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# Biomedical Control Systems (BCS)

## Lecture 5: Mathematical Modeling of

Mechanical Systems

## Muhammad Arif, PhD

m.arif@faculty.muet.edu.pk
https://sites.google.com/site/mdotarif/teaching/bcs
Learning Outcomes:
After completing this chapter student will be able to :

## Obtain the transfer function of linear translational and rotational mechanical

systems.
Convert mechanical system into series and parallel circuit analogs.
Know about mechanical linkages: Gears
Mathematical Modeling of Gear Trains
Lecture Outline
Part-I: Translational Mechanical System

## Part-III: Mechanical Linkages

Basic Types of Mechanical Systems

Translational
Linear Motion

Rotational
Rotational Motion
Translational Mechanical Systems
Part-I
Basic Elements of Translational Mechanical Systems

Translational
Spring
i)

Translational Mass
ii)

Translational
iii) Damper
Translational Spring
A translational spring is a mechanical element that can be deformed by
an external force such that the deformation is directly proportional to the
force applied to it.

Translational
Spring
i)

Circuit Symbols
Translational Spring
Translational Spring
If F is the applied force
x1
x2

## Then x1 is the deformation if x2 0 F

Or ( x1 x2 ) is the deformation. F

## The equation of motion is given as

F k ( x1 x2 )
Where k is stiffness of spring expressed in N/m
Translational Spring

Given two springs with spring constant k1 and k2, obtain the
equivalent spring constant keq for the two springs connected in:

## (1) Parallel (2) Series

Translational Spring
The two springs have same displacement therefore:

k1 x k 2 x F
(1) Parallel
( k1 k 2 ) x F

keq x F
keq k1 k2
If n springs are connected in parallel then:

keq k1 k2 k n
Translational Spring
The forces on two springs are same, F, however displacements
are different therefore:
(2) Series
k1 x1 k 2 x2 F

F F
x1 x2
k1 k2

## Since the total displacement is x x1 x2 , and we have F keq x

F F F
x x1 x2
k eq k1 k 2
Translational Spring
F F F

k eq k1 k 2
Then we can obtain

1 k1k 2
k eq
1 1 k1 k 2

k1 k 2

## If n springs are connected in series then:

k1k 2 k n
k eq
k1 k 2 k n
Translational Spring
Exercise: Obtain the equivalent stiffness for the following spring networks.

i)

k3

ii) k3
Translational Mass
Translational
ii) Mass
Translational Mass is an inertia element.

not exist.

## If a force F is applied to a mass and it is

displaced to x meters then the relation x(t )
b/w force and displacements is given by
Newtons law. F (t )
M

F Mx
Translational Damper

## When the viscosity or drag is not

negligible in a system, we often model
them with the damping force.

## All the materials exhibit the property of Translational

damping to some extent. iii) Damper

## If damping in the system is not enough

then extra elements (e.g. Dashpot) are
added to increase damping.
Common Uses of Dashpots
Door Stoppers
Vehicle Suspension

Bridge Suspension
Flyover Suspension
Translational Damper

F Cx F C ( x1 x 2 )

## Where C is damping coefficient (N/ms-1).

Translational Damper

## Translational Dampers in Series

Ceq C1 C2
C1C2
Ceq
C1 C2
Force-velocity, force-displacement, and impedance
relationships for springs, viscous dampers, and mass

where, K, f v, and M are called spring constant, coefficient of viscous friction, and mass, respectively.
Analogies Between Electrical and
Mechanical Components
Mechanical systems, like electrical networks, have three passive, linear components.

Two of them, the spring and the mass, are energy-storage elements;

## One of them, the viscous damper, dissipates energy.

The two energy-storage elements are analogous to the two electrical energy-storage

## The energy dissipater is analogous to electrical resistance.

The motion of translation is defined as a motion that takes place along a straight or

curved path. The variables that are used to describe translational motion are acceleration,

## velocity, and displacement.

Newtons Second Law
Newton's law of motion states that the algebraic sum of
external forces acting on a rigid body in a given
direction is equal to the product of the mass of the
body and its acceleration in the same direction. The
law can be expressed as

=
Steps to Obtain the Transfer Function of Mechanical
System

The mechanical system requires just one differential equation, called the equation of
motion, to describe it.
Assume a positive direction of motion, for example, to the right.
This assumed positive direction of motion is similar to assuming a current direction
in an electrical loop.

