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PRODUCTION ENGINEERING

Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Minyak dan Gas Bumi Balikpapan


2015
GRADING

PETROLEUM Breakdown
PRODUCTION Mid-semester examination : 30 %
SYSTEM
End-semester examination : 30 %
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND Assignment : 30 %
NATURAL GAS Attendance : 10 %
RESERVOIR
DELIVERABILITY Grade
WELLBORE A : 80 - 100 %
PERFORMANCE B : 70 - 80 %
CHOKE
C : 60 - 70 %
PERFORMANCE
WELL D : 50 - 60 %
DELIVERABILITY E : > 50 %
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS
SYLLABUS

PETROLEUM 1. Petroleum Production System


PRODUCTION 2. Properties of Oil and Natural Gas
SYSTEM
3. Reservoir Deliverability
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND 4. Wellbore Performance
NATURAL GAS 5. Choke Performance
RESERVOIR 6. Well Deliverability
DELIVERABILITY 7. Forecast of Well Production
WELLBORE 8. Production Decline Analysis
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS
INTRODUCTION

PETROLEUM
PRODUCTION
SYSTEM
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND
NATURAL GAS
RESERVOIR
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS

A sketch of a petroleum production system


RESERVOIR

PETROLEUM Reservoir is a porous and permeable underground formation containing and individual bank of
PRODUCTION hydrocarbons confined by impermeable rock or water barriers and is characterized by a single natural
SYSTEM
pressure system
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND
NATURAL GAS Field is an area that consists of one or more reservoirs all related to the same structural features
RESERVOIR
DELIVERABILITY Pool contains one or more reservoirs in isolated structures
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE Well categories
CHOKE
Gas wells : GOR > 100,000 scf/stb
PERFORMANCE
WELL Condensate wells : 5,000 scf/stb < GOR < 100,000 scf/stb
DELIVERABILITY Oil wells : GOR < 5,000 scf/stb
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS

A typical hydrocarbon phase diagram


RESERVOIR

PETROLEUM
PRODUCTION
SYSTEM
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND
NATURAL GAS
RESERVOIR
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL
A sketch of a water-drive reservoir A sketch of a gas- A sketch of a dissolved-
PRODUCTION
cap drive reservoir gas drive reservoir
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS
WELL

PETROLEUM Wellhead is the surface equipment set below the master valve which includes casing heads and a tubing
PRODUCTION head
SYSTEM
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND Christmas tree is the equipment at the top of the producing wellhead
NATURAL GAS
RESERVOIR
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS

A sketch of a typical flowing oil well A sketch of a wellhead


WELL

PETROLEUM
PRODUCTION
SYSTEM
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND
NATURAL GAS
RESERVOIR
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION A sketch of a casing head
DECLINE A sketch of a tubing head
ANALYSIS
SEPARATOR

PETROLEUM Horizontal separators (single tube and double tube)


PRODUCTION Low costs
SYSTEM
Almost widely used for high-GOR well steams, foaming well streams, or liquid-from-liquid separation
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND Much greater gas-liquid interface because o a large, long, baffled gas-separation section
NATURAL GAS
RESERVOIR
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL Conventional horizontal separator
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS
SEPARATOR

PETROLEUM Vertical separators


PRODUCTION Often used to treat low to intermediate GOR well streams and streams with relatively large slugs of
SYSTEM
liquid
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND Occupy less floor space which is important for facility sites such as those on offshore platforms
NATURAL GAS where space is limited
RESERVOIR Because of the large vertical distance between the liquid level and the gas outlet, the chance for
DELIVERABILITY liquid to re-vaporize into the gas phase is limited
WELLBORE More costly to fabricate and ship in skid-mounted assemblies
PERFORMANCE Spherical separators
CHOKE
Offer an inexpensive and compact means of separation arrangement
PERFORMANCE
WELL Because of their compact configurations, these types of separators have a very limited surge space
DELIVERABILITY and liquid-settling section
FORECAST OF
WELL Selection of separator type is based on several factors including characteristics of production stream to
PRODUCTION be treated, floor space availability at the facitlity site, transportation, and cost
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS
PUMP

