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KGD (1956) Geertsma, de Klerk (1969)
,

PKN Perkins, Kern (1961), Nordgren (1972)


,

(1969)

KGD ( (1955), Geertsma, de Klerk (1969))
,
,


4(1 ) 2 2 + 2 2
= ln
0 2 2 2 2




= = 2 / =
0 2 2

1. .., . . // . .-1955. - 5. - . 3-41.


2. Geertsma J., de Klerk F. A rapid method of predicting width and extent of hydraulically induced fractures // J. Petrol. Tech. - 1969.
No. 12. - P. 1571-1581.

3
+ + = 0 =
12

= 0: =

= : =0

( )
= : = =
( )

2CL r
QL (l , t )
t texp (r )

KGD


(, , )

KGD


PL3D

1 E.V. Dontsov and A. P. Peirce, Implementing a universal tip asymptotic solution into an Implicit Level Set Algorithm (ILSA) for
multiple parallel hydraulic fractures, ARMA 16-268, 2016.
KGD
,



1-3 KGD -4-5

.
4
1-3, 5

= = 0

1. Atkinson C., Eftaxiopoulos D. A., Numerical and analytical solution for the problem of hydraulic fracturing from cased and
cemented wellbore // Int. J. Solids and Structures 2002. Vol. 39., no. 6. P. 16211650.
2. B.., .., ..
. 2007. 1. . 45-63.
3. . ., // -
. 2008. 6. C. 1929.
4. Cherny S., Chirkov D., Lapin V., Muranov A., Bannikov D., Miller M., Willberg D. Two-dimensional modeling of the near-wellbore
fracture tortuosity effect // Int. J. Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 2009. Vol. 36., no. 6. P. 9921000
5. . ., . ., . ., . ., . .,
// . .: -, -, -. - 2011. - . 11., . 3. - . 3659.

min

max max

min



PKN Perkins, Kern1, Nordgren 2
,
,


4 1 2 2 2 1 2
, = () 2 = ()
4

1. Perkins T. K., Kern L. R. Widths of hydraulic fractures // J. Petrol. Tech. 1961. No. 9. P. 937949.
2. Nordgren R.P. Propagation of a vertical hydraulic fracture // SPE J. - 1972. Vol. 12., no. 4. P. 306314.

1
+ + = 0 = = 0: = = : = 0
4
3
64
= 3 2CL r
QL (l , t )
t texp (r )


,
3
2
4
4
+ + =0
128(1 2 ) 2

3 4

= 0: = =0
512(1 2 )
= : = 0

PKN

(, )

PKN



4 / 1,2,3


1,2 PKN 3

1. E.V. Dontsov and A. P. Peirce, Slurry flow, gravitational settling and a proppant transport model for hydraulic fractures, J. Fluid
Mech. V 760, pp 567-590, 2014.
2. E.V. Dontsov and A. P. Peirce, Proppant transport in hydraulic fracturing: Crack tip screen-out in KGD and P3D models, Int. J.
Solids & Structures, 63, p 206-218, 2015.
3. P. Karnakov, V. Lapin, S. Cherny Propagation of a hydraulic fracture with proppant transport ( )
4. .., .., .. ,
// . .: . .. - 2014. - .12. - 1. - .19-33.
PKN



,
1,2 / 3

=



1. Meyer BR. Design formulae for 2d and 3-d vertical hydraulic fractures: model comparison and parametric studies. In
Proceedings of the unconventional gas technology symposium, SPE 15240, 1986. p. 391408.
2. Palmer ID, Carroll HB. Numerical solution for height and elongated hydraulic fractures. In: Proceedings of the SPE/DOE low
permeability reservoir symposium, Denver. SPE 11627, Society of Petroleum Engineers, 1983. p. 2496.
3. Settari A, Cleary MP. Development and testing of a pseudo-three-dimensional model of hydraulic fracture geometry. SPE
Production Engineering, November 1986. p. 44966.

