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Grounding Transformers

Medford, Oregon
Medford, Oregon
John S. Levine, P.E.
Levine Lectronics and Lectric, Inc.

March 2011
February, 2007
1
It is used to provide a ground path on either an
ungrounded Wye or a Delta connected system
The relatively low impedance path to ground maintains the system
neutral at ground potential
On Ungrounded systems you can have
overvoltages of 6 to 8 times normal with
arcing faults
Arcing Ground Faults
Intermittent or Re-strike

Plot of transient over-voltage for an arcing ground fault


Arcing Ground Faults
Intermittent or Re-strike
Intermittent ground fault: A re-striking ground fault can create a high frequency
oscillator (RLC circuit), independent of L and C values, causing high transient over-
voltages.
i.e. re-striking due to ac voltage waveform or loose wire caused by vibration

480V Delta Source


R fe 3 Load

V V

Cb Cb

S fa
THE HIGH RESISTANCE GROUNDED
POWER SYSTEM
CONTROL OF TRANSIENT OVERVOLTAGE
It supports the voltage on a faulted
phase
If a single line-to-ground fault occurs on an ungrounded or
isolated system, no return path exists and no current flows
The system will continue to operate but the other two un-
faulted lines will rise in in voltage by the square root of 3,
possibly overstressing the transformer insulation, and
other components, by 173%
UNGROUNDED SYSTEM NORMAL
CONDITIONS
UNGROUNDED SYSTEM
GROUND FAULT ON PHASE A
Provides a metering point to measure faults
A typical example is a Wind Farm. They utilize
grounding transformers for fault protection on
ungrounded lines
When a ground fault occurs on a collector cable causes the substation
circuit breaker to open, the wind turbine string becomes isolated

Turbines do not always detect the fault and the generators continue to
energize the cable.

Voltages between the un-faulted cable and the ground rise by the 173%

The transformer, placed on the turbine string, provides the ground path
A typical example is a Wind Farm.

When the feeder breaker


Opens, the collector bus and
the step up transformer delta
connected MV windings
rely on the Grounding
Transformer for their ground
path and voltage support.
Two different constructions:

ZIG ZAG (Zn)

WYE CONNECTED
What if no neutral exists (i.e. delta systems)?
A grounding transformer is installed (either a zig-zag or a wye-delta)
from all three phases to create an artificial neutral for grounding
purposes only.
A B C A B C A B C

Zig-Zag
HRG
Grounding
Transformer

Wye-Delta Broken Delta


Grounding Grounding
Transformers Transformers
HRG HRG
The zigzag transformer contains six coils on
three cores. The first coil on each core is
connected contrariwise to the second coil on
the next core.
The second coils are then all tied together to
form the neutral and the phases are
connected to the primary coils.
Each phase, therefore, couples with each
other phase and the voltages cancel out
A
Typical Wye connection with
Neutral end of windings connected
Together
A B C C

Vector diagram of
balanced system

A B C

Symmetrical three phase source


a

c C

The Zig-Zag connection has 2


windings on each leg.
B

b
a

c C

A
b
B
a
Each leg of the Zig-Zag
Connection is connected b
to a winding from another which
C is out of phase

c B
The resulting Zig-Zag connection
Is phase shifted with respect to the
incoming three phase source

Az

Cz

Bz
Limits circulation of triplen harmonics
( 3 rd, 6th, 9th, etc)
Can be used without a Delta connected or 5-
legged core
Elimination of secondary winding results in
smaller footprint, lower cost (25-30%)
Includes a Delta or Wye connected secondary
Utilizes 4 or 5 legged core when Wye
connected secondary is specified
Multi-functional, provides benefit of auxiliary
power
Know the basic parameters

Primary Voltage Impedance as a % or as an


Phase to Phase continuous ohms/phase value
primary current (or Rated Primary Winding
kVA) connection
Continuous Neutral current Secondary connection
Available Fault Current and Basic overall construction
Duration
This is the system voltage to which the
grounded winding is to be connected.
Dont forget to specify the BIL also.
In some cases the BIL will be dictated by
equipment considerations, such as 150 kV BIL
on 34.5 kV wind farms because of the
limitation of dead front connectors
The Transformer must be sized to carry the
rated continuous, phase-to-phase current
without exceeding its temperature limit
The higher the current, the larger and more
costly the transformer
Typical values can be as low as 5 amps to as
high as a few hundred
Include any auxiliary loading requirements
Is defined as 3X the Phase-to-Phase current
(Zero Sequence Current)
It is the value that is expected to flow in the
neutral circuit without tripping protective
circuits
Used to design for thermal capacity of the
transformer
Used to determine the short time heating
resulting from a fault on the system which
returns through the transformer
Typical ranges run from a few hundred to a
few thousand amps
Duration is expressed in seconds (i.e. 400
amps for 10 seconds)
Can be expressed as either a percentage or as an
ohmic value
Either should be chosen such that the un-faulted
phase voltages are within the temporary over-
voltage capability of:
The Transformer
Associated equipment (i.e. arresters, terminal connectors, etc.)
Typical values can be as low as 8% and as much as
100%
Must be determined by the system designer
Zig Zag or Grounded Wye
Specify the secondary voltage and
connection for primary Wye connected
transformers
Specify size of auxiliary loading to be
connected
If two winding with no secondary load,
advise if the delta winding can be
buried (not brought out) or if only one
bushing is to be brought out for
grounding to the tank or testing
Compartmental pad Connectivity
mount or unit Dead Front or Live Front
substation design Spade terminals
Cover-mounted or
Indoor or outdoor sidewall
Fluid type (Mineral Oil, Exposed or enclosed
Silicone, or Envirotemp Temperature Rise
FR3) 65 degrees C
55 degrees C
Site Elevation or 55/65 deg. C
Environmental
conditions Special Coating
requirements
Round Coils

360 degree cooling ducts

Radial forces are equalized during short circuits & overloads


Cruciform stacked core construction
The following transformers are for
reference only to let you be aware of
different type transformers for different
applications.
A Scott T Transformer is a transformer that is
designed for converting 2 phase current to 3
phase current or vice-versa.
An autotransformer is a transformer that only
have one winding with taps. No isolation is
provided between the primary and secondary.
A Buck-Boost
transformer is one
that is designed to
lower (buck) or raise
(boost) the voltage
in the range of 5% to
25%. This is a great
(low cost) way to get
between 208 and
240 Volts, or
between 480 and
575 Volts. Used on
1 and 3 Phase
applications.
A drive isolation
transformer is one that
is typically used on AC
or DC Drive systems. It
typically has the same
primary and secondary
voltages and is used
for isolation. In
addition you typically
have a shield to
attenuate line to
ground noise.
A constant voltage transformer is one in which
the secondary stays constant with large swings
on the primary voltage. This is accomplished
by operating the primary in a saturated mode
so even when the primary voltage dips you
can still maintain a constant output. Typical
input may be 80% to 110% with the output
maintaining 1% voltage regulation.
A copy of this
presentation
can be found
at:

www.L-3.com
For more information and specification sheets

www. PacificCrestTrans.com