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2015

GRADING

PETROLEUM Breakdown

PRODUCTION Mid-semester examination : 30 %

SYSTEM

End-semester examination : 30 %

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND Assignment : 30 %

NATURAL GAS Attendance : 10 %

RESERVOIR

DELIVERABILITY Grade

WELLBORE A : 80 - 100 %

PERFORMANCE B : 70 - 80 %

CHOKE

C : 60 - 70 %

PERFORMANCE

WELL D : 50 - 60 %

DELIVERABILITY E : > 50 %

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

SYLLABUS

PRODUCTION 2. Properties of Oil and Natural Gas

SYSTEM

3. Reservoir Deliverability

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND 4. Wellbore Performance

NATURAL GAS 5. Choke Performance

RESERVOIR 6. Well Deliverability

DELIVERABILITY 7. Forecast of Well Production

WELLBORE 8. Production Decline Analysis

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

INTRODUCTION

PETROLEUM

PRODUCTION

SYSTEM

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND

NATURAL GAS

RESERVOIR

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

RESERVOIR

PETROLEUM Reservoir is a porous and permeable underground formation containing and individual bank of

PRODUCTION hydrocarbons confined by impermeable rock or water barriers and is characterized by a single natural

SYSTEM

pressure system

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND

NATURAL GAS Field is an area that consists of one or more reservoirs all related to the same structural features

RESERVOIR

DELIVERABILITY Pool contains one or more reservoirs in isolated structures

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE Well categories

CHOKE

Gas wells : GOR > 100,000 scf/stb

PERFORMANCE

WELL Condensate wells : 5,000 scf/stb < GOR < 100,000 scf/stb

DELIVERABILITY Oil wells : GOR < 5,000 scf/stb

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

RESERVOIR

PETROLEUM

PRODUCTION

SYSTEM

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND

NATURAL GAS

RESERVOIR

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL

A sketch of a water-drive reservoir A sketch of a gas- A sketch of a dissolved-

PRODUCTION

cap drive reservoir gas drive reservoir

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

WELL

PETROLEUM Wellhead is the surface equipment set below the master valve which includes casing heads and a tubing

PRODUCTION head

SYSTEM

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND Christmas tree is the equipment at the top of the producing wellhead

NATURAL GAS

RESERVOIR

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

WELL

PETROLEUM

PRODUCTION

SYSTEM

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND

NATURAL GAS

RESERVOIR

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION A sketch of a casing head

DECLINE A sketch of a tubing head

ANALYSIS

SEPARATOR

PRODUCTION Low costs

SYSTEM

Almost widely used for high-GOR well steams, foaming well streams, or liquid-from-liquid separation

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND Much greater gas-liquid interface because o a large, long, baffled gas-separation section

NATURAL GAS

RESERVOIR

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL Conventional horizontal separator

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

SEPARATOR

PRODUCTION Often used to treat low to intermediate GOR well streams and streams with relatively large slugs of

SYSTEM

liquid

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND Occupy less floor space which is important for facility sites such as those on offshore platforms

NATURAL GAS where space is limited

RESERVOIR Because of the large vertical distance between the liquid level and the gas outlet, the chance for

DELIVERABILITY liquid to re-vaporize into the gas phase is limited

WELLBORE More costly to fabricate and ship in skid-mounted assemblies

PERFORMANCE Spherical separators

CHOKE

Offer an inexpensive and compact means of separation arrangement

PERFORMANCE

WELL Because of their compact configurations, these types of separators have a very limited surge space

DELIVERABILITY and liquid-settling section

FORECAST OF

WELL Selection of separator type is based on several factors including characteristics of production stream to

PRODUCTION be treated, floor space availability at the facitlity site, transportation, and cost

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

PUMP

PRODUCTION Single-action piston stroke (e.g., duplex pumps)

SYSTEM

Double-action piston stroke (e.g., triplex pumps)

