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- Transfer Function of Electrical and Mechanical Systems
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Mechanical Systems

m.arif@faculty.muet.edu.pk

https://sites.google.com/site/mdotarif/teaching/bcs

Learning Outcomes:

After completing this chapter student will be able to :

systems.

Convert mechanical system into series and parallel circuit analogs.

Know about mechanical linkages: Gears

Mathematical Modeling of Gear Trains

Lecture Outline

Part-I: Translational Mechanical System

Basic Types of Mechanical Systems

Translational

Linear Motion

Rotational

Rotational Motion

Translational Mechanical Systems

Part-I

Basic Elements of Translational Mechanical Systems

Translational

Spring

i)

Translational Mass

ii)

Translational

iii) Damper

Translational Spring

A translational spring is a mechanical element that can be deformed by

an external force such that the deformation is directly proportional to the

force applied to it.

Translational

Spring

i)

Circuit Symbols

Translational Spring

Translational Spring

If F is the applied force

x1

x2

Or ( x1 x2 ) is the deformation. F

F k ( x1 x2 )

Where k is stiffness of spring expressed in N/m

Translational Spring

Given two springs with spring constant k1 and k2, obtain the

equivalent spring constant keq for the two springs connected in:

Translational Spring

The two springs have same displacement therefore:

k1 x k 2 x F

(1) Parallel

( k1 k 2 ) x F

keq x F

keq k1 k2

If n springs are connected in parallel then:

keq k1 k2 k n

Translational Spring

The forces on two springs are same, F, however displacements

are different therefore:

(2) Series

k1 x1 k 2 x2 F

F F

x1 x2

k1 k2

F F F

x x1 x2

k eq k1 k 2

Translational Spring

F F F

k eq k1 k 2

Then we can obtain

1 k1k 2

k eq

1 1 k1 k 2

k1 k 2

k1k 2 k n

k eq

k1 k 2 k n

Translational Spring

Exercise: Obtain the equivalent stiffness for the following spring networks.

i)

k3

ii) k3

Translational Mass

Translational

ii) Mass

Translational Mass is an inertia element.

not exist.

displaced to x meters then the relation x(t )

b/w force and displacements is given by

Newtons law. F (t )

M

F Mx

Translational Damper

negligible in a system, we often model

them with the damping force.

damping to some extent. iii) Damper

then extra elements (e.g. Dashpot) are

added to increase damping.

Common Uses of Dashpots

Door Stoppers

Vehicle Suspension

Bridge Suspension

Flyover Suspension

Translational Damper

F Cx F C ( x1 x 2 )

Translational Damper

Ceq C1 C2

C1C2

Ceq

C1 C2

Force-velocity, force-displacement, and impedance

relationships for springs, viscous dampers, and mass

where, K, f v, and M are called spring constant, coefficient of viscous friction, and mass, respectively.

Analogies Between Electrical and

Mechanical Components

Mechanical systems, like electrical networks, have three passive, linear components.

Two of them, the spring and the mass, are energy-storage elements;

The two energy-storage elements are analogous to the two electrical energy-storage

The motion of translation is defined as a motion that takes place along a straight or

curved path. The variables that are used to describe translational motion are acceleration,

Newtons Second Law

Newton's law of motion states that the algebraic sum of

external forces acting on a rigid body in a given

direction is equal to the product of the mass of the

body and its acceleration in the same direction. The

law can be expressed as

=

Steps to Obtain the Transfer Function of Mechanical

System

The mechanical system requires just one differential equation, called the equation of

motion, to describe it.

Assume a positive direction of motion, for example, to the right.

This assumed positive direction of motion is similar to assuming a current direction

in an electrical loop.

First Step, draw a free-body diagram, placing on the body all forces that act on the

body either in the direction of motion or opposite to it.

Second Step, use Newtons law to form a differential equation of motion by

summing the forces and setting the sum equal to zero.

Third Step, assuming zero initial conditions, we take the Laplace transform of the

differential equation, separate the variables, and arrive at the transfer function.

Example-1(a): Find the transfer function of the

mechanical translational system given in the Figure.

Free Body Diagram

fk fB

f (t ) fM

Figure

X (s) 1

f (t ) f k f M f B

F(s) Ms 2 Bs k

Example-1(b): Find the transfer function, X(s)/F(s), of the system.

Place on the mass all forces felt by the mass.

We assume the mass is traveling toward the right. Thus, only the applied force points

to the right; all other forces impede the motion and act to oppose it. Hence, the

spring, viscous damper, and the force due to acceleration point to the left.