(MFRAC, StimPlan, e-StimPlan, FracCade, FracPro)

12 ,
Texaco E&P
FracCADE OCS-G 10752 #D-12
Actual
05-23-1997
EOJ Fracture Profile and Proppant Concentration
7300

< 0.0
7350
0.0
0.0 - 2.0
2.0 - 4.0
4.0 - 6.0
6.0 - 8.0
8.0 - 10.0
7400 10.0 - 12.0
12.0 - 14.0
> 14.0

7450

7500
5600 6400 7200 -0.45 -0.30 -0.15 0 0.15 0.30 0.45 0 100 200 300 400
Stress(psi) Wellbore Hydraulic Width(in) Fracture Half-Length (ft)

*Mark of Schlumberger

1. Jos I. Adachi, Emmanuel Detournay, Anthony P. Peirce. Analysis of the classical pseudo-3D model for hydraulic fracture with
equilibrium height growth across stress barriers. Int. J. of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences. Vol. 47, N4, June 2010. P. 625-639.
2. E.V. Dontsov, A.P. Peirce An enhanced pseudo-3D model for hydraulic fracturing accounting for viscous height growth, non-local
elasticity, and lateral toughness Engineering Fracture Mechanics Volume 142, July 2015, Pages 116139
PKN





1 23

1. Siebrits E, Peirce A. P. An efficient multi-layer planar 3D fracture growth algorithm using a fixed mesh approach. Int J Numer Meth
Eng 2002;53:691717.
2. Advani SH, Lee TS, Lee JK. Three-dimensional modeling of hydraulic fractures in layered media: part Ifinite element formulations. J
Energy Resour Tech 1990;112:19.
3. Vandamme L, Curran JH. A three-dimensional hydraulic fracturing simulator. Int J Numer Meth Eng 1989;28:90927.

(GOHFER, N-StimPlan, Terra-Frac)

1 2

1. E.V. Dontsov and A. P. Peirce, Implementing a universal tip asymptotic solution into an Implicit Level Set Algorithm (ILSA) for
multiple parallel hydraulic fractures, ARMA 16-268, 2016.
2. J.I. Adachi, E. Detournay, A.P. Peirce. Computer simulation of hydraulic fractures International Journal of Rock Mechanics &
Mining Sciences 44 (2007) 739757

N-StimPlan


Fully-
coupled elastic

GOHFER


3D
Shear-decoupled


Terra-Frac




3D


MFRAC StimPlan

FracProPT GOHFER
(1969)
,
, ,


1 p( )
Rfrac Rfrac

W (r ) 4

0 0 x
2 2
x r2 2
d dx


(rW ) 1 Q 2
Rfrac
p( )
QL (r , t ) 0
t 2 r KI
R frac 0 R 2
2
d K Ic
frac
p 6Q
3 R front Q front
r W r
t 2 R frontW front


Q( Rw ) Qin (t ) p ( R front ) p pore QL (l , t )
2CL r
t texp (r )



(, , )




p 2n 1
n
Qn 4n 2 0 -
2 K
n W r n 1 W
2 n 1 n
r


p 6 ( p) Q
app 3
r W r

, = ( + 0 ) 1
= 50 1
1 1 = 0.075 , = 1, 0 = 0
2 2 = 0.3 , = 1, 0 = 0
3 = 0.3 , = 0.8, 0 = 0 ( = 50 1 ) = 0.3
4 = 0.075 , = 1, 0 = 11

50 103 1

* Montgomery, C., 2013. Effective and Sustainable Hydraulic Fracturing, chap. Fracturing Fluids. InTech,


Castonguay et al. Damjanac et al. 2013 Cherny et al. 2013
2013

Kresse et al. 2013

Meyer and
Basan 2011
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1?