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND

NATURAL GAS

RESERVOIR

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

GAS COMPRESSOR

PRODUCTION Reciprocating compressors

SYSTEM

Rotary compressors

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND

NATURAL GAS

RESERVOIR

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

PIPELINES

PETROLEUM Pipelines are by far the most economical means of large-scale overland transportation for crude oil,

PRODUCTION natural gas, and their products, clearly superior to rail and truck transportation over competing routes,

SYSTEM

given large quantities to be moved on a regular basis

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND

NATURAL GAS

RESERVOIR

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

SAFETY CONTROL SYSTEM

PETROLEUM The purpose of safety system is to protect personnel, the environment, and the facility

PRODUCTION

SYSTEM

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND

NATURAL GAS

RESERVOIR

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS Safety device symbols

SAFETY CONTROL SYSTEM

PRODUCTION

SYSTEM

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND

NATURAL GAS

RESERVOIR

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

PROPERTIES OF OIL

PETROLEUM Solution gas-oil ratio is defined as the amount of gas (in standard condition) that will dissolve in unit

PRODUCTION volume of oil when both are taken down to the reservoir at the prevailing pressure and temperature, that

SYSTEM

is,

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND

NATURAL GAS

RESERVOIR Solution GOR is measured in PVT laboratories but, empirical correlations are also available based on

DELIVERABILITY data from PVT laboratories

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY Solution GOR factor is often used for volumetric oil and gas calculations in reservoirs

FORECAST OF Solution GOR factor is also used as a base parameter for estimating other fluid properties such as

WELL density of oil

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

PROPERTIES OF OIL

PETROLEUM Density of oil is defined as the mass of oil per unit volume, or lbm/ft3 in U.S. Field unit

PRODUCTION It is widely used in hydraulics calculations (wellbore and pipeline performance calculations)

SYSTEM

Because of gas content, density of oil is pressure dependent

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND The density of oil at standard condition (stock tank oil) is evaluted by API gravity

NATURAL GAS The relationship between the density of stock tank oil and API gravity is given through the following

RESERVOIR relations

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL The density of oil can be estimated by the Ahmeds correlation as on the following

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

PROPERTIES OF OIL

PETROLEUM Formation volume factor of oil is defined as the volume occupied in the reservoir at the prevailing

PRODUCTION pressure and temperature by volume of oil in stock tank, plus its dissolved gas as on the following

SYSTEM

equation

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND

NATURAL GAS

RESERVOIR

DELIVERABILITY Formation volume factor of oil is measured in PVT labs

WELLBORE One ot the correlation availble to calculate formation volume factor is as on the following

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

PROPERTIES OF OIL

PETROLEUM Viscosity is an empirical parameter used for describing the resistance to flow of fluid

PRODUCTION The viscosity of oil is of interest in well-inflow and hydraulics calculations in oil production engineering

SYSTEM

While the viscosity of oil can be measured in PVT labs, it is often estimated using empirical correlations

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND developed by a number of investigators including Beal (1946), Beggs and Robinson (1975), Standing

NATURAL GAS (1981), Glaso (1985), Khan (1987), and Ahmed (1989)

RESERVOIR Engineers should select and validate a correlation with measurements before it is used

DELIVERABILITY Standings (1981) correlation for dead oil is expressed as

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

PROPERTIES OF OIL

PRODUCTION

SYSTEM

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND

NATURAL GAS

RESERVOIR

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION Standings (1981) correlation for unsaturated crude oil is expressed as

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS

PETROLEUM Specific gravity of gas is defined as the ratio of the apparent molecular weight of the gas to that of air with

PRODUCTION the formula as on the following (assuming the molecular weight of air is 28.97)

SYSTEM

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND

NATURAL GAS

RESERVOIR MWa is the apparent molecular weight of gas, which can be calculated on the basis of gas composition

DELIVERABILITY Gas composition is usually determined in a laboratory and reported in mole fractions of components in