First Step, draw a free-body diagram, placing on the body all forces that act on the
body either in the direction of motion or opposite to it.
Second Step, use Newtons law to form a differential equation of motion by
summing the forces and setting the sum equal to zero.
Third Step, assuming zero initial conditions, we take the Laplace transform of the
differential equation, separate the variables, and arrive at the transfer function.
Example-1(a): Find the transfer function of the
mechanical translational system given in the Figure.
Free Body Diagram

fk fB

f (t ) fM
Figure

X (s) 1
f (t ) f k f M f B
F(s) Ms 2 Bs k
Example-1(b): Find the transfer function, X(s)/F(s), of the system.

## First step is to draw the free-body diagram.

Place on the mass all forces felt by the mass.
We assume the mass is traveling toward the right. Thus, only the applied force points
to the right; all other forces impede the motion and act to oppose it. Hence, the
spring, viscous damper, and the force due to acceleration point to the left.

Second step is to write the differential equation of motion using Newtons law to sum
to zero all of the forces shown on the mass.
Example-1(b): Continue.
Third step is to take the Laplace transform, assuming zero initial conditions,

## Finally, solving for the transfer function yields

Block Diagram
Impedance Approach to Obtain the Transfer Function of
Mechanical System
Taking the Laplace transform of the force-displacement terms of mechanical
components , we get

## We can define impedance for mechanical components as

Example-2: Solve example-1 using the Impedance Approach.

## Which is in the form of

Example-3: Consider a simple horizontal spring-mass system
on a frictionless surface, as shown in figure below.

## The differential equation of the above system is

mx kx
or
mx kx 0
Example-4: Find the transfer function, X(s)/F(s), of the system.
Consider the system friction is negligible.

k
x
F
M

## Free Body Diagram

fk
M fM
F
Where f k and f M are force applied by the spring and inertial force
respectively.
Example-4: continue
fk
M fM
F

F fk fM
Then the differential equation of the system is:

F Mx kx
Taking the Laplace Transform of both sides and ignoring initial conditions
we get

F ( s ) Ms 2 X ( s ) kX ( s )
Example-4: continue.
F ( s ) Ms 2 X ( s ) kX ( s )

## The transfer function of the system is

X (s) 1

F(s) Ms 2 k
if
M 1000 kg
k 2000 Nm 1
X (s) 0.001
2
F(s) s 2
Example-4: continue.
X (s) 0.001
2
F(s) s 2
The pole-zero map of the system is
Pole-Zero Map
40

30

20
Imaginary Axis

10

-10

-20

-30

-40
-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1
Real Axis
Example-5: Find the transfer function, X(s)/F(s), of the
following system, where the system friction is negligible.

k
x
F
M

C
Free Body Diagram

fk fC
M fM
F

F f k f M fC
Example-5: continue.
Differential equation of the system is:

F Mx Cx k x

## Taking the Laplace Transform of both sides and ignoring

Initial conditions we get

F ( s ) Ms 2 X ( s ) CsX ( s ) kX ( s )

X (s) 1

F(s) Ms 2 Cs k
Example-5: continue.
X (s) 1

F(s) Ms 2 Cs k
if 2
Pole-Zero Map

1.5
M 1000 kg 1

k 2000 Nm 1

Imaginary Axis
0.5

1
C 1000 N / ms
0

-0.5

-1

X (s) 0.001
-1.5

2 -2
F(s) s s 1000
-1 -0.5 0
Real Axis
0.5 1
Example-6: Find the transfer function, X(s)/F(s), of the
following system.

