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1. Enforcement to compel obedience to a law, regulation or

2. Policing is defined in two ways:

To ensure that law and order is maintained in a particular
area or event, using the police or the military force;
To ensure that rules and procedures are followed correctly
in something or that something is implemented as agreed.

3. Law Enforcement Agency or Agent pertains to a person or

organization responsible for enforcing the laws, especially
referring to the so-called Police Organization.
4. Law Enforcement Administration is the process
involved in ensuring strict compliance, proper
obedience of laws and related statutes.

5. Police is a branch of the Criminal Justice

System that has the specific responsibility of
maintaining law and order and combating crime
within the society.

6. Police Power is the exercise of the sovereign

right of any government to promote order, safety,
morals, and the general welfare within Constitutional
7. Police Administration focuses on the policing process
or how police agencies are organized and managed in
order to achieved the goals of law enforcement most
effectively, efficiently and productively.

Police Efficiency refers to the skillfulness in avoiding

wasted time and effort; optimum utilization of available
resources. It measures whether or not important task
goals are being attained.

Police Effectiveness refers to the quality of being

able to bring about an effect or the power to be
effective. It measures how well the resources are
being utilized.
The word police originated from the Greek word
Politeia- meaning government of city. It applied
to civil officers and not necessarily police man.
The Roman changed the word slightly to Politia.

The French changed the word to Police and

applied it to that person who actually enforced the
law. Thereafter, the English and the Americans
borrowed the word intact from the French and
used it to describe a law enforcer. The terms
which assimilated to the English and The
American language were French in origin. The
words Constable and Patrol are likewise of

1. Tun Policing System Tun is the forerunner of the word

town. Under this system all male residents are required
to guard the town and to preserve the peace and order,
to protect life and property from harm or disturbance.
Now the Bgy tanods

2. Hue and Cry a system of apprehending a criminal

whereby a complainant goes to the middle of the street
and shouts to call all males to assemble. The victim
reports his complain to the assembly and gives the
whereabouts of the perpetrator. All male residents would
then proceed to locate and apprehend the culprit. When
apprehended, trial is conducted giving the culprit a
chance to defend himself.
3. The Royal Judge a person who conducts criminal
investigation and gives punishment. Punishment
usually fits the crime committed.

4. Trial by Ordeal a system of determining guilt and

innocence in the ancient times, which was based on
painful test of skills. It is usually accompanied by harsh
punishment. For instance, suspects were required to
place their hands in boiling oil or water. When not hurt,
suspect should be acquitted, when hurt, it indicated
guilt and the suspect placed under punishment.
5. The Bow Street Runners In 1748, Henry Fielding
became the Chief Magistrate at Bow Street in Middlesex,
London. He organized a group of men known as Bow
Street Runners whose task was to run errands for the
Bow Street Court.

He later formed the Bow Street Horse Patrol whose duty

was to patrol the main roads thus secure the travelers
from highwaymen or highway bandits. (Brigandage)

According to some books, the Bow Street Runners was

the first organized foot patrol and Bow Street Horse Patrol
was the first mounted police on patrol.

This period came to the limelight when a bill

Metropolitan Police Act creating a Metropolitan Police
Force was passed by the parliament of England. This
police force was later called Scotland Yard which is
viewed by some historians as the first organized
police form. It was sponsored and expanded by Sir
Robert Peel who was made to be the first head of the
police organization. He was referred as the Father of
Modern Policing System due to his contributions in the
modernization of the police force.
The following principles were considered in
organizing and administering the Scotland Yard
known as the Peels Principles:

1. Stable and effective police force should be

under government control.

2. Absence of crime is the best proof of efficiency.

3. Fast distribution of news to the people is

essential. Thru reports or SMS now

4. Proper distribution of personnel according to

shift and by hour.
5. The best qualification of peace officers is control
of temper. (eg. CDM )

6.Proper selection and training is the basis of


7.Police cannot function properly without

wholehearted support of the people. (Dialogue,
visitation )

8. Every police must sell himself to the people.

9. Police officers must go out of their way to help

or assist the people.
First Police Organization (headed by Louis-
Marie Debelleme) in truth, the French were
the first to established a group of uniformed
police officers tasked to patrol the city of Paris.
This police force was called Sergent de Ville
(servant of the city) which was organized six
months earlier before the creation of the
Metropolitan Police Force of London.
What is PATROL? The Backbone of Police Org.