Second step is to write the differential equation of motion using Newtons law to sum

to zero all of the forces shown on the mass.

Example-1(b): Continue.

Third step is to take the Laplace transform, assuming zero initial conditions,

Block Diagram

Impedance Approach to Obtain the Transfer Function of

Mechanical System

Taking the Laplace transform of the force-displacement terms of mechanical

components , we get

Example-2: Solve example-1 using the Impedance Approach.

Example-3: Consider a simple horizontal spring-mass system

on a frictionless surface, as shown in figure below.

mx kx

or

mx kx 0

Example-4: Find the transfer function, X(s)/F(s), of the system.

Consider the system friction is negligible.

k

x

F

M

fk

M fM

F

Where f k and f M are force applied by the spring and inertial force

respectively.

Example-4: continue

fk

M fM

F

F fk fM

Then the differential equation of the system is:

F Mx kx

Taking the Laplace Transform of both sides and ignoring initial conditions

we get

F ( s ) Ms 2 X ( s ) kX ( s )

Example-4: continue.

F ( s ) Ms 2 X ( s ) kX ( s )

X (s) 1

F(s) Ms 2 k

if

M 1000 kg

k 2000 Nm 1

X (s) 0.001

2

F(s) s 2

Example-4: continue.

X (s) 0.001

2

F(s) s 2

The pole-zero map of the system is

Pole-Zero Map

40

30

20

Imaginary Axis

10

-10

-20

-30

-40

-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1

Real Axis

Example-5: Find the transfer function, X(s)/F(s), of the

following system, where the system friction is negligible.

k

x

F

M

C

Free Body Diagram

fk fC

M fM

F

F f k f M fC

Example-5: continue.

Differential equation of the system is:

F Mx Cx k x

Initial conditions we get

F ( s ) Ms 2 X ( s ) CsX ( s ) kX ( s )

X (s) 1

F(s) Ms 2 Cs k

Example-5: continue.

X (s) 1

F(s) Ms 2 Cs k

if 2

Pole-Zero Map

1.5

M 1000 kg 1

k 2000 Nm 1

Imaginary Axis

0.5

1

C 1000 N / ms

0

-0.5

-1

X (s) 0.001

-1.5

2 -2

F(s) s s 1000

-1 -0.5 0

Real Axis

0.5 1

Example-6: Find the transfer function, X(s)/F(s), of the

following system.

fk fM

M

fB F X (s) 1

F(s) Ms 2 Bs k

F fk fM fB

Example-7: Write the differential equations of the

following system.

x2

x1 k B

F M

Mechanical Network

x1 k x2

F M B

Example-7: continue.

Mechanical Network

x1 k x2

F M B

At node x1

F k ( x1 x 2 )

At node x2

0 k ( x2 x1 ) Mx2 Bx

2

Example-8: Find the transfer function X2(s)/F(s) of the

following system.

M1 M2

B

Example-9: Write the differential equations of the following system.

x1 x2

k B3 B4

M1 M2

f (t )

B1 B2

Mechanical Network

x1 B3 x2

f (t ) k M1 B1 B2 M2 B4

Example-10: Find the transfer function Y(s)/F(s) of the

restaurant plate dispenser system.

Example-11: Find the transfer function X2(s)/F(s) of the

following system.

Free Body Diagram

f k1 fB f k1 fB

M2 M1

f M1

F (t ) f k 2 f M 2

k2

F (t ) f k1 f k2 f M 2 f B (1)

0 f k1 f M1 f B (2)

Example-12: Draw a mechanical network and write the

differential equations of the following system.

x2 x3

x1

k1 B3 B4

u(t ) B1 M1 k2 M2 k3

B2 B5

Example-13: Find the transfer function Xo(s)/Xi(s) of the

automobile suspension system.

Example-13: continue.

Example-13: continue.

mxo b( x o xi ) k ( xo xi ) 0 (eq .1)

2

ms X o ( s ) bsX o ( s ) kXo ( s ) bsX i ( s ) kXi ( s )

X o (s) bs k

The transfer function of the system is

X i ( s ) ms 2 bs k

Example-14: Find the transfer function Y(s)/U(s) of the train

suspension system.

Car Body

Bogie-2

Bogie-1

Secondary

Suspension

Bogie

Frame

Primary

Wheelsets

Suspension

Example-14: continue.

Example-15: Find the transfer function, X2(s)/F(s), of the system.

