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Classical Encryption

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1

Encryption Algorithms

Symmetric

o Key at the sender side is same as receiver side

o Key is called secret key

Asymmetric

o Sender and receiver have different keys, called

private keys

o Public key is derived from private key

o Public key is sent on the channel

o Hence secrecy of key is maintained

2

Simplified Model of Symmetric Encryption

3

Simplified Model of Symmetric Encryption

4

Simplified Model of Symmetric Encryption

5

Simplified Model of Symmetric Encryption

6

Some Basic Terminology

Plaintext - original message

Ciphertext - enciphered message

Cipher - algorithm for transforming plaintext to

ciphertext

Secret key - information used to encrypt and decrypt

Encipher (encryption) - convert plaintext to ciphertext

Decipher (decryption) - recover plaintext from

ciphertext

Cryptography Area of encryption schemes

Cryptanalysis (code breaking) - Methods of

deciphering ciphertext without knowledge of key

Cryptology - Field of cryptography and cryptanalysis

7

Model of Symmetric Cryptosystem

Cryptanalyst X

K

X

Message X Encryption Decryption

Destination

source Algorithm Y=E(K,X) Algorithm

Secure

channel

K

Key

source

8

Model of Symmetric Cryptosystem

Cryptanalyst X

K

X

Message X Encryption Decryption

Destination

source Algorithm Y=E(K,X) Algorithm

Secure

channel

K

Key

source

9

Model of Symmetric Cryptosystem

Cryptanalyst X

K

X

Message X Encryption Decryption

Destination

source Algorithm Y=E(K,X) Algorithm

Secure

channel

K

Key

source

10

Cryptanalysis

Try to recover key and or message

general approaches

cryptanalytic attack-

knowledge of algorithm

general characteristics of the plain text

sample plaintext-ciphertext pairs

brute-force attack-

every possible key on ciphertext to extract

plaintext

generally, half of all possible keys are required

11

Brute Force Search

try every key

proportional to key size

Key Size (bits) Number of Alternative Time required at 1 Time required at 106

Keys decryption/s decryptions/s

32 232 = 4.3 109 231 s = 35.8 minutes 2.15 milliseconds

56 256 = 7.2 1016 255 s = 1142 years 10.01 hours

128 2128 = 3.4 1038 2127 s = 5.4 1024 years 5.4 1018 years

168 2168 = 3.7 1050 2167 s = 5.9 1036 years 5.9 1030 years

26 characters 26! = 4 1026 2 1026 s = 6.4 1012 years 6.4 106 years

(permutation)

12

Brute Force Search

try every key

proportional to key size

Key Size (bits) Number of Alternative Time required at 1 Time required at 106

Keys decryption/s decryptions/s

32 232 = 4.3 109 231 s = 35.8 minutes 2.15 milliseconds

56 256 = 7.2 1016 255 s = 1142 years 10.01 hours

128 2128 = 3.4 1038 2127 s = 5.4 1024 years 5.4 1018 years

168 2168 = 3.7 1050 2167 s = 5.9 1036 years 5.9 1030 years

26 characters 26! = 4 1026 2 1026 s = 6.4 1012 years 6.4 106 years

(permutation)

13

Brute Force Search

try every key

proportional to key size

Key Size (bits) Number of Alternative Time required at 1 Time required at 106

Keys decryption/s decryptions/s

32 232 = 4.3 109 231 s = 35.8 minutes 2.15 milliseconds

56 256 = 7.2 1016 255 s = 1142 years 10.01 hours

128 2128 = 3.4 1038 2127 s = 5.4 1024 years 5.4 1018 years

168 2168 = 3.7 1050 2167 s = 5.9 1036 years 5.9 1030 years

26 characters 26! = 4 1026 2 1026 s = 6.4 1012 years 6.4 106 years

(permutation)

14

Symmetric Encryption

substitution

transposition

product

15

Symmetric Encryption

Transposition cipher

o Arrangement of bits without changing the value

o For n bit cipher n! rearrangements are possible

o Required number of key bits = ceil(log2(n!))

o For n=3, n!=6 and key size is = 3

o For 6 possible transpositions we are using 3 bit key

o Therefore out of 8 possible keys only 6 are used

Substitution cipher

o Substitutes the bits with another bits

o Number of possible substitutions is 2n

o Number of possible substitution arrangements is 2n!