It is the most vital component of police work. In fact,

in organizing the police organization, patrol is
considered the skeletal foundation.It is the backbone
of a police department.

However, making it simpler, patrol may refer to the

regular tour made by a guard in a place in order to
protect it or to maintain order.

It could also mean a person or a group (such as

police or military unit) sent to carry out a tour of duty
in a certain place with a particular mission either for
reconnaissance purposes or simply to provide
Patrol may also simply mean the concept of a person
traveling around a defined jurisdiction, observing the situation
and maintaining the safety and security of people and

As a patrol officer, youll be doing the most difficult,

demanding and dangerous job in all of law enforcement.
Youre there on the frontline, breaking up fights and making
arrests, and at the greatest risk of being sued and generating
citizens complaints.

Regardless of how your agency operates to the general public

its you, the patrol officer, who represents the law enforcement
and the presence of the government. When a citizen is hurt or
In need of assistance, he is looking for a uniformed patrol
officer to come to his aid. Thats you!
Etymology of the Term Patrol

The word patrol originated directly or via

German Patrolla from the French Patrouller
(patroullier) which originally means to
walk through mud in a military camp.

The primary law enforcement body of the state is the police. It

is the first component of the Criminal Justice System in the
Philippine setting and is responsible in performing these
fundamental functions:

1. Prevention of Crime and Repression of criminal activities

2. Preservation of Peace and Order
3. Protection of life and property
4. Enforcement of laws and ordinances and regulation of non-
criminal conduct
5. Investigation of crimes
6. Apprehension of criminals
7. Safeguarding of citizens rights and public morals
Police functions can be generalized into two categories:

Law Enforcement
Peace and Order Maintenance

Law Enforcement embraces crime prevention and control

including customary police functions.

Peace and Order Maintenance covers the peace keeping

role and community-oriented services (community service
role). It has no law enforcement implications.

To Serve and Protect the bottom line of police work.

Basically, thats the job of a patrol officer. (AFP, Sec Guard ?)
Why is it that the citizens usually call first the police when a
social problem occurs?

Traditionally speaking, these are the reasons: Because the police are
constantly available when needed; dependable when called upon;
and capable of providing advice to decide or settle interpersonal
conflicts. Thus, there are two broad duties of police officers while on

1. Provide public protection through:

Preventive enforcement - progressive and continuous patrolling

Selective enforcement research and investigation

2. Render social services

Information services
Police Escort
Assisting other agencies
Serving court notices (warrants)

Police Discretion refers to the wise use of ones judgment

based on personal experience and common sense to decide in
a particular situation.

Police Officers, especially those on patrol, must develop the

positive side of split-second decision-making. When a patrol
officer controls a situation, he must immediately decide that
his decision must not only be on time but at its best. It is ironic
that an officer on patrol makes more decisions and exercise
broader discretion regarding the peoples life everyday than a
judge who normally decides one or two cases in a day. Note
further that no law, no book, no lawyer, no judge can instruct a
police officer on the beat regarding the proper exercise of
What is the Importance of Police Patrol?

The following are the specific points that justify the

importance of Police Patrol:

Patrol is the essence of Police Operations

The patrol group is the single largest unit in the police


Actions taken by the patrol officer have the most direct

impact on the citizens satisfaction and on the
accomplishments of police goals and objectives

Patroloperation is the most visible form of activity that

enhances the welfare and security of the community
What is the Concept of Crime Prevention and
Crime Suppression?

Crime Prevention involves the suppression of

the desire of potential criminals to commit
crimes. (Thru Visibility )

Crime Suppression involves the elimination of

the opportunity of criminals to perform acts
against the law.

Suggested distribution of police functions.

Police Activity Percentage

1. Patrol Functions 50%
2. Criminal Investigation 15%
3. Traffic Functions 10%
4. Vice and Juvenile Related 10%

5. Administrative Function 10%

6. Auxiliary Functions 5%
Manning Level of Patrol Force

Ideally for the Philippine setting, the rule of thumb

regarding the manning level of the police is provided
under Sec. 27 of R.A. 6975. The standard manning
level is 1:500 in rural areas (1 police officer for every
500 residents), 1:1000 in urban areas (1 police
officer for every 1000 residents).
Deployment of Patrol Force

A choice of patrol method must be based on:

The purpose of the patrol

The conditions under which it is to be

Factors that determine Patrol Deployment

1. Resident and transient populations in the business and

tourist districts and the university belts. Some areas
may double its population in day time because of the
transients while some may be virtually empty during
working hours on weekdays.