WELLBORE the gas

PERFORMANCE Let yi be the mole fraction of component I, and the apparent molecular weight of the gas can be

CHOKE

formulated using a mixing rule such as

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL Gas specific gravity varies between 0.55 and 0.9

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS

PETROLEUM Similar to gas apparent molecular weight, the critical properties of a gas can be determined on the

PRODUCTION basis of the critical properties of compounds in the gas using the mixinng rule

SYSTEM

The gas critical properties determined in such a way are called pseudo-critical properties

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND Gas pseudo-critical pressure (ppc) and pseudo-critical temperature (Tpc) are, respectively, expressed

NATURAL GAS as

RESERVOIR

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF If the gas composition is not known but gas-specific gravity is given, the pseudo-critical pressure and

WELL temperature can be determined from various charts or correlation based on the charts

PRODUCTION One set of simple correlations which is valid for H2S < 3 %, N2 < 5 % and total content of inorganic

PRODUCTION

compounds less than 7 % is as on the following

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS

PRODUCTION The corrections can be made using either charts or correlation such as the Wichert and Aziz (1972)

SYSTEM

correction expressed as follows

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND

NATURAL GAS

RESERVOIR

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL Correlations with impurity corrections for mixture pseudo-criticals are also available (Ahmed, 1989)

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS

PETROLEUM Applications of the pseudo-critical pressure and temperature are normally found in petroleum

PRODUCTION engineering through pseudo-reduced pressure and temperature defined as on the following

SYSTEM

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND

NATURAL GAS

RESERVOIR

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS

PRODUCTION

SYSTEM

Kinematic viscosity (g) is related to the dynamic viscosity through density (g)

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND

NATURAL GAS

RESERVOIR

DELIVERABILITY Kinematic viscosity is not typically used in natural gas engineering

WELLBORE Direct measurements of gas viscosity are preferred for a new gas

PERFORMANCE If gas composition and viscosities of gas components are know, the mixing rule can be used to

CHOKE

determine the viscostiy of the gas mixture

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL Viscosity of gas is very often estimated with charts or correlations developed based on the charts

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS

PETROLEUM Gas viscosity correlation of Carr et al. 1954 involves a two-step procedure:

PRODUCTION The gas viscosity at temperature and atmospheric pressure is estimated first from gas-specific

SYSTEM

gravity and inorganic compound content

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND The atmospheric value is then adjusted to pressure conditions by means of a correction factor on the

NATURAL GAS basis of reduced temperature and presure state of the gas

RESERVOIR The atmospheric pressure viscosity (1) can be expressed as

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS

PRODUCTION

SYSTEM

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND

NATURAL GAS

RESERVOIR

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

Thus, once the value of r is determined from the right hand side of the above equation, gas viscosity

at elevated pressure can be readily calculated using the following relation

PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS

PETROLEUM Gas compressibility factor which is defined as the real gas deviation from the ideal gas at a given

PRODUCTION pressure and temperatur is also called deviation factor or z-factor

SYSTEM

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND

NATURAL GAS

RESERVOIR Gas compressibility factor can be determined on the basis of measurements in PVT laboratories

DELIVERABILITY Very often the z-factor is estimated with the chart developed by Standing and Katz (1954)

WELLBORE Brill and Beggs (11974) correlation which is expressed as on the following formula yields z-factor

PERFORMANCE accurate enough for many engineering calculations

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL where

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS

PETROLEUM Density of gas depends on pressure and temperature because gas is compressible

PRODUCTION

SYSTEM

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND

NATURAL GAS

RESERVOIR

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS

PETROLEUM Formation volume factor of gas is defined as the ration of gas volume at reservoir condition to the gas

PRODUCTION volume at standard condition as on the following

SYSTEM

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND

NATURAL GAS

RESERVOIR Another way to express formation volume factor of gas is to use gas expansion volume factor as defined