o Number of key bits = log2(2n!)

o For n=3, 2n! =40320 and key size is = 16

o Therefore out of 216=65536 possible keys only 40320 are used

o Lot of unused keys 16

Substitution Ciphers

by numbers or symbols

substitution involves replacing plaintext bit patterns

with ciphertext bit patterns

17

Types of Substitution Cipher

o Caesar

o Playfair

o Hill

o Vigenere

o Vernam

o One-Time Pad

18

Caesar Cipher

Replaces each letter by 3rd letter after the current letter

in sequence

Define transformation as:

Plaintext: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

Ciphertext: D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A

BC

example:

Plain: caesar cipher

Cipher: FDHVDU FLSKHU

19

Caesar Cipher

Mathematically each letter is given a number

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5

c = E(k, p) = (p + k) mod (26)

p = D(k, c) = (c k) mod (26)

Also called additive cipher

Example

Plaintext: Encrypt message

Key: 3, ignore spaces

Ciphertext: HQFUBSWPHVVDJH

20

Additive Ciphers

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5

Plaintext: Home

Key : 6

Home = {7, 14, 12, 4}

(P + k) mod 26 = {7, 14, 12, 4} + 6

= {13, 20, 18, 10}

Ciphertext

= NUSK

21

Cryptanalysis of additive Cipher

Not secure

Algorithm is known

26 possible ciphers

eg. break ciphertext: GCUAVQDTGCM

o Key = 1

o plain text: FBTZUPCSFBL

o Key = 2

o Plaintext: EASYTOBREAK

22

Multiplicative Ciphers

C= (P K) mod 26

P = (C K-1) mod 26

P= home, K = 7

C= (7x7)mod 26, (14x7)mod26, (12x7)mod26 ,

(4x7) mod26

= 23, 20, 6, 2

= XUGC

23

Affine Cipher

C = ((P x k1) + k2 ) mod 26

P = ((C- k2) x k1-1 ) mod 26

24

Affine Cipher

small key domains.

This is because each alphabet altered by a key of

length one

Hence key is 26 letters long

Therefore vulnerable to brute-force attack

To reduce vulnerability, shuffle plaintext using a key

of length 26

25

Monoalphabetic substitution Cipher

Key table

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

N O A T R B E C F U X D Q G Y L K H V I J M P Z S W

Example

Plain : wish

Cipher: PFVC

A total of 26! = 4 x 1026 possible keys for monoalphabetic

General Caesar has 26 possible keys

Therefore security of monoalphabetic is better than

additive cipher

26

Monoalphabetic Cipher Security

It is not completely secure

Statistical attack based on the frequency of characters

can be used

If cryptanalyst knows language, regularities in language

and nature of plain text

Then it is possible to predict plaintext

Each letter is encrypted to the same letter even if that

letter repeats in the plaintext

Ex: Therefore ICRHRBYHR

Frequency of e is 3 in plaintext and R is 3 in ciphertext

Monoalphabetic cipher does not change the frequency

of characters in ciphertext

Therefore vulnerable to statistical attack

27

English Letter Frequencies

28

Language Redundancy and

Cryptanalysis

followed by t, r, n, l, o, a, s

Other letters like Z,J,K,Q,X are fairly rare

Table double & triple letter frequencies for

various languages can also be used

29

Letter frequency for Cryptanalysis

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

N O A T R B E C F U X D Q G Y L K H V I J M P Z S W

ciphertext: AYGVFTRHICFVRZNQLR

e occurs max (3) times in plaintext

R occurs max (3) times in ciphertext

Similarly number of occurrences for other letters is

same

Calculate letter frequencies for ciphertext

Compare frequencies against known values

30

Example Cryptanalysis

given ciphertext:

UZQSOVUOHXMOPVGPOZPEVSGZWSZOPFPESXUDBMETSXAIZ

VUEPHZHMDZSHZOWSFPAPPDTSVPQUZWYMXUZUHSX

EPYEPOPDZSZUFPOMBZWPFUPZHMDJUDTMOHMQ

count relative letter frequencies

P & Z are e and t

ZW is th and hence ZWP is the

proceeding with trial and error finally get

it was disclosed yesterday that several informal but

direct contacts have been made with political

representatives of the viet cong in moscow

31

Attacks on Additive Cipher

Ciphertext only

Apply Bruteforce method

Do a frequency count for letters like, e, t

Known plaintext

If one plaintext letter and corresponding

ciphertext then key can be deduced

Ex: t (=19) D(=3) then

k=(3-19) mod 26= -16=10

Chosen plaintext

ciphertext gives the key for the chosen plaintext

Chosen ciphertext

plaintext gives the key for the chosen ciphertext

Therefore large number of keys in a monoalphabetic

cipher do not provide security 32

Playfair Cipher

Monoalphabetic cipher

Encrypt multiple (two) letters called digram at once

Provides better security

33

Playfair Key Matrix

Keyword is MONARCHY

M O N A R

C H Y

34

Playfair Key Matrix

Keyword is MONARCHY

M O N A R

C H Y B

35

Playfair Key Matrix

Keyword is MONARCHY

M O N A R

C H Y B D

36

Playfair Key Matrix

Keyword is MONARCHY

M O N A R

C H Y B D

E F G I/J K

L P Q S T

U V W X Z

Plaintext: unit

Ciphertext: WMKS

37

Playfair Encryption

Plaintext is encrypted two letters at a time

If plaintext has odd number of characters then

add a filler, x at the end

If a pair has repeated letters, insert filler like 'X

symmetric sy mx me tr ic

Encryption

o If both letters fall in the same row, replace each

with letter to right (wrapping back to start from

end)

o if both letters fall in the same column, replace

each with the letter below it (wrapping to top

from bottom)

o otherwise each letter is replaced by the letter in

the same row and in the column of the other

letter of the pair

38

Playfair Cipher

Keyword is MONARCHY

Plaintext is HOUSE

M O N A R

C H Y B D

E F G I/J K

L P Q S T

U V W X Z

Plaintext: HO US EX

Ciphertext: FH XL IU

39

Playfair Cipher

Keyword: playfair

Key: playfir

Plaintext: meet at the school

P L A Y F

I R B C D

E G H K M

N O Q S T

U V W X Z

Plaintext: ME ET AT TH ES CH OX OL

Ciphertext: EG MN FQ QM KN BK SV VR

40

Security of Playfair Cipher

Ciphertext only attack is possible

Security is better than monoalphabetic

Key domain is 25!

Has 26 x 26 = 676 digrams

would need a 676 entry frequency table to

analyse (verses 26 for a monoalphabetic)

Frequency of digrams can be used to deduce

the key

Can be broken, given a few hundred letters

41

Hill Cipher

p is plaintext matrix

c is ciphertext matrix

k is key matrix

c =p x k mod 26

p = c x k-1 mod 26

42

Modulo Arithmetic, 26

(3+24)mod 26

= 27 mod 26=1

(14-20)mod 26

=(-6)mod26=20

If (a*b) mod 26=1 then a and b are

multiplicative inverse of each other

Multiplicative inverse: 3*9=27 mod 26=1

3 and 9 are multiplicative inverse of each

other

43

Multiplicative Inverse for Modulo 26

e inverse e inverse

1 1

3

44

Multiplicative Inverse for Modulo 26

e inverse e inverse

1 1

3 9

45

Multiplicative Inverse for Modulo 26

e inverse e inverse

1 1

3 9

5

7

9

11

46

Multiplicative Inverse for Modulo 26

e inverse e inverse

1 1

3 9

5 21

7

9

11

47

Multiplicative Inverse for Modulo 26

e inverse e inverse

1 1

3 9

5 21

7 15

9

11

48

Multiplicative Inverse for Modulo 26

e inverse e inverse

1 1

3 9

5 21

7 15

9 3

11 19

49

Multiplicative Inverse for Modulo 26

e inverse e inverse

1 1 15 7

3 9 17 23

5 21 19 11

7 15 21 5

9 3 23 17

11 19

50

Hill Cipher

Each letter of plaintext is assigned a numerical

value, a=0, b=1, z=25

11 12 13

k = 21 22 23

31 32 33

51

Hill Cipher

11 12 13

1 2 3 = (1 2 3 ) 21 22 23 mod 26

31 32 33

c1 = (k11p1 + k21p2 + k31p3) mod 26

c2 = (k12p1 + k22p2 + k32p3) mod 26

c3 = (k31p1 + k32p2 + k33p3) mod 26

c=p x k mod 26

52

Example Hill Cipher

Plaintext: paymoremoney

= pay mor emo ney

17 17 5

K= 21 18 21

2 2 19

abcdefghij k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

{pay} {15,0,24},

c=p k mod 26

53

Ciphertext

17 17 5

= (15 0 24) 21 18 21 mod 26

2 2 19

= (17 17 11)