## Free Body Diagram

fk fM
M
fB F X (s) 1

F(s) Ms 2 Bs k
F fk fM fB
Example-7: Write the differential equations of the
following system.
x2

x1 k B
F M

Mechanical Network
x1 k x2

F M B
Example-7: continue.

Mechanical Network

x1 k x2

F M B

At node x1

F k ( x1 x 2 )

At node x2
0 k ( x2 x1 ) Mx2 Bx
2
Example-8: Find the transfer function X2(s)/F(s) of the
following system.

M1 M2

B
Example-9: Write the differential equations of the following system.
x1 x2

k B3 B4
M1 M2
f (t )

B1 B2
Mechanical Network
x1 B3 x2

f (t ) k M1 B1 B2 M2 B4
Example-10: Find the transfer function Y(s)/F(s) of the
restaurant plate dispenser system.
Example-11: Find the transfer function X2(s)/F(s) of the
following system.
Free Body Diagram

f k1 fB f k1 fB

M2 M1

f M1
F (t ) f k 2 f M 2
k2
F (t ) f k1 f k2 f M 2 f B (1)

0 f k1 f M1 f B (2)
Example-12: Draw a mechanical network and write the
differential equations of the following system.

x2 x3
x1
k1 B3 B4

u(t ) B1 M1 k2 M2 k3

B2 B5
Example-13: Find the transfer function Xo(s)/Xi(s) of the
automobile suspension system.
Example-13: continue.
Example-13: continue.
mxo b( x o xi ) k ( xo xi ) 0 (eq .1)

## Taking Laplace Transform of the equation (2)

2
ms X o ( s ) bsX o ( s ) kXo ( s ) bsX i ( s ) kXi ( s )

X o (s) bs k
The transfer function of the system is
X i ( s ) ms 2 bs k
Example-14: Find the transfer function Y(s)/U(s) of the train
suspension system.

Car Body
Bogie-2
Bogie-1
Secondary

Suspension
Bogie

Frame
Primary
Wheelsets
Suspension
Example-14: continue.
Example-15: Find the transfer function, X2(s)/F(s), of the system.

The system has two degrees of freedom, since each mass can be moved in the
horizontal direction while the other is held still.
Thus, two simultaneous equations of motion will be required to describe the system.
The two equations come from free-body diagrams of each mass.
Superposition is used to draw the free body diagrams.
For example, the forces on M1 are due to (1) its own motion and (2) the motion of M2
transmitted toM1 through the system.
We will consider these two sources separately.
Example-15: Continue.

Case-I: Forces on M1

All forces on M1

## Combine (a) & (b)

Figure-1.

Figure-1:
a. Forces on M1 due only to motion of M1;
b. Forces on M1 due only to motion of M2;
c. All forces on M1.
Example-15: Continue. Case-I: Forces on M1
If we hold M2 still and move M1 to the right, we see the forces shown in Figure-1(a).
If we holdM1 still and moveM2 to the right, we see the forces shown in Figure 1(b).
The total force on M1 is the superposition, or sum of the forces, as shown in Figure-1(c).

All forces on M1

## Combine (a) & (b)

Figure-1:
a. Forces on M1 due only to motion of M1;
b. Forces on M1 due only to motion of M2;
c. All forces on M1.

The Laplace transform of the equations of motion can be written from Figure-1 (c) as;

(1)
Example-15: Continue.

Case-II: Forces on M2

All forces on M2

## Combine (a) & (b)

Figure-2.

Figure-2:
a. Forces on M2 due only to motion of M2;
b. Forces on M2 due only to motion of M1;
c. All forces on M2.
Example-15: Continue. Case-II: Forces on M2

If we hold M1 still and move M2 to the right, we see the forces shown in Figure-2(a).
If we move M1 to the right and hold M2 still, we see the forces shown in Figure-2(b).
For each case we evaluate the forces on M2.
The total force on M2 is the superposition, or sum of the forces, as shown in Figure-2(c).

All forces on M2

## Combine (a) & (b)

Figure-2:
a. Forces on M2 due only to motion of M2;
b. Forces on M2 due only to motion of M1;
c. All forces on M2.