1. .., .., .., .. :
. - : - . - 2016. - 312 .


ij, j x = 0, x V
ij = ij kk + 2 kk
ij = ui, j + u j,i
1
2
t x |S = g x
t



0.5ui x' = U ij x',x t j x dS x Tij x',x u j x dS x
S S


M M M
x 1, 2 = x m 1, 2 , u 1, 2 = u m 1, 2 , t 1, 2 = t mm 1, 2
m m

m=1 m=1 m=1


N M N M
0.5u j x' +
n=1 m=1
U ijnmt nm
j = Tijnmu nm
n=1 m=1
j
T *

12 I u U *t

1. .., .., .., ..


// . - 2011 - .16, 6. - . 13-26




0.5ui x* = U ij x* ,x t j x dS x Tij x* ,x u j x dS x Tij x* ,x u j x dS x

S* S* S

u u( x ) u( x )

t j ( x ) = Lkj x ,x tk x dS x M ij x ,x uk x dS x M kj x ,x uk x dS x

S* S* S
t (x ) t (x ) 0


S * T1* 12 I T2* u U1* 0 t

S M1 M 2 u L1 I t

1. Kuranakov D.S., Esipov D.V., Lapin V.N., Cherny S.G. Modification of the Boundary Element Method for Computation of Three-
Dimensional Fields of Strain-Stress State of Cavities with Cracks // Engineering Fracture Mechanics V. 153, - 2016, p 302318




K II ( (l )) 0 K II ( (l )) 0, K III ( (l )) 0 (l ) L(t ) ( (l ))
l

K II ( (l )) 0, K III ( (l )) 0


F ( (l )) (1 ) K II2 ( (l )) K III ( (l )) dl
2
F ( * (l )) min F ( (l )) -
(l ) front

: 0


x 16MPa
y 10MPa
z 16MPa

1. Kuranakov D.S., Esipov D.V., Lapin V.N., Cherny S.G. Modification of the boundary element method for computation of three-
dimensional fields of strain-stress state of cavities with cracks // Engineering Fracture Mechanics. - 2016. - Vol.153. - P.302-318. -

(Erdogan-Sih)
K I ( L(l )) K Ic
(energy release rate)
1 2 1 2 1 2 2
G
E
2

K I K II
2
E
K III
E
K Ic Gc


45 KI
G

KI
G
:

P P P P
K IO
E
4(1 ) 2l
2
ub ub , K IIO
E

4(1 ) 2l
2
un un ,

P P
O
K III
E

4(1 ) 2l
ut ut


K1 K 2
K K l2
O 2
l2 l1



:

a1 1 a2 2
(1 , 2 )
a b , 1, 2,3, 4
a1 b1 2 2
a11 a12 a12 a22
a13 a23 a14 a24
bi ai , i 1, 2, (0,1)

4 4
x(1 , 2 ) x (1 , 2 )

u(1 , 2 ) u (1 , 2 ) u a1r a0
1 1

u a1/ 2 r1/ 2 a3/ 2 r 3/ 2 o(r 3/ 2 )


a1 1 F (a2 ) F ( 2 )
(1 , 2 ) F (a ) F (b ) , 1, 2,3, 4

a1 b1 2 2
F (t ) 1 t
4 4
x(1 , 2 ) x (1 , 2 )

u(1 , 2 ) u (1 , 2 ) u a1/ 2 r1/ 2 a0
1 1




1


d dv
div v 0, divP + f
dt dt
dU
P : D div k , P P ( D, )
dt
(- )


P p div v I 2 D const


-
P pI 2 D


P pI

1 Cherny S.G., Lapin V.N. 3D model of hydraulic fracture with Herschel-Bulkley compressible fluid pumping // Procedia Structural
Integrity. Vol 2., P. 2479-2486 - ISSN 2452-3216
2D
p 12 p 12
3 q1, 3 q2
x W y W
W q1 q2
0
t x y
p
p S p g1, q Sq a g2
n