2. Numbers and types of crimes and arrests. Bank patrol

for areas with multiple banks

3. Locations of crimes and arrest


a. Theories of Patrol

Theory of Police Omnipresence high police

visibility discourages criminals. Normally, criminals
think twice before executing their plans if there is
obvious presence of police officers. Thus, patrol
activity should be carried in a manner that attracts
maximum attention to the police officer or police
vehicles. This theory applies the principle of overt
operation or high police visibility.
Low Profile Theory low police visibility
increases the opportunity to apprehend criminals.
Deceptive absence of the police officers will let
criminals believe that they will not be detected or
caught if they execute crimes that they plan. In
this theory, the objective is to attract as little
attention as possible while on the process of
patrolling. The officers should operate in a
manner that it would be difficult for either
criminals or the public to determine that the police
are around. The principle of covert operation is
integrated in this theory.
b. Patrol Methods

Beat patrol
a. Foot patrol
b. Bicycle patrol

Sector Patrol (Motorized patrol)

a. Automobile patrol
b. Motorcycle patrol
c. Aircraft patrol (Helicopter and fixed wing)

Specialized Patrol
a. Horse (Mounted) Patrol
b. Marine (Water) Patrol
c. Canine (K-9) Assisted Patrol
d. Special Terrain Patrol

Foot patrol is restricted to small areas and is used to deal with

special situations while maintaining radio compact with officers in
patrol cars. It is used to secure two types of police geographical

Post a fixed location where an officer is assigned for guard duty.

Beat the area specifically assigned for patrol purposes.

Fixed foot patrol is usually used for traffic, surveillance, parades,

and special events.

Line Beat Patrol is used in securing a certain portion of a road or

street. Random foot patrol is used in checking residential buildings,
business establishment, dark alleys, and parking lots.

1. Area to be patrolled
2. Man-made and Natural barriers
3. Number of men to patrol the area
4. Type of patrol to be used

1. Size or Area to be patrolled

2. Topography (Physical characteristics or terrain of the


3. Crime rate

4. Possible problems to be encountered on the beat


1. Do not establish a set of pattern of patrolling procedure.

If you patrol your beat along certain streets and make

regular stops at specific times and locations, criminals will
learn your habits and take steps to avoid.

Turn corners as often as possible to avoid being followed.

Refrain from taking meal or coffee breaks at the same time

and place during your shift.

Reverse the direction of your patrol route, often and at


Cut through lanes and alleys.

2. Walk systematically (with purpose) on the beat while on

Pause often during your patrol and look around you.

If you are not paying attention to your surroundings, you

are not patrolling but youre strolling.

3. Do not smoke nor drink while on patrol during night or day


4. Walk near the curve during daylight. This technique offers:

A better view for observing street activity;

Less chance of obstruction by pedestrians on the side walk

if you are to take quick action;

Higher police visibility, which is effective in crime prevention.

5. Walk near the buildings during night patrol.

Check the window glass of street level stores or offices

for cracks or broken glass.

Avoid looking backwards, unless necessary. Use the

reflection in store windows to see your back.

Move discreetly to avoid tipping off burglars or muggers.

Pause frequently in shadows to observe without being


Use convenient light to check doors in case of forcible

6. Do not immediately open the door when intending to get
inside. Observe and evaluate first the situation.

7. Check the interiors of buildings and rattle door knobs to

ensure that premises are secured.

8. Enter and inspect alleys .

9. Watch for persons loitering or hiding in doorways, either

ingress or egress.

10. Use fire escapes to inspect building rooftops once in a


11. Be attentive or on alert for the sound of breaking glass or

any unusual noise the may be caused by criminal activity.