= RRL

paymoremoneyRRLMWBKASPDH

54

Example Hill Cipher

Plaintext: abc

1 2 3

K= 4 5 6

11 9 8

abcdefghij k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

{abc} {0,1,2},

c=p x k mod 26

55

Ciphertext

1 2 3

= (0 1 2) 4 5 6 mod 26

11 9 8

c = (0 23 22) mod 26

= AXW

56

Example Hill Cipher contd.

57

Inverse of A mod 26

5 8

A=

17 3

5 8

det =(5x3)-(8x17)= -121 mod 26

17 3

=(-121)+(5x26)=9

(1/9) mod 26=3

3 17 T 3 8 9 24

A-1 mod 26=3 =3 =

8 5 17 5 51 15

9 2

=

1 15

58

Determinant of Matrix

11 12

For A= 22 , det(A) = a11a22 a21a12

21

11 12 13

For A= 21 22 23

31 32 33

a31a12 a23 a31a22a13

59

Inverse of Matrix

2 4 3

For k= 6 1 5

2 1 3

Det(k) = 2(3-5)-6(12-3)-2(20-3)= -92

If A has nonzero determinant then A has

inverse, k-1

Inv(k) =BT

Bi,j = cofi,j(k)/det(A)

b23 = -[(2x1)-(4x(-2))]/-92=10/92

60

Inverse of Matrix contd..

2 4 3

For k = 6 1 5

2 1 3

b11 =[(1x3)-(5x1)]/-92=2/92

b23 = -[(2x1)-(4x(-2))]/-92=10/92

2 9 17

B = (1/92) 28 12 8

8 10 22

2 28 8

Inv(k) =BT =(1/92) 9 12 10

17 8 22

61

Hill Cipher: example

Plaintext: CAT, C=2, A=0, T=19

Key, k

6 24 1

k= 13 16 10 ,

20 17 15

p=[2 0 19]

Ciphertext=CHB

62

Decipher text

Compute k-1

8 5 10

k-1= 21 8 21

21 12 8

8 5 10

c x k-1= [2 7 1] 21 8 21 mod 26

21 12 8

= [184 78 175] mod 26

= [2 0 19]

Alternative, c=pT x k

p = k x cT

63

Cryptanalyst for Hill Cipher

Statistical analysis based on the frequency on single

letter, digrams, trigrams is also not possible

Known plaintext attack is possible.

E must know size of key, m and m pairs of plaintext

and ciphertext

Assume length of plaintext and ciphertext is m

64

Cryptanalyst for Hill Cipher

65

Cryptanalysis example

Y = Xk mod 26

7 2 7 8

= 26

17 25 11 11

k=X-1Y

1

7 8 25 22

1 = =

11 11 1 23

25 22 7 2

k=

1 23 17 25 If X is not invertible

549 600 then form additional

= 26 plaintext-ciphertext

398 577

3 2 pair

=

8 5 66

Polyalphabetic Ciphers

For monoalphabetic cipher each letter is encrypted to

the same letter for every occurrence of the plaintext

letter

For example letter between dgvyggp

For polyalphabetic, each occurrence of a character

may have a different substitute

The relationship between a character in the plaintext to

a character in the cipher text is one to many

For example a can be enciphered to D in the

beginning and to F later

Therefore frequency of a is hidden in the cipher

Therefore statistical attack based on frequency can not

be used

For polyalphabetic, each ciphertext character is

dependent on the plaintext letter and its position

67

Vigenre Cipher

Plaintext, p=p0, p1,,pn-1

Key, k = k0, k1, ..., km-1 (m<n)