DELIVERABILITY on the following formula

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS

PRODUCTION

SYSTEM

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND

NATURAL GAS Since the second term in the right-hand side is usually small, gas compressibility is approximately

RESERVOIR equal to the reciprocal of pressure

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

INTRODUCTION TO RESERVOIR DELIVERABILITY

PETROLEUM Reservoir deliverability is defined as on the oil or gas production rate achievable from reservoir at a given

PRODUCTION bottom-hole pressure

SYSTEM

Reservoir deliverability is a major factor affecting well deliverability

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND Reservoir deliverability determines types of completion and artificial lift methods to be used

NATURAL GAS A thorough knowledge of reservoir productivity is essential for production engineers

RESERVOIR Reservoir deliverability depends on several factors including the following

DELIVERABILITY Reservoir pressure

WELLBORE Pay zone thickness and permeability

PERFORMANCE Reservoir boundary type and distance

CHOKE

Wellbore radius

PERFORMANCE

WELL Reservoir fluid properties

DELIVERABILITY Near-wellbore condition

FORECAST OF Reservoir relative permeabilities

WELL Reservoir deliverability can be mathematically modeled on the basis of flow regimes such as transient

PRODUCTION flow, steady state flow, and pseudo-steady state flow

PRODUCTION

An analytical relation between bottom-hole pressure and production rate which can be formulated for a

DECLINE

ANALYSIS given flow regime is called inflow performance relationship (IPR)

FLOW REGIME: TRANSIENT FLOW

PETROLEUM Transient flow is defined as a flow regime where/when the radius of pressure wave propagation from

PRODUCTION wellbore has not reached any boundaries of the reservoir

SYSTEM

During transient flow, the reservoir acts like an infinitively large reservoir from transient pressure

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND analysis point of view because the developing pressure funnel is mall relative to the reservoir size

NATURAL GAS Assuming single-phase oil flow in the reservoir, several analytical solutions have been developed for

RESERVOIR describing the transient flow behavior

DELIVERABILITY A constant-rate solution frequently used in production engineering is expressed in the following

WELLBORE equation

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

FLOW REGIME: TRANSIENT FLOW

PETROLEUM Because oil production wells are normally operated at constant bottom-hole pressure because of

PRODUCTION constant wellhead pressure imposed by constant choke size, a constant bottom-hole pressure solution

SYSTEM

is more desirable for well inflow performance analysis

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND With an appropriate inner boundary condition arrangement, Earlougher (1977) developed a constant

NATURAL GAS bottom-hole pressure solution which is similar to the previous equation and is used for transient well

RESERVOIR performance analysis in production enginering as on the following

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL Equation above indicates that oil rate decreases with flow time which is because th radius of the

DELIVERABILITY pressure funnel, over which the pressure drawdown (pi pwf) acts, increases with time, that is, the

FORECAST OF overall pressure gradient in the reservoir drops with time

WELL For gas wells the transient solution is as on the following

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

FLOW REGIME: STEADY-STATE FLOW

PETROLEUM Steady-state flow is defined as a flow regime where the pressure at any point in the reservoir remains

PRODUCTION constant over time

SYSTEM

This flow condition prevails when the pressure funnel has propagated to a constant pressure boundary

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND The constant-pressure boundary can be an aquifer or a water injection well

NATURAL GAS A sketch of the reservoir model is shown in the figure below where pe represents the pressure at the

RESERVOIR constant-pressure boundary

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS Assuming single-phase flow, the following theoretical relation can be derived from Darcys law for an oil

reservoir under pseud-steady-state flow condition due to a circular no-flow boundary at distance re

from wellbore

FLOW REGIME: PSEUDO-STEADY-STATE FLOW

PETROLEUM Pseudo-teady-state flow is defined as a flow regime where the pressure at any point in the reservoir

PRODUCTION declines at the same constant rate over time

SYSTEM

This flow condition prevails after the pressure funnel has propagated to all no-flow boundaries