1. Greater personal contact with the public leading to increase

community support for the police. Police becomes closer to the
community residents.
2. Greater opportunity to develop sources of information.
3. High police visibility. Regular police presence discourages
criminals and provides greater sense of security to storekeepers,
females and elderly persons.
4. Places not accessible by motor vehicle are reached and patrolled.
Patrol officers can enter small alleys and side streets.
5. Easier detection of criminal activities. Foot patrol provides closer
observation of the environment and the circumstance that may
require immediate police attention.
6. Easy discovery and familiarization on the layout of the beat. In-
depth knowledge of the character and problems of the patrol

1. Low mobility resulting to limited coverage of

the patrol area.
2. Low response time to telephone complaints.
3. Foot patrol method involves a large number of
personnel, since officers are assigned on
small areas of jurisdiction called posts and

The Automobile Patrol has the greatest

mobility and flexibility. Most experts on patrol
operations agree that it is most cost-effective
method of patrol.

1.Thoroughlycheck the patrol car before leaving the

garage. Know your BLOWAG.

1.Donot establish route patterns in patrolling the area

of jurisdiction. Recommended patrol patterns:
3. Do not develop the habit of using only the main road in
your area. Most criminal activity occurs at the backstreets,
out of sight from the main thorough fares.

4. Do not spend too much time in drive-inns or coffee


5. Always take note (jut down) the plate numbers of

strange or suspicious vehicles.

6. Get out from the patrol car regularly or frequently to be

visible and accessible to the public and develop personal
contacts in the neighborhood.
7. Set an example to other motorists

Observe/obey all traffic laws for both safety and public

relation reasons, unless you are in route to an emergency or
while on pursuit.
Always park the patrol car in the legal way.

Use seatbelts or shoulder straps and other safety devices.

Use the proper traffic signal lights and hand signals.

8. Avoid driving too fast on general patrol conditions except

during emergencies or in pursuing some criminals/suspects.
Maintain a cruising speed of 20-25 mph during patrol. This is
slow enough to make detailed observations without impending
the traffic law.

9. Maintain frequent contact with the radio dispatcher or other

communication personnel in the field or at the headquarters.
14. Regularly check parking lots for abandoned
stolen vehicles.

15. In stopping and checking a vehicle, park at the

rear side of the suspects vehicle. Leave the door
slightly open unless the area is highly populated.

16. Do not leave the key in the patrol car especially

if the place is in a high-crime or congested area.

1. High mobility allowing coverage of greater area.

2. Quicker response time to complaints. Greater efficiency
in responding to emergency calls and other called-for
3. More economical as compared to foot patrol.
4. Enable more effective street pursuit of offender.
5. Enable more effective traffic enforcer.
6. Provide an element of surprise, especially when crime is
in progress.
7. Provide the officer with necessary protection during
inclement weather.
8. Enable officers to carry supplementary equipment
essential in patrolling.

1. Diminished personal contact with the public.

1. Little opportunity to develop sources of


1. Marked police vehicle hampers apprehension

and surveillance operations.

This is growing in popularity because of easy operation and its

acceptance by the public, particularly children who view them as a
non-threatening form of patrol. Bicycles are now used in many
countries as a simple and inexpensive means of silent
transportation to carry police officers throughout their patrol
districts. Often, bicycles are used in parks and on beaches and
have many of the same advantages and disadvantages as


1. Lower-cost (inexpensive) to operate as compared to

motorcycle and automobiles.
2. Areas not accessible by patrol cars or are too wide for foot
patrol can be covered by bicycle.
3. Increased mobility and stealth since bicycle can be operated
quietly and without attracting too much attention.


1. Speed and maneuverability

2. Greater access to some areas and are better suited to
heavy traffic, narrow alleys and rugged terrain.


1. Costly to operate.
2. Hazardous to the driver.
3. Inoperative during inclement weather when the police
should be most active in the enforcement of traffic
regulations or readily available for special escort duties.
4. It is tiring for the driver and has no capacity to transport
prisoners, other personnel or equipment.


Itcovers large areas or similar places where automobiles

cannot go or may be forbidden. Mobile cars cannot be
expected to go to race on grassy fields or wooded areas but
horses can.


Expensive in its maintenance.



Patrolling long stretches of highway or expenses of

inaccessible land.
Excellent for traffic control in long stretches of highways, for
search and surveillance and other special mission.


It has very little flexibility in congested metropolitan areas.

Needs a span of flat land for lift-off and landing.
Very expensive to operate.