PETROLEUM Piston stroke types


PRODUCTION Single-action piston stroke (e.g., duplex pumps)
SYSTEM
Double-action piston stroke (e.g., triplex pumps)
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND
NATURAL GAS
RESERVOIR
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS

Double-action piston pump


GAS COMPRESSOR

PETROLEUM Gas compressors types


PRODUCTION Reciprocating compressors
SYSTEM
Rotary compressors
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND
NATURAL GAS
RESERVOIR
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS

Elements of a typical reciprocating compressor


PIPELINES

PETROLEUM Pipelines are by far the most economical means of large-scale overland transportation for crude oil,
PRODUCTION natural gas, and their products, clearly superior to rail and truck transportation over competing routes,
SYSTEM
given large quantities to be moved on a regular basis
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND
NATURAL GAS
RESERVOIR
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS

Uses of offshore pipelines


SAFETY CONTROL SYSTEM

PETROLEUM The purpose of safety system is to protect personnel, the environment, and the facility
PRODUCTION
SYSTEM
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND
NATURAL GAS
RESERVOIR
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS Safety device symbols
SAFETY CONTROL SYSTEM

PETROLEUM Safety system design example for pressure vessels


PRODUCTION
SYSTEM
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND
NATURAL GAS
RESERVOIR
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS

Safety system design for pressure vessel


PROPERTIES OF OIL

PETROLEUM Solution gas-oil ratio is defined as the amount of gas (in standard condition) that will dissolve in unit
PRODUCTION volume of oil when both are taken down to the reservoir at the prevailing pressure and temperature, that
SYSTEM
is,
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND
NATURAL GAS
RESERVOIR Solution GOR is measured in PVT laboratories but, empirical correlations are also available based on
DELIVERABILITY data from PVT laboratories
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY Solution GOR factor is often used for volumetric oil and gas calculations in reservoirs
FORECAST OF Solution GOR factor is also used as a base parameter for estimating other fluid properties such as
WELL density of oil
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS
PROPERTIES OF OIL

PETROLEUM Density of oil is defined as the mass of oil per unit volume, or lbm/ft3 in U.S. Field unit
PRODUCTION It is widely used in hydraulics calculations (wellbore and pipeline performance calculations)
SYSTEM
Because of gas content, density of oil is pressure dependent
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND The density of oil at standard condition (stock tank oil) is evaluted by API gravity
NATURAL GAS The relationship between the density of stock tank oil and API gravity is given through the following
RESERVOIR relations
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL The density of oil can be estimated by the Ahmeds correlation as on the following
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS
PROPERTIES OF OIL

PETROLEUM Formation volume factor of oil is defined as the volume occupied in the reservoir at the prevailing
PRODUCTION pressure and temperature by volume of oil in stock tank, plus its dissolved gas as on the following
SYSTEM
equation
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND
NATURAL GAS
RESERVOIR
DELIVERABILITY Formation volume factor of oil is measured in PVT labs
WELLBORE One ot the correlation availble to calculate formation volume factor is as on the following
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS
PROPERTIES OF OIL

PETROLEUM Viscosity is an empirical parameter used for describing the resistance to flow of fluid
PRODUCTION The viscosity of oil is of interest in well-inflow and hydraulics calculations in oil production engineering
SYSTEM
While the viscosity of oil can be measured in PVT labs, it is often estimated using empirical correlations
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND developed by a number of investigators including Beal (1946), Beggs and Robinson (1975), Standing
NATURAL GAS (1981), Glaso (1985), Khan (1987), and Ahmed (1989)
RESERVOIR Engineers should select and validate a correlation with measurements before it is used
DELIVERABILITY Standings (1981) correlation for dead oil is expressed as
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS
PROPERTIES OF OIL

PETROLEUM Standings (1981) correlation for saturated crude oil is expressed as


PRODUCTION
SYSTEM
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND
NATURAL GAS
RESERVOIR
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION Standings (1981) correlation for unsaturated crude oil is expressed as
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS
PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS

PETROLEUM Specific gravity of gas is defined as the ratio of the apparent molecular weight of the gas to that of air with
PRODUCTION the formula as on the following (assuming the molecular weight of air is 28.97)
SYSTEM
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND
NATURAL GAS
RESERVOIR MWa is the apparent molecular weight of gas, which can be calculated on the basis of gas composition
DELIVERABILITY Gas composition is usually determined in a laboratory and reported in mole fractions of components in
WELLBORE the gas
PERFORMANCE Let yi be the mole fraction of component I, and the apparent molecular weight of the gas can be
CHOKE
formulated using a mixing rule such as
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL Gas specific gravity varies between 0.55 and 0.9
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS
PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS

PETROLEUM Similar to gas apparent molecular weight, the critical properties of a gas can be determined on the
PRODUCTION basis of the critical properties of compounds in the gas using the mixinng rule
SYSTEM
The gas critical properties determined in such a way are called pseudo-critical properties
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND Gas pseudo-critical pressure (ppc) and pseudo-critical temperature (Tpc) are, respectively, expressed
NATURAL GAS as
RESERVOIR
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF If the gas composition is not known but gas-specific gravity is given, the pseudo-critical pressure and
WELL temperature can be determined from various charts or correlation based on the charts
PRODUCTION One set of simple correlations which is valid for H2S < 3 %, N2 < 5 % and total content of inorganic
PRODUCTION
compounds less than 7 % is as on the following
DECLINE
ANALYSIS
PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS

PETROLEUM Correction for impurities in sour gases are always necessary


PRODUCTION The corrections can be made using either charts or correlation such as the Wichert and Aziz (1972)
SYSTEM
correction expressed as follows
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND
NATURAL GAS
RESERVOIR
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL Correlations with impurity corrections for mixture pseudo-criticals are also available (Ahmed, 1989)
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS
PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS

PETROLEUM Applications of the pseudo-critical pressure and temperature are normally found in petroleum
PRODUCTION engineering through pseudo-reduced pressure and temperature defined as on the following
SYSTEM
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND
NATURAL GAS
RESERVOIR
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS
PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS

PETROLEUM Dynamic viscosity (g) is usually used in petroleum engineering


PRODUCTION
SYSTEM
Kinematic viscosity (g) is related to the dynamic viscosity through density (g)
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND
NATURAL GAS
RESERVOIR
DELIVERABILITY Kinematic viscosity is not typically used in natural gas engineering
WELLBORE Direct measurements of gas viscosity are preferred for a new gas
PERFORMANCE If gas composition and viscosities of gas components are know, the mixing rule can be used to
CHOKE
determine the viscostiy of the gas mixture
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL Viscosity of gas is very often estimated with charts or correlations developed based on the charts
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS
PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS

PETROLEUM Gas viscosity correlation of Carr et al. 1954 involves a two-step procedure:
PRODUCTION The gas viscosity at temperature and atmospheric pressure is estimated first from gas-specific
SYSTEM
gravity and inorganic compound content
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND The atmospheric value is then adjusted to pressure conditions by means of a correction factor on the
NATURAL GAS basis of reduced temperature and presure state of the gas
RESERVOIR The atmospheric pressure viscosity (1) can be expressed as
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS
PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS

PETROLEUM Dempsey (1965) developed the following relation


PRODUCTION
SYSTEM
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND
NATURAL GAS
RESERVOIR
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS
Thus, once the value of r is determined from the right hand side of the above equation, gas viscosity
at elevated pressure can be readily calculated using the following relation
PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS

PETROLEUM Gas compressibility factor which is defined as the real gas deviation from the ideal gas at a given
PRODUCTION pressure and temperatur is also called deviation factor or z-factor
SYSTEM
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND
NATURAL GAS
RESERVOIR Gas compressibility factor can be determined on the basis of measurements in PVT laboratories
DELIVERABILITY Very often the z-factor is estimated with the chart developed by Standing and Katz (1954)
WELLBORE Brill and Beggs (11974) correlation which is expressed as on the following formula yields z-factor
PERFORMANCE accurate enough for many engineering calculations
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL where
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS
PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS

PETROLEUM Density of gas depends on pressure and temperature because gas is compressible
PRODUCTION
SYSTEM
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND
NATURAL GAS
RESERVOIR
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS
PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS

PETROLEUM Formation volume factor of gas is defined as the ration of gas volume at reservoir condition to the gas
PRODUCTION volume at standard condition as on the following
SYSTEM
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND
NATURAL GAS
RESERVOIR Another way to express formation volume factor of gas is to use gas expansion volume factor as defined
DELIVERABILITY on the following formula
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS
PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS

PETROLEUM Gas compressibiilty is defined as on the following equation


PRODUCTION
SYSTEM
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND
NATURAL GAS Since the second term in the right-hand side is usually small, gas compressibility is approximately
RESERVOIR equal to the reciprocal of pressure
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS
INTRODUCTION TO RESERVOIR DELIVERABILITY

PETROLEUM Reservoir deliverability is defined as on the oil or gas production rate achievable from reservoir at a given
PRODUCTION bottom-hole pressure
SYSTEM
Reservoir deliverability is a major factor affecting well deliverability
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND Reservoir deliverability determines types of completion and artificial lift methods to be used
NATURAL GAS A thorough knowledge of reservoir productivity is essential for production engineers
RESERVOIR Reservoir deliverability depends on several factors including the following
DELIVERABILITY Reservoir pressure
WELLBORE Pay zone thickness and permeability
PERFORMANCE Reservoir boundary type and distance
CHOKE
Wellbore radius
PERFORMANCE
WELL Reservoir fluid properties
DELIVERABILITY Near-wellbore condition
FORECAST OF Reservoir relative permeabilities
WELL Reservoir deliverability can be mathematically modeled on the basis of flow regimes such as transient
PRODUCTION flow, steady state flow, and pseudo-steady state flow
PRODUCTION
An analytical relation between bottom-hole pressure and production rate which can be formulated for a
DECLINE
ANALYSIS given flow regime is called inflow performance relationship (IPR)
FLOW REGIME: TRANSIENT FLOW

PETROLEUM Transient flow is defined as a flow regime where/when the radius of pressure wave propagation from
PRODUCTION wellbore has not reached any boundaries of the reservoir
SYSTEM
During transient flow, the reservoir acts like an infinitively large reservoir from transient pressure
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND analysis point of view because the developing pressure funnel is mall relative to the reservoir size
NATURAL GAS Assuming single-phase oil flow in the reservoir, several analytical solutions have been developed for
RESERVOIR describing the transient flow behavior
DELIVERABILITY A constant-rate solution frequently used in production engineering is expressed in the following
WELLBORE equation
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS
FLOW REGIME: TRANSIENT FLOW

PETROLEUM Because oil production wells are normally operated at constant bottom-hole pressure because of
PRODUCTION constant wellhead pressure imposed by constant choke size, a constant bottom-hole pressure solution
SYSTEM
is more desirable for well inflow performance analysis
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND With an appropriate inner boundary condition arrangement, Earlougher (1977) developed a constant
NATURAL GAS bottom-hole pressure solution which is similar to the previous equation and is used for transient well
RESERVOIR performance analysis in production enginering as on the following
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL Equation above indicates that oil rate decreases with flow time which is because th radius of the
DELIVERABILITY pressure funnel, over which the pressure drawdown (pi pwf) acts, increases with time, that is, the
FORECAST OF overall pressure gradient in the reservoir drops with time
WELL For gas wells the transient solution is as on the following
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS
FLOW REGIME: STEADY-STATE FLOW

PETROLEUM Steady-state flow is defined as a flow regime where the pressure at any point in the reservoir remains
PRODUCTION constant over time
SYSTEM
This flow condition prevails when the pressure funnel has propagated to a constant pressure boundary
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND The constant-pressure boundary can be an aquifer or a water injection well
NATURAL GAS A sketch of the reservoir model is shown in the figure below where pe represents the pressure at the
RESERVOIR constant-pressure boundary
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS Assuming single-phase flow, the following theoretical relation can be derived from Darcys law for an oil
reservoir under pseud-steady-state flow condition due to a circular no-flow boundary at distance re
from wellbore
FLOW REGIME: PSEUDO-STEADY-STATE FLOW