Ciphertext, c=c0,c1, , cn-1

=(p0+ k0)mod 26 , (p1+ k1)mod 26+

Ci=(pi+ki)mod 26

Plaintext: poly 15 14 12 24

Key: beam 1 4 0 13

Ciphertext: QSLK 16 18 12 11

Decryption works in reverse

Ci=(pi-ki)mod 26

68

Example of Vigenre Cipher

eg keyword: deceptive

o plaintext: we are discovered save yourself

o plaintext: wearediscoveredsaveyourself

o key: deceptivedeceptivedeceptive

69

Example of Vigenre Cipher

key d e c e p t i v e

k

plain w e a r e d i s c o v e r e

p

c

cipher

key

k

plain d s a v e y o u r s e l f

p

c

cipher

70

Example of Vigenre Cipher

key d e c e p t i v e d e c e p

k

plain w e a r e d i s c o v e r e

p

c

cipher

key t i v e d e c e p t i v e

k

plain d s a v e y o u r s e l f

p

c

cipher

71

Example of Vigenre Cipher

key d e c e p t i v e d e c e p

k 3 4 2 4 15 19 8 21 4 3 4 2 4 15

plain w e a r e d i s c o v e r e

p 22 4 0 17 4 3 8 18 2 14 21 4 17 4

c

cipher

key t i v e d e c e p t i v e

k 19 8 21 4 3 4 2 4 15 19 8 21 4

plain d s a v e y o u r s e l f

p 3 18 0 21 4 24 14 20 17 18 4 11 5

c

cipher

72

Example of Vigenre Cipher

key d e c e p t i v e d e c e p

k 3 4 2 4 15 19 8 21 4 3 4 2 4 15

plain w e a r e d i s c o v e r e

p 22 4 0 17 4 3 8 18 2 14 21 4 17 4

c 25 8 2 21 19 22 16 13 6 17 25 6 21 19

cipher Z I C V T W Q N G R Z G V T

key t i v e d e c e p t i v e

k 19 8 21 4 3 4 2 4 15 19 8 21 4

plain d s a v e y o u r s e l f

p 3 18 0 21 4 24 14 20 17 18 4 11 5

c 22 0 21 25 7 2 16 24 6 11 12 6 9

cipher W A V Z H C Q Y G L M G J

ciphertext:ZICVTWQNGRZGVTWAVZHCQYGLMGJ

73

Security of Vigenre Ciphers

Key length is 9

Therefore, letters at 1,10,19,28, are shifted by same

number

o key: deceptivedeceptivedeceptive

o plaintext: wearediscoveredsaveyourself

multiple of keyword length then they generate identical

cipher text.

Ex: red is repeated after 9 characters

o key: dec ept ivedec ept ive deceptive

o plaintext: wea red iscove red saveyourself

o Ciphertext: ... VTWVTW.

If message is long then there can be many repetitive

characters

74

Autokey Cipher

keyword is concatenated with plaintext

eg. given key deceptive

plaintext: wearediscoveredsaveyourself

key: deceptivewearediscoveredsav

ciphertext: ZICVTWQNGKZEIIGASXSTSLVVWLA

Keyword and plaintext have same

frequency distribution

Statistical techniques can be used

75

Vernam Cipher

ci = pi + ki, where + is XOR operation

Decryption is pi = ci + ki

Length of key = length of plaintext

Advantage: Key has no statistical

relationship to plaintext

Disadvantage: Uses a very long but

eventually repeating key

76

One-Time Pad

Use one key for one message

If a random key is used for each message

then cipher is secure

If two identical sequences of plaintext occur

at integer multiple of keyword length then

they generate identical cipher text.