The Laplace transform of the equations of motion can be written from Figure-2 (c) as;

(2)
Example-15: Continue.

(1)

(2)

## From equation (1) and (2), the transfer function, X2(s)/F(s), is

Block Diagram

Where,
Example-15: Continue.
Example-16: Write, but do not solve, the equations of motion for the
mechanical network shown below.

The system has three degrees of freedom, since each of the three masses can be moved
independently while the others are held still.
M1 has two springs, two viscous dampers, and mass associated with its motion.
There is one spring between M1 and M2 and one viscous damper between M1 and M3.
Electric Circuit Analogs

## An electric circuit that is analogous to a system from another discipline is called

an electric circuit analog.
The mechanical systems with which we worked can be represented by equivalent
electric circuits.
Analogs can be obtained by comparing the equations of motion of a mechanical
system, with either electrical mesh or nodal equations.
When compared with mesh equations, the resulting electrical circuit is called a
series analog.
When compared with nodal equations, the resulting electrical circuit is called a
parallel analog.
Series Analog

## For a direct analogy b/w Eq (1)

& (2), convert displacement
Equation of motion of the Kirchhoffs mesh equation
to velocity by divide and
above translational for the above simple series
multiply the left-hand side of
mechanical system is; RLC network is;
Eq (1) by s, yielding;

## Comparing Eqs. (2) & (3), we recognize the sum of

impedances & draw the circuit shown in Figure
(c). The conversions are summarized in Figure (d).
Converting a Mechanical System to a Series Analog
Example-17: Draw a series analog for the mechanical system.

## The equations of motion in the Laplace transform domain are;

(1)

(2)

Eqs (1) & (2) are analogous t0 electrical mesh equations after conversion to velocity.
Thus,
(3)

(4)
Example-17: Continue.

(3)

(4)

## Coefficients represent sums of electrical impedance.

Mechanical impedances associated withM1 form the first mesh,
whereas impedances between the two masses are common to the two loops.
Impedances associated with M2 form the second mesh.
The result is shown in Figure below, where v1(t) and v2(t) are the velocities of M1
and M2, respectively.
Skill-Assessment Exercise
PROBLEM: Find the transfer function, G)s) =X2(s)/F(s), for the translational
mechanical system shown in Figure
Answer Skill-Assessment Exercise
Parallel Analog

## Equation of motion of Kirchhoffs nodal equation

the above translational for the simple parallel RLC
mechanical system is; network shown above is;

(1) (2)

## Comparing Eqs. (1) & (2), we identify the

sum of admittances & draw the circuit
shown in Figure (c).

## The conversions are summarized in Figure

2.43(d).
Converting a Mechanical System to a Parallel Analog

## Equations of motion after conversion to velocity are;

(1)

(2)
Example-18: Continue.

(1)

(2)

The Equation (1) and (2) are also analogous to electrical node equations.
Coefficients represent sums of electrical admittances.
Admittances associated with M1 form the elements connected to the first node,
whereas mechanical admittances b/w the two masses are common to the two nodes.
Mechanical admittances associated with M2 form the elements connected to the
second node.
The result is shown in the Figure below, where v1(t) and v2(t) are the velocities of M1
and M2, respectively.
Rotational Mechanical Systems
Part-II
Basic Elements of Rotational Mechanical Systems

Rotational Spring

1
2

T k (1 2 )
Basic Elements of Rotational Mechanical Systems
Rotational Damper

C
1
2 T

T C(1 2 )
Basic Elements of Rotational Mechanical Systems

Moment of Inertia

J T

T J
Table: Torque-angular velocity, torque-angular displacement, and impedance
rotational relationships for springs, viscous dampers, and inertia.
Example-1:
B1
1 k1 2 3 k2
T J1 J2

1 k1 2 B1 3

T J1 J2 k2
Example-2:

1 k1 2 B2
3 B4
T J1 J2

B1 B3

1 k1 2 B2 3

T J1 B1 B3 J2 B4
Example-3:

1
k1 2
T k2
J1 J2
B2
Example-4:
Skill-Assessment Exercise
Problem: Find the transfer function, G(s) = 2(s)=T(s), for the
rotational mechanical system shown in the Figure.
Answer: Skill-Assessment Exercise
Mechanical Linkages
Part-III
Gear
Gear is a toothed machine part, such as a wheel or
cylinder, that meshes with another toothed part to
transmit motion or to change speed or direction.
Fundamental Properties
The two gears turn in opposite directions: one clockwise and the other
counterclockwise.