The system has two degrees of freedom, since each mass can be moved in the

horizontal direction while the other is held still.

Thus, two simultaneous equations of motion will be required to describe the system.

The two equations come from free-body diagrams of each mass.

Superposition is used to draw the free body diagrams.

For example, the forces on M1 are due to (1) its own motion and (2) the motion of M2

transmitted toM1 through the system.

We will consider these two sources separately.

Example-15: Continue.

Case-I: Forces on M1

All forces on M1

Figure-1.

Figure-1:

a. Forces on M1 due only to motion of M1;

b. Forces on M1 due only to motion of M2;

c. All forces on M1.

Example-15: Continue. Case-I: Forces on M1

If we hold M2 still and move M1 to the right, we see the forces shown in Figure-1(a).

If we holdM1 still and moveM2 to the right, we see the forces shown in Figure 1(b).

The total force on M1 is the superposition, or sum of the forces, as shown in Figure-1(c).

All forces on M1

Figure-1:

a. Forces on M1 due only to motion of M1;

b. Forces on M1 due only to motion of M2;

c. All forces on M1.

The Laplace transform of the equations of motion can be written from Figure-1 (c) as;

(1)

Example-15: Continue.

Case-II: Forces on M2

All forces on M2

Figure-2.

Figure-2:

a. Forces on M2 due only to motion of M2;

b. Forces on M2 due only to motion of M1;

c. All forces on M2.

Example-15: Continue. Case-II: Forces on M2

If we hold M1 still and move M2 to the right, we see the forces shown in Figure-2(a).

If we move M1 to the right and hold M2 still, we see the forces shown in Figure-2(b).

For each case we evaluate the forces on M2.

The total force on M2 is the superposition, or sum of the forces, as shown in Figure-2(c).

All forces on M2

Figure-2:

a. Forces on M2 due only to motion of M2;

b. Forces on M2 due only to motion of M1;

c. All forces on M2.

The Laplace transform of the equations of motion can be written from Figure-2 (c) as;

(2)

Example-15: Continue.

(1)

(2)

Block Diagram

Where,

Example-15: Continue.

Example-16: Write, but do not solve, the equations of motion for the

mechanical network shown below.

The system has three degrees of freedom, since each of the three masses can be moved

independently while the others are held still.

M1 has two springs, two viscous dampers, and mass associated with its motion.

There is one spring between M1 and M2 and one viscous damper between M1 and M3.

Electric Circuit Analogs

an electric circuit analog.

The mechanical systems with which we worked can be represented by equivalent

electric circuits.

Analogs can be obtained by comparing the equations of motion of a mechanical

system, with either electrical mesh or nodal equations.

When compared with mesh equations, the resulting electrical circuit is called a

series analog.

When compared with nodal equations, the resulting electrical circuit is called a

parallel analog.

Series Analog

& (2), convert displacement

Equation of motion of the Kirchhoffs mesh equation

to velocity by divide and

above translational for the above simple series

multiply the left-hand side of

mechanical system is; RLC network is;

Eq (1) by s, yielding;

impedances & draw the circuit shown in Figure

(c). The conversions are summarized in Figure (d).

Converting a Mechanical System to a Series Analog

Example-17: Draw a series analog for the mechanical system.

(1)

(2)

Eqs (1) & (2) are analogous t0 electrical mesh equations after conversion to velocity.

Thus,

(3)

(4)

Example-17: Continue.

(3)

(4)

Mechanical impedances associated withM1 form the first mesh,

whereas impedances between the two masses are common to the two loops.

Impedances associated with M2 form the second mesh.

The result is shown in Figure below, where v1(t) and v2(t) are the velocities of M1

and M2, respectively.

Skill-Assessment Exercise

PROBLEM: Find the transfer function, G)s) =X2(s)/F(s), for the translational

mechanical system shown in Figure

Answer Skill-Assessment Exercise

Parallel Analog

the above translational for the simple parallel RLC

mechanical system is; network shown above is;

(1) (2)

sum of admittances & draw the circuit

shown in Figure (c).

2.43(d).

Converting a Mechanical System to a Parallel Analog

(1)

(2)

Example-18: Continue.

(1)

(2)

The Equation (1) and (2) are also analogous to electrical node equations.

Coefficients represent sums of electrical admittances.

Admittances associated with M1 form the elements connected to the first node,

whereas mechanical admittances b/w the two masses are common to the two nodes.

Mechanical admittances associated with M2 form the elements connected to the

second node.