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND A no-flow boundary can be a sealing fault, pinch-out of pay zone, or boundaries of drainage areas of

NATURAL GAS production wells

RESERVOIR A sketch of the reservoir model is shown in figure below where pe represents the pressure at the no-

DELIVERABILITY flow boundary at time t4

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS Assuming single-phase flow, the following theoretical relation can be derived from Darcys law for an oil

reservoir under pseudo-steady-state flow condition due to a circular no-flow boundary at distance re

from wellbore

FLOW REGIME: PSEUDO-STEADY-STATE FLOW

PETROLEUM The flow time required for the pressure funnel to reach the circular boundary can be expressed as on

PRODUCTION the following

SYSTEM

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND

NATURAL GAS Because the pe in the previous equation is not known at any given time, the following expression using

RESERVOIR the average reservoir pressure is more useful

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL If the no-flow boundaries delineate a drainage area of noncircular shape, the following equation should

DELIVERABILITY be used for analysis of psedo-steady-state flow

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

For a gas well located at the center of a circular drainage area, the pseudo-steady-state solution is as

DECLINE

ANALYSIS on the following

FLOW REGIME: PSEUDO-STEADY-STATE FLOW

PETROLEUM The flow time required for the pressure funnel to reach the circular boundary can be expressed as on

PRODUCTION the following

SYSTEM

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND

NATURAL GAS Because the pe in the previous equation is not known at any given time, the following expression using

RESERVOIR the average reservoir pressure is more useful

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL If the no-flow boundaries delineate a drainage area of noncircular shape, the following equation should

DELIVERABILITY be used for analysis of psedo-steady-state flow

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

For a gas well located at the center of a circular drainage area, the pseudo-steady-state solution is as

DECLINE

ANALYSIS on the following

FLOW REGIME: PSEUDO-STEADY-STATE FLOW

PETROLEUM

PRODUCTION

SYSTEM

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND

NATURAL GAS

RESERVOIR

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

HORIZONTAL WELL

PETROLEUM The transient flow, steady-state flow, and pseudo-steady-state flow can also exist in reservoirs

PRODUCTION penetrated by horizontal wells

SYSTEM

Joshi (1988) presented the following relationship considering steady-state flow of oil in the horizontal

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND plane and pseudo-steady-state flow in the vertical plane

NATURAL GAS

RESERVOIR

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

INFLOW PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP

PETROLEUM Inflow performance relationship (IPR) is used for evaluating reservoir deliverability in production

PRODUCTION engineering

SYSTEM

The IPR curve is a graphical presentation of the relation between the flowing bottom-hole pressure and

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND liquid production rate

NATURAL GAS A typical IPR curve is shown on the following figure

RESERVOIR

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

The magnitude of sloe pf the IPR curve is called the productivity index (PI or J) as on the following

INFLOW PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP

PRODUCTION Well IPR curves are usually constructed using reservoir inflow models, which can be from either a

SYSTEM

theoretical basis or an empirical basis

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND It is essential to validate these models with test points in field applications

NATURAL GAS

RESERVOIR

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

IPR FOR SINGLE (LIQUID)-PHASE RESERVOIRS

PETROLEUM The productivity index (J*) for flowing bottom-hole pressure above the bubble-pint pressure is as on the

PRODUCTION following

SYSTEM

for radial transient flow around a vertical well

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND

NATURAL GAS

RESERVOIR

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

For radial steady-state flow around a vertical well

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL For pseudo-steady-state flow around a vertical well

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

For steady state flow around a horizontal well

IPR FOR TWO-PHASE RESERVOIRS

PRODUCTION

SYSTEM

PROPERTIES OF

OIL AND

NATURAL GAS

RESERVOIR

DELIVERABILITY

WELLBORE

PERFORMANCE

CHOKE

PERFORMANCE

WELL

DELIVERABILITY

FORECAST OF

WELL

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

DECLINE

ANALYSIS

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