Two gears revolve at different speeds when number of teeth on each gear are
different.
Gearing Up and Down

## The more velocity gained, the more torque sacrifice.

The ratio is exactly the same: if you get three times your
original angular velocity, you reduce the resulting torque to
one third.

## This conversion is symmetric: we can also convert velocity

to torque at the same ratio.

## The price of the conversion is power loss due to friction.

Why Gearing is necessary?

A typical DC motor operates at speeds that are far too high to be useful,
and at torques that are far too low.

Gear Trains
Gear Ratio

## You can calculate the gear ratio by using

the number of teeth of the driver divided
by the number of teeth of the follower.

## We gear up when we increase velocity and Driver

decrease torque. Follower
Ratio: 3:1

## We gear down when we increase torque

and reduce velocity.
Ratio: 1:3

## Gear Ratio = # teeth input gear / # teeth output gear

= torque in / torque out = speed out / speed in
Example of Gear Trains
A most commonly used example of gear trains is the gears of an
automobile.
Mathematical Modelling of Gear Trains
Gears increase or reduce angular velocity (while simultaneously decreasing
or increasing torque, such that energy is conserved).

N11 N 2 2

## 2 Angular Movement of Following Gear

Mathematical Modelling of Gear Trains
Mathematical Modelling of Gear Trains
Mathematical Modelling of Gear Trains
In the system below, a torque, a, is applied to gear 1 (with
number of teeth N1, moment of inertia J1 and a rotational
friction B1).
It, in turn, is connected to gear 2 (with number of teeth N2,
moment of inertia J2 and a rotational friction B2).
The angle 1 is defined positive clockwise, 2 is defined
positive clockwise. The torque acts in the direction of 1.
Assume that TL is the load torque applied by the load
connected to Gear-2.

N2
N1
B1

B2
Mathematical Modelling of Gear Trains
For Gear-1

## a J11 B11 T1 Eq (1)

For Gear-2

T2 J 22 B22 TL Eq (2) N1
N2

B1
Since
B2
N11 N 2 2
therefore
N1
2 1 Eq (3)
N2
Mathematical Modelling of Gear Trains
Gear Ratio is calculated as
T2 N2 N1
T1 T2
T1 N1 N2
N2
Put this value in eq (1) N1
B1
N1
a J11 B11 T2
N2 B2
Put T2 from eq (2)
N1
a J11 B11 ( J 22 B22 TL )
N2
Substitute 2 from eq (3)
N1 N1 N1 N1
a J11 B11 (J2 1 B2 2 TL )
N2 N2 N2 N2
Mathematical Modelling of Gear Trains
N1 N1 N1 N1
a J11 B11 (J2 1 B2 2 TL )
N2 N2 N2 N2
After simplification
2 2
N1 N1 N
a J11 J 21 B11 B21 1 TL
N2 N2 N2
N1
2 N1
2 N1

a J1
J 2 1 B1
B2 1 TL
N2 N2 N2

2 2
N N
J eq J1 1 J 2 Beq B1 1 B2
N2 N2

N1
a J eq1 Beq1 TL
N2
Mathematical Modelling of Gear Trains
For three gears connected together

2 2 2
N1 N1 N3
J eq J1 J 2 J 3
N2 N2 N4

2 2 2
N1 N1 N3
Beq B1 B2 B3
N2 N2 N4
Home Work

Drive Jeq and Beq and relation between applied torque a and load torque
TL for three gears connected together.

2
1
N1 3
N2
N3
J1 J2 J3 TL

B2
B3
a B1