The result is shown in the Figure below, where v1(t) and v2(t) are the velocities of M1

and M2, respectively.

Rotational Mechanical Systems

Part-II

Basic Elements of Rotational Mechanical Systems

Rotational Spring

1

2

T k (1 2 )

Basic Elements of Rotational Mechanical Systems

Rotational Damper

C

1

2 T

T C(1 2 )

Basic Elements of Rotational Mechanical Systems

Moment of Inertia

J T

T J

Table: Torque-angular velocity, torque-angular displacement, and impedance

rotational relationships for springs, viscous dampers, and inertia.

Example-1:

B1

1 k1 2 3 k2

T J1 J2

1 k1 2 B1 3

T J1 J2 k2

Example-2:

1 k1 2 B2

3 B4

T J1 J2

B1 B3

1 k1 2 B2 3

T J1 B1 B3 J2 B4

Example-3:

1

k1 2

T k2

J1 J2

B2

Example-4:

Skill-Assessment Exercise

Problem: Find the transfer function, G(s) = 2(s)=T(s), for the

rotational mechanical system shown in the Figure.

Answer: Skill-Assessment Exercise

Mechanical Linkages

Part-III

Gear

Gear is a toothed machine part, such as a wheel or

cylinder, that meshes with another toothed part to

transmit motion or to change speed or direction.

Fundamental Properties

The two gears turn in opposite directions: one clockwise and the other

counterclockwise.

Two gears revolve at different speeds when number of teeth on each gear are

different.

Gearing Up and Down

The ratio is exactly the same: if you get three times your

original angular velocity, you reduce the resulting torque to

one third.

to torque at the same ratio.

Why Gearing is necessary?

A typical DC motor operates at speeds that are far too high to be useful,

and at torques that are far too low.

Gear Trains

Gear Ratio

the number of teeth of the driver divided

by the number of teeth of the follower.

decrease torque. Follower

Ratio: 3:1

and reduce velocity.

Ratio: 1:3

= torque in / torque out = speed out / speed in

Example of Gear Trains

A most commonly used example of gear trains is the gears of an

automobile.

Mathematical Modelling of Gear Trains

Gears increase or reduce angular velocity (while simultaneously decreasing

or increasing torque, such that energy is conserved).

N11 N 2 2

Mathematical Modelling of Gear Trains

Mathematical Modelling of Gear Trains

Mathematical Modelling of Gear Trains

In the system below, a torque, a, is applied to gear 1 (with

number of teeth N1, moment of inertia J1 and a rotational

friction B1).

It, in turn, is connected to gear 2 (with number of teeth N2,

moment of inertia J2 and a rotational friction B2).

The angle 1 is defined positive clockwise, 2 is defined

positive clockwise. The torque acts in the direction of 1.

Assume that TL is the load torque applied by the load

connected to Gear-2.

N2

N1

B1

B2

Mathematical Modelling of Gear Trains

For Gear-1

For Gear-2

T2 J 22 B22 TL Eq (2) N1

N2

B1

Since

B2

N11 N 2 2

therefore

N1

2 1 Eq (3)

N2

Mathematical Modelling of Gear Trains

Gear Ratio is calculated as

T2 N2 N1

T1 T2

T1 N1 N2

N2

Put this value in eq (1) N1

B1

N1

a J11 B11 T2

N2 B2

Put T2 from eq (2)

N1

a J11 B11 ( J 22 B22 TL )

N2

Substitute 2 from eq (3)

N1 N1 N1 N1

a J11 B11 (J2 1 B2 2 TL )

N2 N2 N2 N2

Mathematical Modelling of Gear Trains

N1 N1 N1 N1

a J11 B11 (J2 1 B2 2 TL )

N2 N2 N2 N2

After simplification

2 2

N1 N1 N

a J11 J 21 B11 B21 1 TL

N2 N2 N2

N1

2 N1

2 N1

a J1

J 2 1 B1

B2 1 TL

N2 N2 N2

2 2

N N

J eq J1 1 J 2 Beq B1 1 B2

N2 N2

N1

a J eq1 Beq1 TL

N2

Mathematical Modelling of Gear Trains

For three gears connected together

2 2 2

N1 N1 N3

J eq J1 J 2 J 3

N2 N2 N4

2 2 2

N1 N1 N3

Beq B1 B2 B3

N2 N2 N4

Home Work

Drive Jeq and Beq and relation between applied torque a and load torque

TL for three gears connected together.

2

1

N1 3

N2

N3

J1 J2 J3 TL

B2

B3

a B1

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