1. Able to travel at low speed, to hover if necessary and to land even in

small patch of flat land.
2. Increased visual range/scope.
3. More efficient for rescue, medical evacuation, surveillance, and other
high profile police activities.
4. Improved response time to emergency call and other called-for service.
5. Increased rate of apprehension of professional and organized crime
6. Improved efficiency of regular patrol units through airborne
7. Increased ability in conducting searches for missing or lost people.
8. Provide a better system of flood lighting areas to be patrolled at night.
9. Capable of broadcasting information to a large area through airborne
10. Provide rapid emergency transportation of personnel
11. Added security to patrol officers on foot, motorcycles, or in patrol cars
through back-up offered by aerial patrol.

1. Very expensive high cost of training of

pilots, fuel and special facilities for
housing and maintenance.

1. Public complaints about the noise and

about being spied upon.

1. Forcibly grounded during bad weather.

1. Element of surprise is lost since criminals

could hear the helicopter coming even
from a greater distance.

This is extremely used in areas with

extensive coasts or a great deal of lake or
river traffic.


Expensive to operate and maintain.



Itprovides great assistance in search and rescue

as well as in smelling out drugs and bombs.


Most police dogs work with only one handler

They are territorial
Dog training is expensive

A thorough geographic knowledge of the patrol

An understanding of the character, fears,
concerns, problems and attitudes of the local
Gut Feelings

1. Do not ignore your so-called gut feelings

2. Hunches are often important messages or
warnings, which are based upon information or
experiences recorded in your subconscious mind.
3. Although they may not seem logical, your hunches
will often prove to be correct. They should be acted
upon-with discretion-in appropriate circumstances.

1. Reactive Patrol it is the oldest system of police patrol activity

which consists of continuously driving around the area of patrol
waiting for something to happen and to react accordingly in case
something does happen.

2. Proactive Patrol is preventive in nature. It is the more

economical alternative patrol system, which has an objective
approach against criminality as much as practicable. It addresses
crime at its very root before it develops into a felonious act.

3. Participative Law Enforcement is a system where citizenry and

the police work together to reduce crime, prevent juvenile
delinquency and criminal behavior, maintain the peace and reduce
local problems which are the mutual responsibility of the police
and the people.
4. Police Omnipresence it is a crime repression activity of the police
which is accomplished by making their presence known is such a
way that even if they are no longer present in a certain location,
would-be criminals would still have the impression that they are still
around and would therefore refrain from committing a crime.

5. COPS the acronym COPS refers to the Community Oriented

Policing System. It is the deploying of policemen in police blocks to
provide police and public safety services. It also involves the
breaking down of large and impersonal police departments into small
units to create a series of mini-police precincts which are responsive
to a smaller communities.

6. Community Policing is a philosophy, management style and

organizational strategy that promotes proactive problem-solving and
police-community partnerships to address the causes of crime and
fear as well as other community issues.
7. Community Partnership is a flexible term referring to any
combination of neighborhood residents, schools, churches,
businesses, community-based organizations, elected officials
and government agencies who are working cooperatively with
the police to resolve identified problems that impact or interest

8. Problem Solving refers to the process of identifying

problems/priorities through coordinated community/police needs
assessment; collecting and analyzing information concerning the
problem in a thorough, though not necessarily complicated
manner; developing or facilitating responses that are innovative
and tailor-made with the best potential for eliminating or reducing
the problem; and finally, evaluating the response to determine
the effectiveness and modifying it as necessary.
Concept of Team Policing

It is a grass root approach undertaken to

bring the people and the police together in a
cooperative situation. Its distinguishing feature
is the establishments of neighborhood crime
watch groups to encourage the people to report
crimes and to assume greater interest and
responsibility in crime prevention and
What is Patrol Hazard?

This is a term used frequently to describe a specific

condition or place that requires a patrol officers special

What is the purpose of the District Orientation Tour in

preparing for patrol?

Its purpose is to familiarize a police officer about the

patterns and characteristics of his patrol area before he
conducts actual patrol.

What are the primary line units concerned with the

accomplishment of the police operational tasks?

