pipe. Discharge into
inadequately size stack can have the some effect
on waste branch appliances.
Capillary action- A piece of rag, string or hair  caught on the trap outlet.
Capillary action- A piece of rag, string or hair
caught on the trap outlet.
 Back pressure- Compression occurs due to resistance to flow at the base of stack. The
Back pressure- Compression occurs due to
resistance to flow at the base of stack. The
positive pressure displaces water in the lowest
trap. Cause of small radius of bottom bend, an
undersized stack or the lowest branch fitting too
close to the base of the stack.
 Wavering out- Gusts of wind blowing over the top of the stack can cause a
Wavering out- Gusts of wind blowing over the
top of the stack can cause a particle vacuum to
distance water seal.
TRAPS  Traps are an integral part of a modern sanitary system, being designed to retain
TRAPS
Traps are an integral part of a modern sanitary system,
being designed to retain a small quantity of the waste
water from the discharge of the fitting to which they are
attached as a barrier to prevent foul air entering the
building.
Types of traps Traps are designated either P, S, or bottle. the  difference being the
Types of traps
Traps are designated either P, S, or bottle. the
difference being the position of their outlet.

P trap - The P trap outlets are in an almost horizontal plane. A slight angle, usually 2°, is

in fact provided to the outlet of P traps to

ensure a slight fall.

Types of traps Traps are designated either P, S, or bottle. the  difference being the
 S trap - The outlet leg of an S trap is in a vertical position.
S trap - The outlet leg of an S trap is in a
vertical position.
A trap of a different design called a bottle trap 
A trap of a different design called a bottle trap
These are not considered self-cleansing by many  but owing to their neat appearance they are
These are not considered self-cleansing by many
but owing to their neat appearance they are
commonly used
A trap of a different design called a bottle trap  These are not considered self-cleansing
A trap of a different design called a bottle trap  These are not considered self-cleansing
The Drainage System
The Drainage System
The combined system
The combined system
 The foul water from sanitary appliances and the rainwater from roofs and other surfaces are
The foul water from sanitary appliances and the
rainwater from roofs and other surfaces are carried by
single drain to a combined sewer.
 The cost required is low, but the load on the sewerage works is high.
The cost required is low, but the load on the sewerage
works is high.
The Separate System
The Separate System
 The foul water from the sanitary appliances is carried by a foul water drain to
The foul water from the sanitary appliances is
carried by a foul water drain to afoul water
sewer and the rain water from the roofs and the
other surfaces is carried by a surface water drain
into a surface water sewer
The system is more expensive but the load on
the sewage works is greatly reduce.
Partially separate system
Partially separate system
 In the partially separate system, most of the rainwater is carried by the surface water
In the partially separate system, most of the
rainwater is carried by the surface water drain
into the surface water sewer.
In order to save cost however, an isolated  rainwater inlet is connected to the foul
In order to save cost however, an isolated
rainwater inlet is connected to the foul water
drain.

STUDY CASE

Sanitary Appliances
Sanitary Appliances

Mostly, all sanitary appliances in our house is using ‘Armitage

Shanks’ brand especially for things in the toilet.

Material used for ‘Armitage Shanks’ equipments is ceramic.

This product is quite expensive may due to their materials and very comfortable to use.

Sanitary Appliances Mostly, all sanitary appliances in our house is using ‘Armitage Shanks’ brand especially for

Sink - toilet

Sanitary Appliances Mostly, all sanitary appliances in our house is using ‘Armitage Shanks’ brand especially for

Washing closet

Sink - kitchen

Tap - kitchen

Tap - toilet

While for tap, all of the tap in our house use of ‘MiRage’ brand.

Our owner choose this brand my due to the capability of the tap.

It also can withstand with the high pressure of water in our house direct system.

Besides, the ‘MiRage’ equipments are also kind of beauty or has

their own artificial.

Flush water tank P - Trap Bottle Trap Tap Shower

Flush water tank

Flush water tank P - Trap Bottle Trap Tap Shower

P - Trap

Bottle

Trap

Tap

Flush water tank P - Trap Bottle Trap Tap Shower

Shower

Piping System
Piping System

One pipe system

Piping System One pipe system
Ventilation System
Ventilation System

Single stack

Ventilation System Single stack
Drainage System
Drainage System

Rain water and our

waste water

Continuously to water treatment plant

Convey to small drain

Junction of big drain

Continue to big drain
Continue
to big
drain
CONCLUSION
CONCLUSION
 As a conclusion, there are many types of piping system, and each has its own
As a conclusion, there are many types of
piping system, and each has its own
advantage and disadvantage.
Good for us to learn about the piping
system-can fit ourselves.
SOLID WASTE OR REFUSE DISPOSAL  This is unwanted solid material that need to be disposed
SOLID WASTE OR REFUSE DISPOSAL
This is unwanted solid material that need to be
disposed hygienically without affect to the
environment.
Solid waste
-
Domestic
E.g: Food, Bottles, Cans, Rags and
Carpets, Furniture
-
Commercial
E.g: Domestic, Papers & Stationery
-
Industrial
E.g: Toxic, Offensive, Dangerous
Collection System Refuse Bin  Refuse Chutes  Garchey System  Sink Grinders  Technocuum System
Collection System
Refuse Bin
Refuse Chutes
Garchey System
Sink Grinders
Technocuum System
Centralsuy system
Refuse Bin
Refuse Bin
 This is for non-high rise flats. Refuse gathered into disposable plastic bags & placed inside
This is for non-high rise flats. Refuse
gathered into disposable plastic bags &
placed inside bins to be collected.
Refuse Chutes
Refuse Chutes
i) Refuse chute + refuse container  ii) Refuse chute + incinerator – lorries  
i) Refuse chute + refuse container
ii) Refuse chute + incinerator – lorries
Refuse chute is a hollow shaft, built-in the high rise flat
of circular, square or rectangular shaped.
At the top is ventilation vent, every floor is inlet hopper
& at the bottom is refuse container for type i) &
incinerator for type ii)
Type i)- Fig II.2
Type ii) – Fig II.3
Lorries will collect the refuse from type i) & refuse ashes
from type ii)
Garchey system
Garchey system
 Consist of special sink unit + stack pipe (waste pipe) + collection chamber + vacuum
Consist of special sink unit + stack pipe
(waste pipe) + collection chamber +
vacuum lorries + sewer