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Chapter 17 Children With

Special Needs

ecturers Name: Puan Azlina

repared by: Sia Soon Huong
Wendy Ngu
Woei Jiuan

genius learner

of children
with special
needs Vision

Speech Hearing
impairme impairmen
nt t
I. Physically Disability
Refers to neurological disability (affecting the
brain and defect at the nervous system)
Stiff joints & lack of coordination

Implication to the T&L

-use of book holder or electronic text book
-use computers or special pen
II. Visual Problems
Have limited sight
Can be detected through facial expression (less
facial expression, depressed, ignoring others)
Have squinted eyes (shuts one eye in order to
Often rub their eyes, complain of headaches,
holding reading materials close to eye to read
Implication to the T&L
- Prepare reading materials with bigger printed
words substantiate with audio materials
- Concern with the classroom management
- Reading materials must be clear
III. Hearing problems
Deaf or partially deaf
Have difficulty in spelling or pronunciation
Have high or very low pitched voice and turn
their head to listen
Implication to the T&L
- Do not turn your back to these children when
giving instructions
- Environment free from noise and disturbance
- Avoid yelling or speaking loudly
- Use sign language
IV. Speech disorder
Difficulty in pronouncing words
Difficulty in understanding terms or words
Rough husky tones and out of pitch
Stammering (problem with tones, speak too
loudly / softly)
Implication to the T&L
- Give enough time to respond
- Encourage them to respond in writing
- Use of multiple sensors
- Help children with suitable model
Slow Learners
A slow learner is a child of below
average intelligence, whose thinking
skills have developed significantly
more slowly than the norm for his/her
age. This child will go through the
same basic developmental stages as
other children, but will do so at a
significantly slower rate.
Characteristics of children with special
needs (Slow Learners)
Characteristics Explanation
Developmental may have immature language patterns
or speech problems

Social poor judgement, immature social

behaviour, prefers company of
younger children

Personal frustration, aggression, anxiety

Academic may show proficiency with particular
tasks rather than a subject areas, poor
memory, difficulties understanding
several steps in a task

Learning needs to have new information linked

to old, difficulties transferring
information learned in one situation to
other situations.
Definition of Dyslexia
developmental reading disorder, refers
to childs difficulty with reading,
writing, and spelling due to the brains
decreased recognition of symbols
(such as letters and numbers).
Problems in reading and writing.
Also slow learners
Usually left handed or always use
both hands
Prefer reading from right to left with
alphabets such as b being red or
written as d.
(Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder)
Cannot maintain concentration and
face difficulty in completing task and
have poor memory
Active physical movement
Definition of ADD/ ADHD

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

(ADHD) is a disorder that appears in
early childhood. ADD/ADHD makes it
difficult for people to inhibit their
spontaneous responsesresponses
that can involve everything from
movement to speech to attentiveness.
Combined type

3 Types of
mpulsive type. ADHD in

Characteristics of children with ADHD

inability to recognize other people's needs

and desires.
difficulty keeping emotions in check
can't sit still
show interest in lots of different things, but they
may have problems finishing them
have trouble paying attention, even when
someone is speaking directly to them
have difficulty following instructions
characterized by social-
interaction difficulties,
communication challenges
and a tendency to engage in
repetitive behaviours.
Definition of Autism
developmental disability caused by
differences in the brain. Some people
with ASD have a known difference,
such as a genetic condition. There are
multiple causes of ASD, although most
are not yet known.
Characteristics of children with autism

exhibit unusual behaviour due to the

difficulties they have responding to
their environment.
have difficulty establishing and
maintaining relationships
have communication difficulties in
one form or another