The primary line units in the police include patrol,

investigation, traffic, vice and juvenile patrol.
Types of call responses by the police patrol

ROUTINE CALL - under this category, the mobile car is

required to observe all traffic laws and rules and does not
normally use its flashing lights and siren while on its way to
the scene. This includes when the police responds to:

Provide police car transportation

Obtain reports about offenses discovered after the criminal
has left and which does not involve injury.
Obtain information the nature of which is not given.
Investigate apparently abandoned vehicles.
Obtain damage reports.
Provide additional traffic control and direction.
URGENT CALL this is similar to the routine call, which
also requires the responding police car to observe all
traffic rules and does not use its flashing lights or siren.
However, it proceeds directly to its destination and does
not stop unless an incident of far more serious nature
occurs. This includes when the police responds to

Trouble of unknown nature

Shoplifter complaint
Vehicular accidents in which there no physical injuries
Prowler complaints
Lost children complaints
Report of mob activities
Reports of domestic conflicts
EMERGENCY CALL in most cases, this category requires
the use of the flashing light and fluctuating siren although
there are exceptions, which include the attempt to surprise
criminals in the act. It is permissible in this case for the
responding police car to violate traffic laws provided that
extreme care is exercised while driving at high speed. This
includes when the police responds to:

Investigate a crime in progress

Investigate a traffic accident in which people are injured
Rescue or assist another patroller in trouble
Aids an injured person
Pursue or apprehend suspected criminal/s
Assist in firefighting
Stop an ongoing fight
What are the two schools of thoughts regarding the best
means of approaching any scene where a crime is
believed to be in progress?

First is to approach the scene with lights and siren

flashing and to pull on directly at the scene of the
reported crime. The idea here is to frighten the criminal
in order to prevent him from completing his criminal act.

Second is to approach the crime scene as

inconspicuously as possible in order to use the
advantage of surprise in apprehending the criminal or
preventing his escape.
What are the factors to be considered by the
patroller in choosing the manner by which an
approach to a crime in progress is to be made?

These are the factors of: time and day;

condition of traffic; possibility of ongoing physical
assault; and the neighborhood characteristics.
How Police Visibility is attained?

Police visibility can be done in three (3) ways: physical presence by

being visible as police and easy to locate police units; patrolling
scheme through mobile, integrated, and widespread, supportive,
and redundant coverage; and response which should be proper,
adequate and timely (ideal is 5minutes response time).

Further, the Police Visibility Program of the PNP can be

accomplished thru the use of the Integrated Patrol System (PNP-
IPS). The PNP-IPS has the following features:

Widespread and Forward Deployment
Force Mixture (complementary & supportive)
Cross checking of Deployment
Force Multiplier
Support the COPS
1. Boxing this is done by literally surrounding
the suspects vehicle with police cars and
then slowing as group to a stop.
2. Channelizing this is done by
deliberately directing a vehicle into a given
path or location such as unpaved roadway,
dead-end, or a parking lot.
3. Ramming is simply running into the
other vehicle in a manner designed to force
him to stop.
4. Roadblocks this is done by
physically blocking the roadway using
stationary objects such as barricades,
patrol cars or semi-trucks.
5. Spikes this is deployed ahead of a
pursuit. As the suspects vehicle passes
over the strip, the spikes penetrate the
tires and flattened it.
Who are the members of the Auxiliary Police?

1. Private Security Guards

1. Traffic Enforcers and Aides

1. Junior Police

1. Law Enforcement Services Cadets

1. Barangay Chairman and Tanods

1. Civilian Volunteer Organizations (CVOs) such as

civilian volunteers.

1. Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) like Bantay

Three (3) types of calls to be responded
by patrol officers

A. routine calls

B. urgent calls

C. emergency calls
Five (5) types of patrol

A. foot

B. bicycle

C. automobile

D. aerial

E. canine
Five (5) types of patrol

A. foot

B. bicycle

C. automobile

D. aerial

E. canine
Five (5) types of patrol

A. foot

B. bicycle

C. automobile

D. aerial

E. canine
At least five (5) Roles of Police Patrol

A. Prevention of crime through police


B. Preservation of peace and order

C. Protection of life and property

D. Enforcement of laws and ordinances

E. Apprehension of criminals
at least five (5) equipment of patrol

A. tickler
B. ballpen
C. baton
D. firearm
E. radio
In coded radio messages, what does the
following 10 codes mean:

A. 10 - 04
B. 10 22
C. 10 00
D. 10 21
E. 10 - 09