W W3
( ap ) f f a
t 12


W W3
( ap ) f f a
t 12


p
a
n
dG (ap) dS f dS
Sn S n S n



M
p pii (1, 2 )
i 1


p
Kij pi Q j F j Kij ai j J d1d2 , Q j a i dG, F j f i J d1d2
Sn Sn
n S
n

x 4MPa E 20GPa Rw 0.5m 1000 Pa s
y 0.2 R 1m Q 32 106 m3 / s
4 MPa
z 3MPa K Ic 3MPa m 450


40 Rw
45

1 0
0.5
2 1000Pa s
-
p 12 ( p) p 12 ( p) ( p) -
q1 , q2
x W3 y W3
(2 K )1/ n (2n 1) 11/ n (4n 2)21/ n 0
( p) W | p |
3n W | p |
1/ n
6n

W q1 q2
0
t x y
p
p S p g1, q Sq a g2
n


W W3
( ap ) f f a
t 12 ( p )

:
1. .

Kij (p) pi Q j Fj (p)



W W3
( ap ) f f a
t 12 ( p)

N- H (1 ,..., N )

1.
s 0 : i K

2.
(a(H )p) f

3.
H H( p s )

4. (H =0.1 )
H s 1 (1 r ( s ))H s r ( s)H
r (s) H min 1, Hs Hs H
5. 2-4
Hs H H s 104

x 4MPa E 20GPa K 1000 Pa s
y 4MPa 0.2 n 0.5
z 3MPa K Ic 3MPa m 0 400 Pa

: -

1 K 500 Pa s
2 K 1000 Pa s
3 K 2000 Pa s

K 1000 Pa s

1 n 1, 0 0
2 n 1, 0 400 Pa
3 n 0.5, 0 0
n 1, 0 0
4 n 0.5, 0 400 Pa
n 0.5, 0 400 Pa

150

450

p 12 p 12
3 q1, 3 q2
x W y W
W q1 q2
0
t x y
p
p S p g1, q Sq a g2
n

W ( p) W 3 ( p)
( ap ) f f a
t 12

:
1.
( )
p

RT
2. .

Kij (p) pi Q j Fj (p)

xx
net
9 MPa E 20GPa p pore 10 100MPa 10000Pa s p / RT
yy
net
9 MPa 0.2 qin 32 106 m3 / s R 287 J / kg / K (air )
ijabs p pore ijnet
zznet 3MPa K Ic 3MPa T 400 K

p pore
0 incompressible
1 100MPa
2 50MPa p p pore
net
3 10 MPa RT
4 5MPa

45

p pore
0 incompressible
3 10 MPa
?

,
, , ,

, ,

, ,
,
,
,
, ,

,

1

u, u, ( p, x f , xr )
W W ( p, x f , xr )

K I K I (u, )
K II K II (u, )


xr xr ( K I , K II )


p p(W , x f )

x f x f (u f )

p p(W ( p))

1. Shokin Yu., Cherny S., Esipov D., Lapin V., Lyutov A., Kuranakov D. Three-dimensional model of fracture propagation from the
cavity caused by quasi-static load or viscous fluid pumping // Communications in Computer and Information Science series. Vol. 549.
Mathematical Modeling of Technological Processes, P. 143157.
PKN



,
1,2 / 3

1. Meyer BR. Design formulae for 2d and 3-d vertical hydraulic fractures: model comparison and parametric studies. In
Proceedings of the unconventional gas technology symposium, SPE 15240, 1986. p. 391408.
2. Palmer ID, Carroll HB. Numerical solution for height and elongated hydraulic fractures. In: Proceedings of the SPE/DOE low
permeability reservoir symposium, Denver. SPE 11627, Society of Petroleum Engineers, 1983. p. 2496.
3. Settari A, Cleary MP. Development and testing of a pseudo-three-dimensional model of hydraulic fracture geometry. SPE
Production Engineering, November 1986. p. 44966.
PKN



=






-3D Lumped-elliptical

-3D Cell-based