Advantage: Ciphertext bears no statistical

relationship to the plaintext

Limitation: generation & safe distribution of

key

77

One-time pad version of Vigenere

cipher

Key is a stream of random numbers between 0 and

26

Plaintext letters shift by key numbers

Ex: a) plaintext: sendmoremoney

key: 9 0 1 7 23 15 21 14 11 11 2 8 9

B) Determine key so that ciphertext decrypts to

plaintext cashnotneeded

78

Example: vigenere

plain s e n d m o r e m o n e y

Plain

number

key 9 0 1 7 23 15 21 14 11 11 2 8 9

Cipher

number

cipher

79

Example: vigenere

plain s e n d m o r e m o n e y

Plain 18 4 13 3 12 14 17 4 12 14 13 4 24

number

key 9 0 1 7 23 15 21 14 11 11 2 8 9

Cipher

number

cipher

80

Example: vigenere

plain s e n d m o r e m o n e y

Plain 18 4 13 3 12 14 17 4 12 14 13 4 24

number

key 9 0 1 7 23 15 21 14 11 11 2 8 9

Cipher 1 4 14 10 9 3 12 18 23 25 15 12 7

number

cipher

81

Example: vigenere

plain s e n d m o r e m o n e y

Plain 18 4 13 3 12 14 17 4 12 14 13 4 24

number

key 9 0 1 7 23 15 21 14 11 11 2 8 9

Cipher 1 4 14 10 9 3 12 18 23 25 15 12 7

number

cipher B E O K J D M S X Z P M H

82

Example: find key to decipher

Plain C a s h n o t n e e d e d

Plain 2 0 18 7 13 14 19 13 4 4 3 4 3

number

key

Cipher 1 4 14 10 9 3 12 18 23 25 15 12 7

number

cipher B E O K J D M S X Z P M H

83

Example: find key to decipher

Plain C a s h n o t n e e d e d

Plain 2 0 18 7 13 14 19 13 4 4 3 4 3

number

key

number 27 40 35 29 38

cipher B E C K J D M S X Z P M H

84

Example: find key to decipher

Plain C a s h n o t n e e d e d

Plain 2 0 18 7 13 14 19 13 4 4 3 4 3

number

key 25 4 22 3 22 15 19 5 19 21 12 8 4

number 27 40 35 29 38

cipher B E C K J D M S X Z P M H

85

Transposition Ciphers

Hide message by rearranging the letter

order without altering the actual letters used

Can recognise these since have the same

frequency distribution as the original text

86

Rail Fence cipher

Message letters are written diagonally over a

number of rows

Ciphertext is read off row by row

eg. plaintext: rail fence cipher

r i f n e i h r

a l e c c p e

Ciphertext:

RIFNEIHRALECCPE

87

Row Transposition Ciphers

Message is arranged in 2-D array

Reorder the columns according to some key before

reading off the rows

Plaintext: attack postponed until two am

Key: 4 3 1 2 5 6 7

Matrix : a t t a c k p

o s t p o n e

d u n t i l t

w o a m x y z

Ciphertext: TTNAAPTMTSUOAODWCOIXKNLYPETZ

security

88

Product Ciphers

Ciphers using substitutions or transpositions

are not secure because of language

characteristics

Use several ciphers in succession to make it

difficult

o two substitutions make a more complex

substitution

o two transpositions make more complex

transposition

o substitution followed by a transposition makes a

new more difficult cipher

89

Permutation/ Transposition

encryption decryption

y1 y1

x1 x1

y2 y2 x2

x2

y3 y3 x3

x3

y4 y4 x4

x4

y5 y5 x5

x5

Plaintext: springing

90

Permutation/ Transposition

encryption decryption

s y1 y1

x1 x1

p y2 y2 x2

x2

r y3 y3 x3

x3

i y4 y4 x4

x4

n y5 y5 x5

x5

91

Permutation/ Transposition

encryption decryption

s y1 s y1

x1 x1

p y2 r y2 x2

x2

r y3 n y3 x3

x3

i y4 p y4 x4

x4

n y5 i y5 x5

x5

Ciphertext: srnpi gnxig

92

Permutation/ Transposition

encryption decryption

y1 s y1 s

x1 x1

y2 r y2 p x2

x2

y3 y3 r

n x3

x3

i

y4 p y4 x4

x4

n

y5 i y5 x5

x5

Ciphertext: srnpi gnxig Plaintext: sprin gingx

93

Rotor cipher

Uses a series of cylinders, each gives one

substitution, which is rotated after each

letter was encrypted

3 cylinders have 263=17576 alphabets

n cylinders privide 26n alphabets

94

Rotor Machine Principles

95

Cryptanalysis Attacks on Encrypted Messages

96

Ciphertext only attack

E

plaintext

A

analyze B

E tries to find key and plain text

Brute-Force attack

Statistical attack

97

Pattern attack

Known Plaintext attack

plaintext ciphertext

E

A

analyze B

addition to intercepted ciphertext

98

Chosen-Plaintext attack

Pair created from chosen plaintext

E

plaintext ciphertext E

plaintext

A analyze B

attacker has chosen plaintext and got

corresponding ciphertext

99

Chosen-Ciphertext attack

Pair created from chosen ciphertext

E

E

plaintext ciphertext

plaintext

A

analyze B

attacker has chosen ciphertext and got

corresponding plaintext

100

Requirements of symmetric

encryption

Strong encryption algorithm

chip implementation)

101

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