PETROLEUM Pseudo-teady-state flow is defined as a flow regime where the pressure at any point in the reservoir
PRODUCTION declines at the same constant rate over time
SYSTEM
This flow condition prevails after the pressure funnel has propagated to all no-flow boundaries
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND A no-flow boundary can be a sealing fault, pinch-out of pay zone, or boundaries of drainage areas of
NATURAL GAS production wells
RESERVOIR A sketch of the reservoir model is shown in figure below where pe represents the pressure at the no-
DELIVERABILITY flow boundary at time t4
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS Assuming single-phase flow, the following theoretical relation can be derived from Darcys law for an oil
reservoir under pseudo-steady-state flow condition due to a circular no-flow boundary at distance re
from wellbore
FLOW REGIME: PSEUDO-STEADY-STATE FLOW

PETROLEUM The flow time required for the pressure funnel to reach the circular boundary can be expressed as on
PRODUCTION the following
SYSTEM
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND
NATURAL GAS Because the pe in the previous equation is not known at any given time, the following expression using
RESERVOIR the average reservoir pressure is more useful
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL If the no-flow boundaries delineate a drainage area of noncircular shape, the following equation should
DELIVERABILITY be used for analysis of psedo-steady-state flow
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
For a gas well located at the center of a circular drainage area, the pseudo-steady-state solution is as
DECLINE
ANALYSIS on the following
FLOW REGIME: PSEUDO-STEADY-STATE FLOW

PETROLEUM The flow time required for the pressure funnel to reach the circular boundary can be expressed as on
PRODUCTION the following
SYSTEM
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND
NATURAL GAS Because the pe in the previous equation is not known at any given time, the following expression using
RESERVOIR the average reservoir pressure is more useful
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL If the no-flow boundaries delineate a drainage area of noncircular shape, the following equation should
DELIVERABILITY be used for analysis of psedo-steady-state flow
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
For a gas well located at the center of a circular drainage area, the pseudo-steady-state solution is as
DECLINE
ANALYSIS on the following
FLOW REGIME: PSEUDO-STEADY-STATE FLOW

PETROLEUM
PRODUCTION
SYSTEM
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND
NATURAL GAS
RESERVOIR
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS
HORIZONTAL WELL

PETROLEUM The transient flow, steady-state flow, and pseudo-steady-state flow can also exist in reservoirs
PRODUCTION penetrated by horizontal wells
SYSTEM
Joshi (1988) presented the following relationship considering steady-state flow of oil in the horizontal
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND plane and pseudo-steady-state flow in the vertical plane
NATURAL GAS
RESERVOIR
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS
INFLOW PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP

PETROLEUM Inflow performance relationship (IPR) is used for evaluating reservoir deliverability in production
PRODUCTION engineering
SYSTEM
The IPR curve is a graphical presentation of the relation between the flowing bottom-hole pressure and
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND liquid production rate
NATURAL GAS A typical IPR curve is shown on the following figure
RESERVOIR
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS

The magnitude of sloe pf the IPR curve is called the productivity index (PI or J) as on the following
INFLOW PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP

PETROLEUM J is not a constant in the two-phase flow region


PRODUCTION Well IPR curves are usually constructed using reservoir inflow models, which can be from either a
SYSTEM
theoretical basis or an empirical basis
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND It is essential to validate these models with test points in field applications
NATURAL GAS
RESERVOIR
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS
IPR FOR SINGLE (LIQUID)-PHASE RESERVOIRS

PETROLEUM The productivity index (J*) for flowing bottom-hole pressure above the bubble-pint pressure is as on the
PRODUCTION following
SYSTEM
for radial transient flow around a vertical well
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND
NATURAL GAS
RESERVOIR
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
For radial steady-state flow around a vertical well
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL For pseudo-steady-state flow around a vertical well
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS
For steady state flow around a horizontal well
IPR FOR TWO-PHASE RESERVOIRS

PETROLEUM The linear IPR


PRODUCTION
SYSTEM
PROPERTIES OF
OIL AND
NATURAL GAS
RESERVOIR
DELIVERABILITY
WELLBORE
PERFORMANCE
CHOKE
PERFORMANCE
WELL
DELIVERABILITY
FORECAST OF
WELL
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
DECLINE
ANALYSIS